Ophthalmopathy is an integral component of Graves’ disease. It usually appears at the same time as hyperthyroidism, and is characterized by proptosis (exophthalmos), periorbital and conjunctival edema, eye muscle dysfunction, and on occasion corneal ulceration or optic neuropathy. Graves’ ophthalmopathy, like Graves’ hyperthyroidism, is an autoimmune disease, but the mechanisms that initiate and maintain it are not known. Most patients can be treated conservatively, but a few require antiinflammatory or surgical therapy to relieve symptomsa nd preserve vision.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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