Kidney failure and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are associated with accelerated cardiovascular disease, apparently because of a high burden of traditional vascular risk factors and possibly nontraditional risk factors such as inflammation, chronic volume overload, and abnormal calcium-phosphate metabolism. Although the burden of cardiovascular disease in CKD patients is well documented, potentially beneficial therapies appear to be underused in mild to moderate CKD and are relatively understudied in those with kidney failure. This review describes the epidemiology and pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in CKD. We also discuss the clinical and public health implications of current knowledge and outline opportunities for further research.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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