This review focuses on sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), toll-like receptor-9 (TLR-9) vaccines using cytosine phosphorothioate guanosine (CpG)–allergen conjugates, and anti-IL-5 as novel immunomodulating therapies in allergy. At present, all three approaches are investigational in the United States and require further study to determine their safety and effectiveness. SLIT provides a novel oral route of administering an allergen to induce tolerance to inhaled allergens. Studies of SLIT in allergic rhinitis demonstrate that it reduces symptoms and medication use and is associated with a low incidence of systemic allergic reactions. Initial phase II studies with TLR-9 vaccines conjugated to a ragweed allergen demonstrate that they reduce symptoms of allergic rhinitis during the ragweed season. Anti-IL-5 is effective as a corticosteroid-sparing agent in the hypereosinophilic syndrome. It has not shown benefit in moderate asthmatics with persistent symptoms but may reduce aspects of airway remodeling in asthma.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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