This article reviews the current state of genetic analysis of and . Chromosomal genes cloned from and species are listed along with the method used to identify the cloned gene. plasmid genes that have been cloned and expressed in and that specify resistance to tetracycline, kanamycin, or chloramphenicol are presented.

This review also examines our current knowledge of genetic exchange in including conjugative plasmid transfer, natural transformation, electrotransformation, and bacteriophage transduction. In , natural transformation has been described and both plasmids and bacteriophages have been observed. Plasmid cloning vectors have been constructed for . Available vectors are discussed and restriction maps of some useful vectors that we have constructed are included.

The genome sizes of and are approximately 1.7 megabases (Mb), whereas the genome size of ranges from l.60 to l.73 Mb. The positions of various genes on the C. and genome maps have been determined using both homologous and heterologous DNA probes. Genomic maps of these organisms are presented.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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