Membrane-bound ATP synthases (FF-ATPases) of bacteria serve two important physiological functions. The enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate utilizing the energy of an electrochemical ion gradient. On the other hand, under conditions of low driving force, ATP synthases function as ATPases, thereby generating a transmembrane ion gradient at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. The enzyme complex consists of two structurally and functionally distinct parts: the membrane-integrated ion-translocating F complex and the peripheral F complex, which carries the catalytic sites for ATP synthesis and hydrolysis. The ATP synthase of , which has been the most intensively studied one, is composed of eight different subunits, five of which belong to F, subunits α, β, γ, δ, and ϵ (3:3:1:1:1), and three to F, subunits , , and (1:2:10 ± 1). The similar overall structure and the high amino acid sequence homology indicate that the mechanism of ion translocation and catalysis and their mode of coupling is the same in all organisms.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error