The solar neutrino problem arose when the first measurements of the flux of neutrinos from the Sun, taken by Raymond Davis, Jr. with a Cl-Ar radiochemical detector, fell substantially below the value predicted theoretically by John Bahcall. Bahcall's prediction came from a detailed model of the nuclear reactions powering the Sun. Resolution of the problem came three decades later with the observation of nonelectron flavors of neutrinos in the solar flux. The use of heavy water in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment provided a means to measure both electron and nonelectron components, and the presence of the latter showed that neutrino flavor conversion was taking place—a hallmark of neutrino oscillation and mass. The solar models were vindicated, and the Standard Model of elementary particles and fields had to be revised. Here we present an account of the SNO project, its conclusions to date, and its ongoing analysis.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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