The protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) consist of a diverse group of enzymes whose activity opposes that of the tyrosine kinases. As such, the PTPs have critical roles in maintaining signaling quiescence in resting cells and in restoring homeostasis by effecting signal termination. Interest in these enzymes has increased in recent years following the discovery that the activity of PTPs is modulated through redox mechanisms during signaling. The molecular features that enable redox regulation of PTPs during physiological signaling also render them highly susceptible to oxidative and electrophilic inactivation by a broad spectrum of structurally disparate xenobiotic compounds. The loss of PTP activity results in a profound disregulation of protein phosphotyrosine metabolism, leading to widespread and persistent activation of signaling cascades in the cell.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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