Guanine nucleotide binding (G) proteins relay extracellular signals encoded in light, small molecules, peptides, and proteins to activate or inhibit intracellular enzymes and ion channels. The larger G proteins, made up of G heterotrimers, dissociate into G and G subunits that separately activate intracellular effector molecules. Only recently has the G subunit been recognized as a signal transduction molecule in its own right; G is now known to directly regulate as many different protein targets as the G subunit. Recent X-ray crystallography of G, G, and G subunits will guide the investigation of structure-function relationships.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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