▪ Abstract 

Over the past four decades, treatment of acute leukemia in children has made remarkable progress, from this disease being lethal to now achieving cure rates of 80% for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 45% for acute myeloid leukemia. This progress is largely owed to the optimization of existing treatment modalities rather than the discovery of new agents. However, the annual number of patients with leukemia who experience relapse after initial therapy remains greater than that of new cases of most childhood cancers. The aim of pharmacogenetics is to develop strategies to personalize medications and tailor treatment regimens to individual patients, with the goal of enhancing efficacy and safety through better understanding of the person's genetic makeup. In this review, we summarize recent pharmacogenomic studies related to the treatment of pediatric acute leukemia. These include work using candidate-gene approaches, as well as genome-wide studies using haplotype mapping and gene expression profiling. These strategies illustrate the promise of pharmacogenomics to further advance the treatment of human cancers, with childhood leukemia serving as a paradigm.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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