1932

Abstract

Organizing scholarship both chronologically and thematically, this article provides a review and critical evaluation of the literature that examines factors influencing criminalization. The first part of the paper examines three streams of inquiry and theorizing: () classic work that has shaped decades of scholarship on criminalization by focusing on the relationship between demographic changes, material and symbolic politics, and the emergence of criminal law; () contemporary work that unpacks the nature of the relationship between organizational, social movement, and state-related factors that structure and mediate the outcome of definitional and political processes involved in efforts to criminalize elements of social life; and () more recent work that envisions criminalization as a social process intimately connected to, and indeed arguably derivative of, larger processes of institutionalization, globalization, and modernization. The discussion and conclusion section summarizes the consequences of these three streams of inquiry and theorizing for our collective understanding of the structures and processes that underlie criminalization. Thereafter, the article concludes with a proposed agenda for subsequent research on criminalization and related topics.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.soc.30.012703.110515
2004-08-11
2024-06-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/so/30/1/annurev.soc.30.012703.110515.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.soc.30.012703.110515&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Adler JS. 1989. A historical analysis of the law of vagrancy. Criminology 27:209–29 [Google Scholar]
  2. Amenta E. 1998. Bold Relief: Institutional Politics and the Origins of Modern American Social Policy Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  3. Aulette J, Aulette A. 1987. Police harassment of the homeless: the political purpose of criminalization of homelessness. Human. Soc. 11:246–56 [Google Scholar]
  4. Banaszak LA, Beckwith K, Rucht D. 2003. Women's Movements Facing the Reconfigured State New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  5. Barak G. 1991. Gimme Shelter: A Social History of Homelessness in Contemporary America New York: Praeger [Google Scholar]
  6. Beckett K, Hoffman B. 2002 How the have-nots sometimes come out ahead: law and the cultural politics of midwifery Presented at the Annu. Meet. Law Soc. Assoc.Vancouver, BC [Google Scholar]
  7. Berger R, Searles P, Neuman L. 1988. The dimensions of rape reform legislation. Law Soc. Rev. 22:329–57 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bernstein M. 2001. Gender, queer family policies, and the limits of law. In Queer Families, Queer Politics: Challenging Culture and the State ed. M Bernstein, R Reimann pp. 420–46 New York: Columbia Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  9. Best J. 1999. Random Violence: How We Talk about New Crime and New Crime Victims Berkeley: Univ. California Press [Google Scholar]
  10. Bogen D, Lynch M. 1993. Do we need a general theory of social problems?. In Constructionist Controversies: Issues in Social Problems Theory ed. G Miller, J Holstein pp. 213–37 Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter [Google Scholar]
  11. Boyle EH. 2002. Female Genital Cutting: Cultural Conflict in the Global Community Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  12. Boyle EH, Preves S. 2000. National policies as international process: the case of anti-female-genital cutting laws. Law Soc. Rev. 34:703–37 [Google Scholar]
  13. Boyle EH, Songora F, Foss G. 2001. International discourse and local politics: anti-female-genital-cutting laws in Egypt, Tanzania, and the United States. Soc. Probl. 48:524–44 [Google Scholar]
  14. Burstein P. 1985. Discrimination, Jobs, and Politics: The Struggle for Equal Employment Opportunity in the United States since the New Deal Chicago, IL: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  15. Burstein P. 1991. Policy domains: organization, culture, and policy outcomes. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 17:327–50 [Google Scholar]
  16. Burstein P, Linton A. 2002. The impact of political parties, interest groups and social movement organizations on public policy: some recent evidence and theoretical concerns. Soc. Forces 81:380–408 [Google Scholar]
  17. Calavita K. 1993. Worker safety, law, and social change: the Italian case. See Chambliss & Zatz 1993 pp. 168–203 [Google Scholar]
  18. Calavita K. 1996. The new politics of immigration: ‘balanced-budget conservatism’ and the symbolism of Proposition 187. Soc. Probl. 43:284–305 [Google Scholar]
  19. Call JE, Nice D, Talarico SM. 1991. An analysis of state rape shield laws. Soc. Sci. Q. 72:774–88 [Google Scholar]
  20. Carson WG. 1975. Symbolic and instrumental dimensions of early factory legislation: a case study in the social origins of criminal law. In Crime, Criminology, and Public Policy ed. R Hood pp. 107–38 New York: Free Press [Google Scholar]
  21. Chambliss WJ. 1964. A sociological analysis of the law of vagrancy. Soc. Probl. 12:67–77 [Google Scholar]
  22. Chambliss WJ. 1979. On Lawmaking. Br. J. Law Soc. 6:149–71 [Google Scholar]
  23. Chambliss WJ. 1993. On Lawmaking. See Chambliss & Zatz 1993 pp. 3–35 [Google Scholar]
  24. Chambliss WJ, Seidman R. 1982 (1971). Law, Order, and Power Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley [Google Scholar]
  25. Chambliss WJ, Zatz MS. eds 1993. Making Law: The State, the Law, and Structural Contradictions Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  26. Coltrane S, Hickman N. 1992. The rhetoric of rights and needs: moral discourse in the reform of child custody and child support laws. Soc. Probl. 39:400–20 [Google Scholar]
  27. Conrad P, Schneider J. 1992 (1980). Deviance and Medicalization: From Badness to Sickness Philadelphia, PA: Temple Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  28. DiChiara A, Galliher JF. 1994. Dissonance and contradiction in the origin of marijuana decriminalization. Law Soc. Rev. 28:41–77 [Google Scholar]
  29. Earl J, Soule SA. 2001. The differential protection of minority groups: the inclusion of sexual orientation, gender, and disability in state hate crime laws, 1976–1995. Polit. Soc. Inequality 9:3–33 [Google Scholar]
  30. Edelman M. 1964. The Symbolic Uses of Politics New York: Free Press [Google Scholar]
  31. Farr K. 1993. Shaping policy through litigation: abortion law in the United States. J. Res. Crime Delinq. 39:167–83 [Google Scholar]
  32. Farr K. 1995. Fetal abuse and criminalization of behavior during pregnancy. J. Res. Crime Delinq. 41:235–45 [Google Scholar]
  33. Ferrell J. 1999. Cultural criminology. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 25:395–418 [Google Scholar]
  34. Galliher JF, Basilick L. 1979. Utah's liberal drug laws: structural foundations and triggering events. Soc. Probl. 26:284–97 [Google Scholar]
  35. Galliher JF, Cross JR. 1983. Morals Legislation without Morality New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  36. Galliher JF, Tyree C. 1985. Edwin Sutherland's research on the origins of sexual psychopath laws: an early case study of the medicalization of deviance. Soc. Probl. 33:100–13 [Google Scholar]
  37. Garland D. 2001. The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  38. Goldstein JL, Kahler M, Keohane RO, Slaughter AM. 2001. Legalization and World Politics Cambridge, MA: MIT Press [Google Scholar]
  39. Goldstone J. ed 2003. States, Parties, and Social Movements New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  40. Grattet R. 1993. Structural contradictions and the production of new legal institutions: the transformation of industrial accident law revisited. See Chambliss & Zatz 1993 pp. 404–20 [Google Scholar]
  41. Grattet R. 2004. The policy nexus: Professional networks and the formulation and adoption of worker's compensation reforms. See Meyer et al. 2004. In press [Google Scholar]
  42. Grattet R, Jenness V, Curry T. 1998. The homogenization and differentiation of hate crime law in the United States, 1978–1995: Innovation and diffusion in the criminalization of bigotry. Am. Sociol. Rev. 63:286–307 [Google Scholar]
  43. Gunnlaugsson H, Galliher JF. 1986. Prohibition of beer in Iceland: an international test of symbolic politics. Soc. Probl. 20:335–53 [Google Scholar]
  44. Gusfield J. 1963. Symbolic Crusade: Status Politics and the American Temperance Movement Urbana: Univ. Illinois Press [Google Scholar]
  45. Gusfield J. 1967. Moral passage: the symbolic process in public designations of deviance. Soc. Probl. 15:175–88 [Google Scholar]
  46. Gusfield J. 1984. On the side: practical action and social constructivism in social problems theory. In Studies in the Sociology of Social Problems ed. Schneider JW, Kitsuse, JI pp. 31–51 New Jersey: Ablex [Google Scholar]
  47. Hagan J. 1980. The legislation of crime and delinquency: a review of theory, method, and research. Law Soc. Rev. 14:603–28 [Google Scholar]
  48. Hagan J. 2003. Justice in the Balkans: Prosecuting War Crimes in the Hague Tribunal Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  49. Hagan J, Levi R. 2004. Social skill, the Milosevic indictment, and the rebirth of international criminal justice. Eur. J. Criminology. In press [Google Scholar]
  50. Hall J. 1947. General Principles of Criminal Law Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill [Google Scholar]
  51. Helmer J. 1975. Drugs and Minority Oppression New York: Seabury [Google Scholar]
  52. Hilgartner S, Bosk CL. 1988. The rise and fall of social problems: a public arenas model. Am J. Sociol. 94:53–78 [Google Scholar]
  53. Hillyard D, Dombrink J. 2001. Dying Right: The Death with Dignity Movement New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  54. Himmelstein JL. 1983. The Strange Career of Marijuana: Politics and Ideology of Drug Control in America Westport, CT: Greenwood [Google Scholar]
  55. Hoffman MJ, Ventresca MJ. 2002. Organizations, Policy, and the Natural Environment Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  56. Hollinger RC, Lanza -Kaduce L. 1988. The process of criminalization: the case of computer crime laws. Criminology 26:108–26 [Google Scholar]
  57. Holstein JA, Miller G. 2003. Challenges and Choices: Constructionist Perspectives on Social Problems New York: Aldine de Gruyter [Google Scholar]
  58. Hopkins A. 1975. On the sociology of criminal law. Soc. Probl. 22:608–19 [Google Scholar]
  59. Humphries D, Greenberg DF. 1981. The dialects of crime control. In Crime and Capitalism ed. Greenberg DF pp. 463–508 Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield [Google Scholar]
  60. Jacobs J, Potter K. 1998. Hate Crime: Criminal Law and Identity Politics New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  61. Jenkins JC, Klandermans B. eds 1995. The Politics of Social Protest: Comparative Perspectives on States and Social Movements Minneapolis: Univ. Minnesota Press [Google Scholar]
  62. Jenness V. 1995. Social movement growth, domain expansion, and framing processes: the gay/lesbian movement and violence against gays and lesbians as a social problem. Soc. Probl. 42:145–17 [Google Scholar]
  63. Jenness V. 1999. Managing differences and making legislation: social movements and the racialization, sexualization, and gendering of federal hate crime law in the U.S., 1985–1998. Soc. Probl. 46:548–71 [Google Scholar]
  64. Jenness V, Broad KL. 1994. Anti-violence activism and the (in)visibility of gender in the gay/lesbian movement and the women's movement. Gend. Soc. 8:402–23 [Google Scholar]
  65. Jenness V, Broad KL. 1997. Hate Crimes: New Social Movements and the Politics of Violence New York: Aldine de Gruyter [Google Scholar]
  66. Jenness V, Grattet R. 1996. The criminalization of hate: a comparison of structural and polity influences on the passage of ‘bias-crime’ legislation in the United States. Sociol. Perspect. 39:129–54 [Google Scholar]
  67. Jenness V, Grattet R. 2001. Making Hate a Crime: From Social Movement to Law Enforcement New York: Russell Sage [Google Scholar]
  68. Lowney K, Best J. 1995. Stalking strangers and lovers: changing media typifications of a new crime problem. In Images and Issues: Typifying Contemporary Social Problems ed Best J pp. 33–57 Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter [Google Scholar]
  69. Mazmanian DA, Sabatier PA. 1989. Implementation and Public Policy New York: Univ. Press of America [Google Scholar]
  70. McAdam D. 1996. Conceptual origins, current problems, future directions. See McAdam et al. 1996 pp. 23–40 [Google Scholar]
  71. McAdam D, McCarthy JD, Zald MN. eds 1996. Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  72. McCarthy JD. 1996. Constraints and opportunities in adopting, adapting, and inventing. See McAdam et al. 1996 pp. 141–51 [Google Scholar]
  73. McGarrell E, Castellano TC. 1991. An integrative conflict model of the criminal law formation process. J. Res. Crime Delinq. 28:174–96 [Google Scholar]
  74. McGarrell E, Castellano TC. 1993. Social structure, crime and politics: a conflict model of law formation. See Chambliss & Zatz 1993 pp. 347–78 [Google Scholar]
  75. Meier KJ. 1994. The Politics of Sin: Drugs, Alcohol, and Public Policy Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe [Google Scholar]
  76. Melone A. 1985. Criminal code reform and interest group politics of the American Bar Association. In The Politics of Crime and Criminal Justice ed Fairchild E, Webb V pp. 37–56 Beverly Hills, CA: Sage [Google Scholar]
  77. Meron T. 1998. War Crimes Come of Age Oxford: Clarendon [Google Scholar]
  78. Meyer D, Jenness V, Ingram H. 2004. Routing the Opposition: Social Movements, Public Policy, and Democracy Minneapolis: Univ. Minnesota Press In press [Google Scholar]
  79. Meyer JW, Boli J, Thomas GM, Ramirez FO. 1997. World society and national state. Am. J. Sociol. 103:144–81 [Google Scholar]
  80. Miller G, Holstein JA. 1993. Constructing social problems: context and legacy. In Constructionist Controversies: Issues in Social Problems Theory ed. Miller G, Holstein JA pp. 3–18 Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter [Google Scholar]
  81. Mohr JC. 1978. Abortion in America New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  82. Morgan P. 1978. The legislation of drug law: economic and social control. J. Drug Issues 8:53–62 [Google Scholar]
  83. Musto DF. 1973. The American Disease. Origins of Narcotics Control New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  84. Natl. Law Cent. Homelessness Poverty 1999. Out of Sight—Out of Mind?: A Report on Anti-Homeless Laws, Litigation and Alternatives in 50 United States Cities http://www.nationalhomeless.org/crimreport/CrimMaster.pdf [Google Scholar]
  85. Neier A. 2003. Taking Liberties. Four Decades in the Struggle for Rights New York: Public Affairs [Google Scholar]
  86. Phillips S, Grattet R. 2000. Judicial rhetoric, meaning-making, and the institutionalization of hate crime law. Law Soc. Rev. 34:567–606 [Google Scholar]
  87. Platt AM. 1969. The Child Savers: The Invention of Delinquency Chicago, IL: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  88. Ramirez FO, Yasemin S, Shanahan S. 1997. The changing logic of political citizenship: cross-national acquisition of women's suffrage rights, 1890 to 1990. Am. Sociol. Rev. 62:725–45 [Google Scholar]
  89. Riain ÓS. 2000. States and markets in an era of globalization. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 26:187–213 [Google Scholar]
  90. Roberts D. 1997. Killing the Black Body: Race, Reproduction, and the Meaning of Liberty New York: Pantheon [Google Scholar]
  91. Robertson R. 1992. Globalization Newbury Park, CA: Sage [Google Scholar]
  92. Roby PA. 1969. Politics and criminal law: revision of the New York state penal law on prostitution. Soc. Probl. 17:83–109 [Google Scholar]
  93. Sabatier PA. 1999. Theories of the Policy Process Boulder, CO: Westview [Google Scholar]
  94. Saguy AC. 2000. Employment discrimination or sexual violence? Defining sexual harassment in American and French law. Law Soc. Rev. 34:1091–128 [Google Scholar]
  95. Santoro WA, McGuire GM. 1997. Social movement insiders: the impact of institutional activists on affirmative action and comparable worth policies. Soc. Probl. 44:503–19 [Google Scholar]
  96. Savelsberg JJ. 1987. The making of criminal law norms in welfare states: economic crime in West Germany. Law Soc. Rev. 21:529–61 [Google Scholar]
  97. Scheingold S. 1984. The Politics of Law and Order: Street Crime and Public Policy New York: Longman [Google Scholar]
  98. Schneider J. 1985. Social problems theory: the constructionist view. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 11:209–29 [Google Scholar]
  99. Schwartzman K. 1998. Globalization and democracy. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 24:159–81 [Google Scholar]
  100. Shover N. 2003. Corporate crime, law, and social control. Contemp. Sociol. 32:500–1 [Google Scholar]
  101. Snow DA, Anderson L. 1993. Down on Their Luck: A Study of Homeless Street People Berkeley: Univ. California Press [Google Scholar]
  102. Snow DA, Baker SG, Anderson L. 1989. Criminality and homeless men: an empirical assessment. Soc. Probl. 36:532–49 [Google Scholar]
  103. Snow DA, Benford RD. 1988. Ideology, frame resonance, and participant mobilization. Int. Soc. Mov. Res. 1:197–217 [Google Scholar]
  104. Snow DA, Benford RD. 1992. Master frames and cycles of protest. In Frontiers in Social Movement Theory ed. Morris AC, Mueller CM pp 133–36 New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  105. Sutton JR. 2001. Law/Society: Origins, Interactions, and Change Thousands Oaks, CA: Pine Forge [Google Scholar]
  106. Sutherland EH. 1950a. The diffusion of sexual psychopath laws. Am. J. Sociol. 56:142–48 [Google Scholar]
  107. Sutherland EH. 1950b. The sexual psychopath laws. J. Crim. Law Criminol. 40:543–54 [Google Scholar]
  108. Tittle C. 1995. Control Balance. Toward a General Theory of Deviance Boulder, CO: Westview [Google Scholar]
  109. Uggen C. 2003. Criminology and the sociology of deviance. Criminologist 28:1–4 [Google Scholar]
  110. Turk A. 1969. Criminality and the Legal Order Chicago, IL: Rand McNally [Google Scholar]
  111. Vatz RE, Weinberg LS. 1998. Rhetorical dimensions of decriminalization. In How to Legalize Drugs ed. Fish JM pp. 61–79 Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson [Google Scholar]
  112. Wolfson M. 2001. The Fight Against Big Tobacco: The Movement, the State, and the Public's Health New York: Aldine de Gruyter [Google Scholar]
  113. Wonders NA, Solop FI. 1993. Understanding the emergence of law and public policy: toward a relations model of the state. See Chambliss & Zatz 1993 pp. 204–28 [Google Scholar]
  114. Zatz MS, McDonald JH. 1993. Structural contradictions and ideological consistency: changes in the form and content of Cuban criminal law. See Chambliss & Zatz 1993 pp. 127–67 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.soc.30.012703.110515
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.soc.30.012703.110515
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error