Raman scattering provides a chemical-specific and label-free method for identifying and quantifying molecules in flowing solutions. This review provides a comprehensive examination of the application of Raman spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to flowing liquid samples. We summarize developments in online and at-line detection using Raman and SERS analysis, including the design of microfluidic devices, the development of unique SERS substrates, novel sampling interfaces, and coupling these approaches to fluid-based chemical separations (e.g., chromatography and electrophoresis). The article highlights the challenges and limitations associated with these techniques and provides examples of their applications in a variety of fields, including chemistry, biology, and environmental science. Overall, this review demonstrates the utility of Raman and SERS for analysis of complex mixtures and highlights the potential for further development and optimization of these techniques.

Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 17 is May 2024. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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