Enzymatic biofuel cells represent an emerging technology that can create electrical energy from biologically renewable catalysts and fuels. A wide variety of redox enzymes have been employed to create unique biofuel cells that can be used in applications such as implantable power sources, energy sources for small electronic devices, self-powered sensors, and bioelectrocatalytic logic gates. This review addresses the fundamental concepts necessary to understand the operating principles of biofuel cells, as well as recent advances in mediated electron transfer– and direct electron transfer–based biofuel cells, which have been developed to create bioelectrical devices that can produce significant power and remain stable for long periods.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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