Despite continuing research efforts, timely and simple pathogen detection with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity remains an elusive goal. Given the recent explosion of sensor technologies, significant strides have been made in addressing the various nuances of this important global challenge that affects not only the food industry but also human health. In this review, we provide a summary of the various ongoing efforts in pathogen detection and sample preparation in areas related to Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, light scattering, phage display, micro/nanodevices, and nanoparticle biosensors. We also discuss the advantages and potential limitations of the detection methods and suggest next steps for further consideration.


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