1932

Abstract

Fleeing violence, poverty, abuse, war, and climatic change, tens of millions of people have fled their homes in the Global South seeking refuge in adjacent nations and in the Global North. This modern migration entails a material, sensual experience in time. The craft of archaeology has traditionally engaged with the material, the sensual, and the temporal. Archaeologists who study the materiality of modern undocumented migration embrace activist-engaged research that applies the craft of archaeology to the contemporary world. They study the materiality of migration to reveal and comprehend the lived experience of displaced persons. They seek to understand the barriers erected to that journey, the things migrants acquire and leave on the trail, migrant placemaking, their stranded lives, how they build new lives, what the migrants have left behind in their home countries, and the heritage of forced migration. They approach this work in critical solidarity with displaced peoples.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-010220-074624
2020-10-21
2024-06-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/anthro/49/1/annurev-anthro-010220-074624.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-010220-074624&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Agier M, Bouagga Y, Galisson M, Hanappe C, Pette M, Wannesson P 2019. The Jungle: Calais's Camps and Migrants, transl. D Fernbach Cambridge, UK: Polity
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Anderson BE, Spradley MK. 2016. The role of the anthropologist in the identification of migrant remains in the American Southwest. Acad. Forensic Pathol. 6:3432–38
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Anthony DW. 1997. Prehistoric migration as social process. Migration and Invasion in Archaeological Explanation J Chapman, H Hamerow 21–32 Br. Archaeol. Rep. Int. Ser. 664 Oxford, UK: Archaeopress
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Arbelaez AM, Mulholland D. 2018. Interrupted journeys: drawings by refugees at the Kara Tepe Camp, Lesvos, Greece. See Hamilakis 2018 127–38
  5. Atalay S, Clauss LR, McGuire RH, Welch JR 2014. Transforming Archaeology: Activist Prospects and Practices Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Augé M. 1995. Non-Places: An Introduction to an Anthropology of Supermodernity, transl. J Howe London: Verso
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Baker BJ, Tsuda T 2015. Migration and Disruptions: Toward a Unifying Theory of Ancient and Contemporary Migrations Gainesville: Univ. Press Fla.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Basu P, Coleman S. 2008. Migrant worlds, material culture. Mobilities 3:3313–30
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Beck J, Ostericher I, Sollish G, De León J 2015. Animal scavenging and scattering and the implications for documenting the deaths of undocumented border crossers in the Sonoran Desert. J. Forensic Sci. 60:S11–20
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bender B. 2001. Landscapes on-the-move. J. Soc. Archaeol. 1:175–89
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Besteman C. 2019. Militarized global apartheid. Curr. Anthropol. 60:13S26–38
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Branton N. 2009. Landscape approaches in historical archaeology: the archaeology of places. International Handbook of Historic Archaeology T Majewski, D Gaimster 51–65 Berlin: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Breene ML. 2018. Reframing the Lampedusa cross: the British Museum's display of the Mediterranean migrant crisis. See Hamilakis 2018 167–75
  14. Burmeister S. 2000. Archaeology and migration: approaches to an archaeological proof of migration. Curr. Anthropol. 41:4539–67
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Butler B, Al-Nammari F. 2018. “We Palestinian refugees”—heritage rites and/as the clothing of bare life: reconfiguring paradox, obligation, and imperative in Palestinian refugee camps in Jordan. See Hamilakis 2018 29–41
  16. Byrne D. 2018. What anchors the Tu Do?. See Hamilakis 2018, 176–83
  17. Caraher W. 2015. An archaeology of care. Archaeol. Mediterr. World Sept. 10. https://mediterraneanworld.wordpress.com/2015/09/10/an-archaeology-of-care/
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Caraher W. 2017. Archaeology of refugee and forced migration. Archaeol. Mediterr. World July 24. https://mediterraneanworld.wordpress.com/2017/07/24/archaeology-of-refugee-and-forced-migration/
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Caraher W, Rothaus R. 2016. Some Polish and more Rothaus on an archaeology of care. Archaeol. Mediterr. World Febr. 2 4. https://mediterraneanworld.wordpress.com/2016/02/24/some-polish-and-more-rothaus-on-the-archaeology-of-care/
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Caraher W, Weber B, Rothaus R 2018. Lessons from the Bakken Oil Patch. See Hamilakis 2018 87–96
  21. Casas‐Cortes M, Cobarrubias S, Pickles J 2015. Riding routes and itinerant borders: autonomy of migration and border externalization. Antipode 47:894–914
    [Google Scholar]
  22. CfAS (Coalit. Archaeol. Synth.). 2019. Synthetic study of human migration as understood from a long-term perspective. Coalition for Archaeological Synthesis http://archsynth.org/2019-projects.html
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Coelho RG. 2018. The garden of refugees. See Hamilakis 2018 156–66
  24. Colomer L. 2013. Managing the heritage of immigrants. Elderly refugees, homesickness, and cultural identities. Eur. Archaeol. 39:16–22
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Cotter H. 2017. For migrants headed north, the things they carried to the end. New York Times March 3. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/03/arts/design/state-of-exception-estado-de-excepcion-parsons-mexican-immigration.html
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Crow CH. 2013. The material culture of migrant life at the U.S./México border. MA Thesis, Univ. Ark. Fayetteville: https://scholarworks.uark.edu/etd/826
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Dear M. 2013. Why Walls Won't Work: Repairing the US-Mexico Divide Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  28. De León J. 2012a. “Better to be hot than caught”: excavating the conflicting roles of migrant material culture. Am. Anthropol. 114:3477–95
    [Google Scholar]
  29. De León J. 2012b. Victor, archaeology of the contemporary, and the politics of researching unauthorized border crossing: a brief and personal history of the Undocumented Migration Project. Forum. Krit. Archäol. 1:141–48
    [Google Scholar]
  30. De León J. 2013. Undocumented migration, use wear, and the materiality of habitual suffering in the Sonoran Desert. J. Mater. Cult. 18:4321–45
    [Google Scholar]
  31. De León J. 2015. The Land of Open Graves: Living and Dying on the Migrant Trail Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  32. De León J. 2019. “Como me Duele”: undocumented Central American bodies in motion. See Sheridan & McGuire 2019 99–123
  33. De León J, Gokee C 2019. Lasting value: engaging with the material traces of America's undocumented migration “problem. .” See Holtorf et al. 2019 70–86
  34. De León J, Gokee C, Forringer-Beal A 2015a. “Disruption,” use wear, and migrant habitus in the Sonoran Desert. Migration and Disruptions: Toward a Unifying Theory of Ancient and Contemporary Migrations B Baker, T Tsuda 145–78 Gainesville: Univ. Fla. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  35. De León J, Gokee C, Schubert A 2015b. “By the time I Get to Arizona”: citizenship, materiality, and contested identities along the US–Mexico border. Anthropol. Q. 88:2445–80
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Díaz-Barriga M, Dorsey ME. 2020. Fencing in Democracy Necrocitizenship and the US-Mexico Border Wall Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Dudley S. 2011. Feeling at home: producing and consuming things in Karenni refugee camps on the Thai-Burma border. Popul. Space Place 17:742–55
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Fernandez VM. 2006. Una Arqueologia Crítica: Ciencia, Ética y Politica en la Construcción del Pasado Barcelona: Critica
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Fiddian-Qasmiyeh E, Loescher G, Long K, Sigona N 2014. Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Gero JM, Conkey MW 1991. Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory Oxford, UK: Blackwell
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Gokee C, De León J 2014. Sites of contention: archaeological classification and political discourse in the US-Mexico borderlands. J. Contemp. Archaeol. 1:1133–63
    [Google Scholar]
  42. González-Ruibal A. 2019. An Archaeology of the Contemporary Era: The Age of Destruction London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Gould RA, Schiffer MB 1981. Modern Material Culture Studies: The Archaeology of Us New York: Academic
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Gouriévidis L 2014. Museums and Migration: History, Memory and Politics (Museum Meanings) London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Grabowska S. 2016. Anxious architecture: sleep, identity, and death in the US-Mexico borderlands. Footprint 10:2115–35
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Grabowska S, Doering-White J. 2016. Material memories: (re)collecting clandestine crossings of the U.S.-Mexico borderlands. Excavating Memory: Sites of Remembering and Forgetting MT Starzmann, JR Roby 199–217 Gainesville: Univ. Press Fla.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Graves-Brown P, Harrison R, Piccini A 2013. The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Contemporary World Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Hakenbeck S. 2008. Migration in archaeology: Are we nearly there yet. ? Archaeol. Rev. Camb. 23:29–26
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Hamilakis Y. 1999. La trahison des archeologues? Archaeological practice as intellectual activity in postmodernity. J. Mediterr. Archaeol. 12:160–79
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Hamilakis Y. 2016. The EU's future ruins: Moria refugee camp in Lesbos. “This is a Prison. This is Guantánamo. .” The Nation April 15. https://www.thenation.com/article/archive/the-eus-future-ruins-moria-refugee-camp-in-lesbos/
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Hamilakis Y 2018. The New Nomadic Age: Archaeologies of Forced and Undocumented Migration Sheffield, UK: Equinox
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Hamilakis Y. 2019a. Food and eating practices as affirmative bio-politics on the border Paper presented at the 84th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology Albuquerque, NM:April 10–14
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Hamilakis Y. 2019b. Planet of camps: border assemblages and their challenges. Antiquity 93:1371–77
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Han S, Antrosio J. 2019. The editors’ note: Walls, fences, and barriers: anthropology on the border. Open Anthropol 7:1 https://www.americananthro.org/StayInformed/OAArticleDetail.aspx?ItemNumber=24623
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Harrison R, Appelgren S, Bohlin A 2018. Commentary: Belonging and belongings: on migrant and nomadic heritages in and for the Anthropocene. See Hamilakis 2018 209–20
  56. Hicks D, Mallet S. 2019. Lande: The Calais ‘Jungle’ and Beyond Bristol, UK: Univ. Bristol Press
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Holtorf C, Pantazatos A, Scarre G 2019. Cultural Heritage, Ethics and Contemporary Migrations London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Int. Organ. Migr. 2020. Key migration terms. International Organization for Migration https://www.iom.int/key-migration-terms#Displacement
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Int. Rescue Comm. 2015. What's in my bag: what refugees bring when they run for their lives. Medium, Uprooted Sept. 4. https://medium.com/uprooted/what-s-in-my-bag-758d435f6e62
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Jones R. 2016. Violent Borders: Refugees and the Right to Move New York: Verso
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Jusionyte I. 2018. Threshold: Emergency Responders on the US–México Border Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Kiddey R. 2019. Reluctant refuge: an activist archaeological approach to alternative refugee shelter in Athens (Greece). J. Refug. Stud. 32:1–22
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Kirtsoglou E. 2018. Commentary: Nomadic ethics. See Hamilakis 2018 221–30
  64. Kourelis K. 2018. If place remotely matters: camped in Greece's contingent countryside. See Hamilakis 2018 108–20
  65. Labadi S. 2013. The National Museum of Immigration History (Paris, France), neo-colonialist representations, silencing, and re-appropriation. J. Soc. Archaeol. 13:3310–30
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Labadi S. 2018. Museums, Immigrants, and Social Justice London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Lee L. 2019. Situational identity: the materiality of migration Paper presented at the 84th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology Albuquerque, NM:April 10–14
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Levin AK 2016. Global Mobilities: Refugees, Exiles, and Immigrants in Museums and Archives London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  69. McAtackney L, McGuire RH. 2020. Walling In, Walling Out: Why Are We Building New Barriers to Divide Us? Albuquerque: Univ. N. M. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  70. McGuire RH. 1992. A Marxist Archaeology Orlando, FL: Academic
    [Google Scholar]
  71. McGuire RH. 2008. Archaeology as Political Action Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  72. McGuire RH. 2013. Steel walls and picket fences: rematerializing the U.S.–Mexican border in Ambos Nogales. Am. Anthropol. 115:3466–81
    [Google Scholar]
  73. McGuire RH. 2018. Bearing witness on the US-Mexico border. Am. Anthropol. 120:3541–42
    [Google Scholar]
  74. McGuire RH, Van Dyke RM 2019. Crossing laLínea: bodily encounters with the U.S.–México border in Ambos Nogales. See Sheridan & McGuire 2019 41–70
  75. Migr. Data Portal. 2019a. Migrant deaths and disappearances. Immigration and Emigration Statistics https://migrationdataportal.org/themes/migrant-deaths-and-disappearances
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Migr. Data Portal. 2019b. Migration data in Europe. Regional Data Overview https://migrationdataportal.org/regional-data-overview/europe
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Miller D. 2008. Migration, material culture and tragedy: four moments in Caribbean migration. Mobilities 3:3397–413
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Obradovic-Wochnik J, Bird G. 2019. The everyday at the border: examining visual, material and spatial intersections of international politics along the ‘Balkan Route. .’ Coop. Confl. 55:141–65
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Ortega B. 2018. Border Patrol failed to count hundreds of migrant deaths on US soil. CNN May 15. https://www.cnn.com/2018/05/14/us/border-patrol-migrant-death-count-invs/index.html
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Pistrick E, Bachmeier F. 2018. Empty migrant rooms: an anthropology of absence through the camera lens. See Hamilakis 2018 97–107
  81. Radziwinowiczówna A. 2018. The materiality of the state of exception: components of the experience of deportation from the United States. See Hamilakis 2018 80–86
  82. Rathje W, Murphy C. 1992. Rubbish! The Archaeology of Garbage New York: Harper Collins
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Refug. Int. 2019. Our mission is to be a powerful voice for lifesaving action. Refugees International https://www.refugeesinternational.org/what
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Riggs EP. 2020. An archaeology of refugee resettlement: Delhi after Partition PhD Thesis, Binghamton Univ. Binghamton, NY:
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Riggs EP, Jat Z. 2018. The 1947 Partition of India and Pakistan: migration, material landscapes, and the making of nations. See Hamilakis 2018 20–28
  86. Schiffer MB. 2017. Archaeology's Footprints in the Modern World Salt Lake City: Univ. Utah Press
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Schmidt RA, Voss BL 2000. Archaeologies of Sexuality London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Schofield J. 2018. “Heritage on exile”: reflecting on the roles and responsibilities of heritage organizations towards those affected by forced migration. See Hamilakis 2018 184–91
  89. Seitsonen OI, Herva V-P, Kunnari M 2018. Abandoned refugee vehicles “in the middle of nowhere”: reflections on the global refugee crisis from the northern margins of Europe. See Hamilakis 2018 139–55
  90. Sheridan TE, McGuire RH 2019. The Border and Its Bodies: The Embodiment of Risk Along the U.S.-México Line. Tucson: Univ. Ariz. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Soto G. 2016. Migrant memento mori and the geography of risk. J. Soc. Archaeol. 16:3335–58
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Soto G. 2018a. Banal materiality and the idea of sovereignty: the migration funnel effect and the policing of the U.S.-Mexico Border, 2000–2016. Political Geogr 66:113–29
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Soto G. 2018b. Object afterlives and the burden of history: between “trash” and “heritage” in the steps of migrants. Am. Anthropol. 120:3460–73
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Soto G. 2018c. Place making in non-places: migrant graffiti in rural highway box culverts. See Hamilakis 2018 58–79
  95. Squire V. 2014. Desert ‘trash’: posthumanism, border struggles, and humanitarian politics. Political Geogr 39:11–21
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Stewart HE, Osterreicher I, Gokee C, De León J 2018. Surveilling surveillance: countermapping undocumented migration in the USA-Mexico borderlands. See Hamilakis 2018 42–57
  97. Thomopoulos C, Dadgar K, Dogan E, Ghasemi S, Thomopoulos S 2018. Digging up sounds, images, and words together in Athens: conversations with Kurosh Dadgar (Hossein Shabani) and Saeid Ghasemi on refugee experiences and self- representation through art and heritage management. See Hamilakis 2018 192–208
  98. Tilley C. 1989. Archaeology as socio-political action in the present. Critical Traditions in Contemporary Archaeology: Essays in the Philosophy, History and Socio-Politics of Archaeology V Pinsky, A Wylie 104–16 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Trabert S. 2020. Understanding the significance of migrants’ material culture. J. Soc. Archaeol. 20:195–115
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Tyrikos-Ergas G. 2018. Orange life jackets: materiality and narration in Lesvos, one year after the eruption of the “refugee crisis.” See Hamilakis 2018. 121–26
  101. Undocumented Migrant Project. 2019. Hostile Terrain 94. Undocumented Migration Project https://www.undocumentedmigrationproject.org/hostileterrain94
    [Google Scholar]
  102. US Border Patrol. 2019. Southwest border deaths by fiscal year (Oct. 1st through Sept. 30th). U.S. Customs and Border Protection. https://www.cbp.gov/sites/default/files/assets/documents/2019-Mar/bp-southwest-border-sector-deaths-fy1998-fy2018.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Vallet E. 2014. Borders, Fences and Walls: State of Insecurity? Farnham, UK: Ashgate
    [Google Scholar]
  104. VanValkenburgh P. 2018. Commentary: Whither the history of forced and undocumented migration? Notes for genealogical and comparative approaches. See Hamilakis 2018 231–38
  105. Voss B. 2010. Matter out of time: the paradox of the “contemporary past. .” Archaeologies 6:1181–92
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Watkins J. 2000. Indigenous Archaeology: American Indian Values and Scientific Practice Lanham, MD: Alta Mira Press
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Wyman M. 1998. DPs: Europe's Displaced Persons, 1945–1951 Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-010220-074624
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-010220-074624
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error