1932

Abstract

Human habitation and adaptation to extreme environments have a deep history in anthropological research. Anthropologists’ understanding of these ecological pressures and how humans respond to them has grown substantially over the last 100+ years. This review covers long-standing knowledge on adaptation to classic extreme conditions of heat, cold, and high altitude, while also updating the areas in which recent research has broadened our understanding of human adaptation, acclimatization, and resilience. Unfortunately, the intersecting stresses of structural inequality and climate change have made these extremes more extreme, with drastic negative impacts on health and well-being. Future research will need to explore how extreme environments, structural inequality, and climate change are embodied as well as mitigated so that humans are better prepared to face a rapidly changing world.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-052721-085858
2023-10-23
2024-04-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/anthro/52/1/annurev-anthro-052721-085858.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-052721-085858&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Adolph EF. 1938. Heat exchanges of man in the desert. Am. J. Physiol. 123:2486–99
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ahmadalipour A, Moradkhani H, Kumar M. 2019. Mortality risk from heat stress expected to hit poorest nations the hardest. Clim. Change 152:3–4569–79
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Anttonen H, Pekkarinen A, Niskanen J. 2009. Safety at work in cold environments and prevention of cold stress. Ind. Health 47:3254–61
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Baker PT, Weiner JS, eds 1966. The Biology of Human Adaptability Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press
  5. Barrios RE. 2016. Resilience: a commentary from the vantage point of anthropology. Ann. Anthropol. Pract. 40:128–38
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Beall CM. 2001. Adaptations to altitude: a current assessment. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 30:423–56
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Beall CM. 2007. Two routes to functional adaptation: Tibetan and Andean high-altitude natives. PNAS 104:S18655–60
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Beall CM. 2013. Human adaptability studies at high altitude: research designs and major concepts during fifty years of discovery. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 25:141–47
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Beall CM. 2014. Adaptation to high altitude: phenotypes and genotypes. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 43:251–72
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Beall CM, Childs G, Craig SR, Strohl KP, Quinn E, Basnyat B. 2022. Repeatability of adaptive traits among ethnic Tibetan highlanders. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 34:4e23670
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bigham A, Bauchet M, Pinto D, Mao X, Akey JM et al. 2010. Identifying signatures of natural selection in Tibetan and Andean populations using dense genome scan data. PLOS Genet. 6:9e1001116
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bongers CCWG, Thijssen DHJ, Veltmeijer MTW, Hopman MTE, Eijsvogels TMH. 2015. Precooling and percooling (cooling during exercise) both improve performance in the heat: a meta-analytical review. Br. J. Sports Med. 49:6377–84
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Brockerhoff M, Hewett P. 2000. Inequality of child mortality among ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa. Bull. World Health Organ. 78:130–41
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Burt CC. 2007. Extreme Weather: A Guide and Record Book New York: Norton
  15. Cannon B, de Jong JMA, Fischer AW, Nedergaard J, Petrovic N. 2020. Human brown adipose tissue: classical brown rather than brite/beige?. Exp. Physiol. 105:1191–200
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Castellani JW, Young AJ. 2016. Human physiological responses to cold exposure: acute responses and acclimatization to prolonged exposure. Auton. Neurosci. 196:63–74
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Cepon TJ, Snodgrass JJ, Leonard WR, Tarskaia LA, Klimova TM et al. 2011. Circumpolar adaptation, social change, and the development of autoimmune thyroid disorders among the Yakut (Sakha) of Siberia. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 23:5703–9
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Chateau-Degat M-L, Dewailly E, Charbonneau G, Laouan-Sidi EA, Tremblay A, Egeland GM 2011. Obesity risks: towards an emerging Inuit pattern. Int. J. Circumpolar Health 70:2166–77
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Chateau-Degat M-L, Dewailly É, Louchini R, Counil É, Noël M et al. 2010a. Cardiovascular burden and related risk factors among Nunavik (Quebec) Inuit: insights from baseline findings in the circumpolar Inuit Health in Transition cohort study. Can. J. Cardiol. 26:e190–96
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Chateau-Degat M-L, Dewailly É, Noël M, Valera B, Ferland A et al. 2010b. Hypertension among the Inuit from Nunavik: Should we expect an increase because of obesity?. Int. J. Circumpolar Health 69:4361–72
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Chinevere T, Cadarette BS, Goodman DA, Ely BR, Cheuvront SN, Sawka MN. 2008. Efficacy of body ventilation system for reducing strain in warm and hot climates. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 103:307–14
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Chondronikola M, Volpi E, Børsheim E, Porter C, Annamalai P et al. 2014. Brown adipose tissue improves whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in humans. Diabetes 63:124089–99
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Christopher L, Madimenos FC, Bribiescas RG, Urlacher SS, Snodgrass JJ et al. 2019. High energy requirements and water throughput of adult Shuar forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Ecuador. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 31:2e23223
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Churchill SE 2006. Bioenergetic perspectives on Neanderthal thermoregulatory and activity budgets. Neanderthals Revisited: New Approaches and Perspectives JJ Hublin, K Harvati, T Harrison 113–34. Dordrecht, Neth: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Conroy K, Sandel M, Zuckerman B. 2010. Poverty grown up: how childhood socioeconomic status impacts adult health. J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr. 31:2154–60
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Cramer MN, Jay O. 2016. Biophysical aspects of human thermoregulation during heat stress. Auton. Neurosci. 196:3–13
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Crimmins EM, Kim JK, Seeman TE. 2009. Poverty and biological risk: the earlier “aging” of the poor. J. Gerontol. A 64A:2286–92
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Cullin JM, Vitzthum VJ, Wiley AS. 2021. Mind the gap: contesting normal/abnormal constructs of human biology and behaviors. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 33:5e23666
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Cutter J, Tan BY, Chew SK. 2001. Levels of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Singapore following a national intervention programme. Bull. World Health Organ. 79:908–15
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Cypess AM, Lehman S, Williams G, Tal I, Rodman D et al. 2009. Identification and importance of brown adipose tissue in adult humans. N. Engl. J. Med. 360:1509–17
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Dang S, Yan H, Yamamoto S. 2007. High altitude and early childhood growth retardation: new evidence from Tibet. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 62:3342–48
    [Google Scholar]
  32. de Korte JQ, Bongers CCWG, Hopman MTE, Eijsvogels TMH. 2021. Exercise performance and thermoregulatory responses of elite athletes exercising in the heat: outcomes of the Thermo Tokyo Study. Sports Med 51:112423–36
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Dervis S, Coombs GB, Chaseling GK, Filingeri D, Smoljanic J, Jay O. 2016. A comparison of thermoregulatory responses to exercise between mass-matched groups with large differences in body fat. J. Appl. Physiol. 120:6615–23
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Donald J. 2021. Winter Storm Uri 2021: the economic impact of the storm. Fiscal Notes Oct. https://comptroller.texas.gov/economy/fiscal-notes/2021/oct/winter-storm-impact.php
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Drubach LA, Palmer EL 3rd, Connolly LP, Baker A, Zurakowski D, Cypess AM 2011. Pediatric brown adipose tissue: detection, epidemiology, and differences from adults. J. Pediatr. 159:939–44
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Foster F, Collard M. 2013. A reassessment of Bergmann's rule in modern humans. PLOS ONE 8:8e72269
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Frisancho AR. 1975. Functional adaptation to high altitude hypoxia: changes occurring during growth and development are of major importance in man's adapting to high altitudes. Science 187:4174313–19
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Frisancho AR. 2013. Developmental functional adaptation to high altitude: review. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 25:2151–68
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Fuller K, Gravlee CC, McCarty C, Mitchell MM, Mulligan CJ. 2021. Stressful social environment and financial strain drive depressive symptoms, and reveal the effects of a FKBP5 variant and male sex, in African Americans living in Tallahassee. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 176:4572–83
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Galloway VA, Leonard WR, Ivakine E. 2000. Basal metabolic adaptation of the Evenki reindeer herders of Central Siberia. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:175–87
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Gildner TE, Cepon-Robins TJ, Liebert MA, Urlacher SS, Schrock JM et al. 2020. Market integration and soil-transmitted helminth infection among the Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador. PLOS ONE 15:7e0236924
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Gildner TE, Levy SB. 2021. Intersecting vulnerabilities in human biology: synergistic interactions between climate change and increasing obesity rates. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 33:e23460
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Godfrey TM, Cordova-Marks FM, Jones D, Melton F, Breathett K. 2022. Metabolic syndrome among American Indian and Alaska Native populations: implications for cardiovascular health. Curr. Hypertens. Rep. 24:107–14
    [Google Scholar]
  44. González-Alonso J. 2012. Human thermoregulation and the cardiovascular system. Exp. Physiol. 97:340–46
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Graves JL Jr. 2021. Human biological variation and the “normal. .” Am. J. Hum. Biol. 33:5e23658
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Gravlee CC. 2009. How race becomes biology: embodiment of social inequality. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 139:147–57
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Heaton JM. 1972. The distribution of brown adipose tissue in the human. J. Anat. 112:135–39
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Holling CS. 1973. Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 4:1–23
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Hori S. 1995. Adaptation to heat. Jpn. J. Physiol. 45:921–46
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Huttunen P, Hirvonen J, Kinnula V. 1981. The occurrence of brown adipose tissue in outdoor workers. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. Occup. Physiol. 46:4339–45
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Imray C, Wright A, Subudhi A, Roach R. 2010. Acute mountain sickness: pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment. Prog. Cardiovasc. Dis. 52:6467–84
    [Google Scholar]
  52. IPCC (Intergov. Panel Clim. Change) 2021. Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change V Masson-Delmotte, P Zhai, A Pirani, SL Connors, C Péan et al. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Jaakkola JJK, Juntunen S, Näkkäläjärvi K. 2018. The holistic effects of climate change on the culture, well-being, and health of the Saami, the only indigenous people in the European Union. Curr. Environ. Health Rep. 5:4401–17
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Kaltenborn BP, Nellemann C, Vistnes II. 2010. High mountain glaciers and climate change: challenges to human livelihoods and adaptation Rep. Birkeland Tykkeri: Birkeland, Nor https://www.unep.org/resources/report/high-mountain-glaciers-and-climate-change-challenges-human-livelihoods-and
  55. Katzmarzyk PT, Leonard WR. 1998. Climatic influences on human body size and proportions: ecological adaptations and secular trends. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 106:483–503
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Khosla R, Renaldi R, Mazzone A, McElroy C, Palfox-Alcantar G. 2022. Sustainable cooling in a warming world: technologies, cultures, and circularity. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 47:449–78
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Koppe C, Kovats S, Jendritzky G, Menne B. 2004. Heat-waves: risks and responses Rep., World Health Organ. Reg. Off Eur., Copenhagen: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/107552
  58. Kozlov A, Vershubsky G, Kozlova M. 2007. Indigenous peoples of northern Russia: anthropology and health. Int. J. Circumpolar Health. 66:Sup11–184
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Lean MEJ. 1989. Brown adipose tissue in humans. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 48:243–56
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Leatherman T, Goodman A. 2020. Building on the biocultural syntheses: 20years and still expanding. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 32:e23360
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Leonard WR. 1989. Nutritional determinants of high-altitude growth in Nuñoa, Peru. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 80:3341–52
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Leonard WR, Snodgrass JJ, Sorensen MV. 2005. Metabolic adaptation in Indigenous Siberian populations. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 34:451–71
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Leonard WR, Sorensen MV, Galloway VA, Spencer GJ, Mosher MJ et al. 2002. Climatic influences on basal metabolic rates among circumpolar populations. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 14:5609–20
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Levy SB. 2019. Field and laboratory methods for quantifying brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 31:4e23261
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Levy SB, Atallah D, Bondy M, Leonard WR. 2016. Cold acclimation among residents of the Chicago Metro Area: changes in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis, energy expenditure and vasoconstriction. Poster presented at the 85th Annual Meeting of the AAPA. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 159:208 abstract )
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Levy SB, Klimova TM, Zakharova RN, Federov AI, Fedorova VI et al. 2018. Brown adipose tissue, energy expenditure, and biomarkers of cardio-metabolic health among the Yakut (Sakha) of northeastern Siberia. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 30:6e23175
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Levy SB, Klimova TM, Zakharova RN, Fedorov AI, Fedorova VI et al. 2021. Evidence for a sensitive period of plasticity in brown adipose tissue during early childhood among indigenous Siberians. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 175:4834–46
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Levy SB, Klimova TM, Zakharova RN, Fedorov AI, Fedorova VI et al. 2022. Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis among young adults in northeastern Siberia and Midwest United States and its relationship with other biological adaptations to cold climates. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 34:e23723
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Lidell ME, Betz MJ, Enerbäck S. 2014. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential. J. Intern. Med. 276:364–77
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Lock M. 2017. Recovering the body. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 46:1–14
    [Google Scholar]
  71. López Camelo JS, Campaña H, Santos R, Poletta FA 2006. Effect of the interaction between high altitude and socioeconomic factors on birth weight in a large sample from South America. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 129:2305–10
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Mäkinen TM, Raatikka V-P, Rytkönen M, Jokelainen J, Rintamäki H et al. 2006. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study. Int. J. Biometeorol. 51:127–36
    [Google Scholar]
  73. McArdle WD, Magel JR, Gergley TJ, Spina RJ, Toner MM. 1984. Thermal adjustment to cold-water exposure in resting men and women. J. Appl. Physiol. Respir. Environ. Exerc. Physiol. 56:1565–71
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Moore LG. 2017. Human genetic adaptation to high altitudes: current status and future prospects. Quat. Int. 461:4–13
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Moran E. 2008. Human Adaptability: An Introduction to Ecological Anthropology Boulder, CO: Westview Press. , 3rd ed..
  76. Mulligan CJ. 2021. Systemic racism can get under our skin and into our genes. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 175:2399–405
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Nascimento EBM, Sparks LM, Divoux A, van Gisbergen MW, Broeders EPM et al. 2018. Genetic markers of brown adipose tissue identity and in vitro brown adipose tissue activity in humans. Obesity 26:135–40
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Nazroo J, Jackson J, Karlsen S, Torres M. 2007. The Black diaspora and health inequalities in the US and England: Does where you go and how you get there make a difference?. Sociol. Health Illn. 29:6811–30
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Niclou A, Ocobock C. 2022. Weather permitting: increased seasonal efficiency of nonshivering thermogenesis through brown adipose tissue activation in the winter. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 34:e23716
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Niclou A, Vesi L, Arorae M, Naseri NC, Savusa KF et al. 2022. When the cold gets under your skin: the effects and role of brown adipose tissue activity in Samoans. Am. J. Biol. Anthropol. 177:134–35
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Niermeyer S, Mollinedo PA, Huicho L. 2009. Child health and living at high altitude. Arch. Dis. Child. 94:806–11
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Ocobock C. 2016. Human energy expenditure, allocation, and interactions in natural temperate, hot, and cold environments. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 161:4667–75
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Ocobock C. 2020. Human energy expenditure in anthropology and beyond. Am. Anthropol. 122:2236–49
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Ocobock C, Niclou A. 2022. Commentary—fat but fit…and cold? Potential evolutionary and environmental drivers of metabolically healthy obesity. Evol. Med. Public Health 10:1400–8
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Ocobock C, Soppela P, Turunen M, Stenbäck V, Herzig K-H et al. 2021. Reindeer herders from subarctic Finland exhibit high total energy expenditure and low energy intake during the autumn herd roundup. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 34:e23676
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Ocobock C, Soppela P, Turunen M, Stenbäck V, Herzig K-H. 2022a. Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis among a small sample of reindeer herders from sub-Arctic Finland. J. Physiol. Anthropol. 41:11–17
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Ocobock C, Soppela P, Turunen MT. 2022b. No association of BMI and body adiposity with cardiometabolic biomarkers among a small sample of reindeer herders of sub-Arctic Finland. Int. J. Circumpolar Health 81:12024960
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Ocobock C, Soppela P, Turunen MT, Stenbäck V, Herzig K-H. 2020. Elevated resting metabolic rates among female, but not male, reindeer herders from subarctic Finland. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 32:6e23432
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Ocobock C, Turunen M, Soppela P, Rasmus S 2022c. The impact of winter warming and more frequent icing events on reindeer herder occupational safety, health, and wellbeing. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 35:e23790
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Oyama S, Arslanian KJ, Levy SB, Ocobock C, Fidow UT et al. 2021. Feasibility of using infrared thermal imaging to examine brown adipose tissue in infants aged 18 to 25 months. Ann. Hum. Biol. 48:374–81
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Pääkkönen T. 2010. Melatonin and thyroid hormones in the cold and in darkness. Association with mood and cognition. Int. J. Circumpolar Health 69:3314–15
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Payne S, Macintosh A, Stock J. 2018. Body size and body composition effects on heat loss from the hands during severe cold exposure. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 166:2313–22
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Périard JD, Racinais S, Sawka MN. 2015. Adaptations and mechanisms of human heat acclimation: applications for competitive athletes and sports. Scand. . J. Med. Sci. Sports 25:20–38
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Pontzer H, Durazo-Arvizu R, Dugas LR, Plange-Rhule J, Bovet P et al. 2016. Constrained total energy expenditure and metabolic adaptation to physical activity in adult humans. Curr. Biol. 26:3410–17
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Pontzer H, Raichlen DA, Wood BM, Mabulla AZP, Racette SB, Marlowe FW. 2012. Hunter-gatherer energetics and human obesity. PLOS ONE 7:7e40503
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Quinn EA, Childs G. 2017. Ecological pressures and milk metabolic hormones of ethnic Tibetans living at different altitudes. Ann. Hum. Biol. 44:134–45
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Quinn EA, Diki Bista K, Childs G 2016. Milk at altitude: human milk macronutrient composition in a high-altitude adapted population of Tibetans. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 159:2233–43
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Rasmus S, Horstkotte T, Turunen M, Landauer M, Löf A et al. 2022. Reindeer husbandry and climate change. Challenges for adaptation. Reindeer Husbandry and Global Environmental Change. Pastoralism in Fennoscandia T Horskotte, Ø Holand, J Kumpula, J Moen 99–117. London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Rej PH, HEAT Steer. Comm., Gravlee CC, Mulligan CJ 2020. Shortened telomere length is associated with unfair treatment attributed to race in African Americans living in Tallahassee, Florida. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 32:3e23375
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Rintamäki H, Rissanen S. 2006. Heat strain in cold. Ind. Health 44:427–32
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Rode A, Shephard RJ. 1995. Modernization of lifestyle, body fat content and body fat distribution: a comparison of Igloolik Inuit and Volochanka nGanasan. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 19:709–16
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Rosinger A, Tanner S. 2015. Water from fruit or the river? Examining hydration strategies and gastrointestinal illness among Tsimane’ adults in the Bolivian Amazon. Public Health Nutr. 18:61098–108
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Rosinger AY. 2018. Household water insecurity after a historic flood: diarrhea and dehydration in the Bolivian Amazon. Soc. Sci. Med. 197:192–202
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Rosinger AY. 2023. Water needs, water insecurity, and human biology. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 52:93–113
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Rosinger AY, Rosinger K, Barnhart K, Todd M, Hamilton T et al. 2022. When the flood passes, does health return? A short panel examining water and food insecurity, nutrition, and disease after an extreme flood in lowland Bolivia. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 35:e23806
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Rosinger AY, Young SL. 2020. The toll of household water insecurity on health and human biology: current understandings and future directions. WIREs Water 7:6e1468
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Ruff CB. 1994. Morphological adaptation to climate in modern and fossil hominids. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 37:S1965–107
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Salmi A-K, Soppela P, Kynkäänniemi S-M, Wallén H. 2022. Conclusion: past and present reindeer herding in a dialogue. Domestication in Action: Past and Present Human-Reindeer Interaction in Northern Fennoscandia, ed. A-K Salmi249–80. London: Palgrave MacMillan
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Sanderson K. 2022. How will World Cup footballers cope with Qatar heat?. Nature 612:793819
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Sarma MS, Gettler LT, Childs G, Quinn EA. 2018. When women work: endocrine reactivity in women during everyday physical activity at high altitude. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 30:5e23154
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Savell KRR, Auerbach BM, Roseman CC. 2016. Constraint, natural selection, and the evolution of human body form. PNAS 113:349492–97
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Scholander PF, Hammel HT, Hart JS, Lemessurier DH, Steen J. 1958. Cold adaptation in Australian aborigines. J. Appl. Physiol. 13:2211–18
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Seeman T, Merkin SS, Crimmins E, Koretz B, Charette S, Karlamangla A. 2008. Education, income and ethnic differences in cumulative biological risk profiles in a national sample of US adults: NHANES III (1988–1994). Soc. Sci. Med. 66:172–87
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Sellers AJ, Khovalyg D, Plasqui G, van Marken Lichtenbelt W. 2022. High daily energy expenditure of Tuvan nomadic pastoralists living in an extreme cold environment. Sci. Rep. 12:120127
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Shapiro Y, Pandolf KB, Avellini BA, Pimental NA, Goldman RF. 1980. Physiological responses of men and women to humid and dry heat. J. Appl. Physiol. Respir. Environ. Exerc. Physiol. 49:11–8
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Short EE, Caminade C, Thomas BN. 2017. Climate change contribution to the emergence or re-emergence of parasitic diseases. Infect. Dis. 10: https://doi.org/10.1177/1178633617732296
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  117. Snodgrass JJ. 2013. Health of indigenous circumpolar populations. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 42:69–87
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Snodgrass JJ, Leonard WR, Tarskaia LA, Alekseev VP, Krivoshapkin VG. 2005. Basal metabolic rate in the Yakut (Sakha) of Siberia. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 17:2155–72
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Steegmann AT Jr. 2007. Human cold adaptation: an unfinished agenda. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 19:2218–27
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Steudel-Numbers KL, Tilkens MJ. 2004. The effect of lower limb length on energetic cost of locomotion: implications for fossil hominins. J. Hum. Evol. 47:95–109
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Stocks JM, Taylor NAS, Tipton MJ, Greenleaf JE. 2004. Human physiological responses to cold exposure. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 75:444–57
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Sun YP, Zhu N. 2012. Experimental research on human metabolism in hot environment. Adv. Mater. Res. 599:241–44
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Tanuma Y, Ohata M, Ito T, Yokochi C. 1976. Possible function of human brown adipose tissue as suggested by observation on perirenal brown fats from necropsy cases of variable age groups. Arch. Histol. Jpn. 39:2117–45
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Taylor JK. 2020. Structural racism and maternal health among Black women. J. Law Med. Ethics 48:506–17
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Tervo H, Nikkonen M. 2010. “In the mountains one feels like a dog off the leash”—Sámi perceptions of welfare and its influencing factors. Nord. J. Nurs. Res. 30:49–14
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Thomson A, Buxton LHD. 1923. Man's nasal index in relation to certain climatic conditions. J. Anthropol. Inst. G. B. Irel. 53:92–122
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Tikuisis P, Jacobs I, Moroz D, Vallerand AL, Martineau L. 2000. Comparison of thermoregulatory responses between men and women immersed in cold water. J. Appl. Physiol. 89:41403–11
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Tochihara Y, Wakabayashi H, Lee J-Y, Wijayanto T, Hashiguchi N, Saat M. 2022. How humans adapt to hot climates learned from the recent research on tropical indigenes. J. Physiol. Anthropol. 41:127
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Turunen M, Soppela P, Ocobock C. 2021. How reindeer herders cope with harsh winter conditions in northern Finland: insights from an interview study. Arctic 74:2188–205
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Urlacher SS, Ellison PT, Sugiyama LS, Pontzer H, Eick G et al. 2018. Tradeoffs between immune function and childhood growth among Amazonian forager-horticulturalists. PNAS 115:E3914–21
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Urlacher SS, Snodgrass JJ, Dugas JR, Madimenos FC, Sugiyama LS et al. 2021. Childhood daily energy expenditure does not decrease with market integration and is not related to adiposity in Amazonia. J. Nutr. 151:3695–704
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Urlacher SS, Snodgrass JJ, Dugas JR, Sugiyama LS, Liebert MA et al. 2019. Constraint and trade-offs regulate energy expenditure during childhood. Sci. Adv. 5:12eaax1065
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Valeggia CR, Snodgrass JJ. 2015. Health of indigenous peoples. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 44:1117–35
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Vallerand AL, Jacobs I. 1989. Rates of energy substrates utilization during human cold exposure. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. Occup. Physiol. 58:8873–78
    [Google Scholar]
  135. van der Lans AAJJ, Vosselman MJ, Hanssen MJW, Brans B, van Marken Lichtenbelt WD. 2016. Supraclavicular skin temperature and BAT activity in lean healthy adults. J. Physiol. Sci. 66:177–83
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Villafuerte FC, Corante N. 2016. Chronic mountain sickness: clinical aspects, etiology, management, and treatment. High Alt. Med. Biol. 17:261–69
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Vitzthum VJ. 2013. Fifty fertile years: anthropologists’ studies of reproduction in high altitude natives. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 25:2179–89
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Vuojala-Magga T. 2009. Simple things but complicated skills. Sami skills and tacit knowledge in the context of climatic change. Máttut – Máddagat: The Roots of Saami Ethnicities, Societies and Spaces/Places T Äikäs 164–73 Sastamala, Finl.: Vammalan Kirjapaino Oy
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Wehbya GL, Castilla EE, Lopez-Camelo J. 2010. The impact of altitude on infant health in South America. Econ. Hum. Biol. 8:2197–211
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Westerterp KR. 2001a. Energy and water balance at high altitude. News Physiol. Soc. 16:134–37
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Westerterp KR. 2001b. Limits to sustainable human metabolic rate. J. Exp. Biol. 204:183183–87
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Wiley AS. 2021. Pearl lecture: Biological normalcy: a new framework for biocultural analysis of human population variation. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 33:5e23563
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Wiley AS. 2023. Biological normalcy. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 52:223–38
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Williams DR, Mohammed SA, Leavell J, Collins C. 2010. Race, socioeconomic status, and health: complexities, ongoing challenges, and research opportunities. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1186:169–101
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Yanovich R, Ketko I, Charkoudian N. 2020. Sex differences in human thermoregulation: relevance for 2020 and beyond. Physiology 35:3177–84
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Young TK. 1996. Obesity, central fat patterning, and their metabolic correlates among the Inuit of the central Canadian Arctic. Hum. Biol. 68:2245–63
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Young TK, Bjerregaard P, Dewailly E, Risica PM, Jørgensen ME, Ebbesson SEO. 2007. Prevalence of obesity and its metabolic correlates among the circumpolar Inuit in 3 countries. Am. J. Public Health 97:4691–95
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Young TK, Moffatt MEK, O'Neil JD 1993. Cardiovascular diseases in a Canadian Arctic population. Am. J. Public Health 83:6881–87
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Young TK, Revich B, Soininen L. 2015. Suicide in circumpolar regions: an introduction and overview. Int. J. Circumpolar Health 74:27349
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-052721-085858
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-052721-085858
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error