Despite immigration policies that are often built around family reunification, contemporary research on migration often prioritizes labor mobility over mobility associated with marriage and family formation. Drawing on scholarship across a range of disciplines and across the globe, this article focuses attention on the substantive dimensions and theoretical debates located at the intersections of research on marriage and migration. Among the topics covered are rural bride shortages and mail-order marriages, arranged marriages, marriages of convenience and the state policies introduced to regulate them, and crimes of honor. The article also addresses the impact of migration on spousal relationships and on parenting in a transnational context. Of particular consideration are dimensions of insecurity that arise in mixed-status families, which may result in domestic violence.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Abdi CM. 2014. Threatened identities and gendered opportunities: Somali migration to America. Signs 39:2459–83 [Google Scholar]
  2. Abraham M. 1999. Sexual abuse in South Asian immigrant marriages. Violence Against Women 5:6591–618 [Google Scholar]
  3. Abraham M. 2000. Speaking the Unspeakable: Marital Violence among South Asian Immigrants in the United States New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  4. Abrego L. 2014. Sacrificing Families: Navigating Laws, Labor, and Love Across Borders Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  5. Adams JW, Kasakoff AB. 1980. Migration at marriage in colonial New England: a comparison of rates derived from genealogies with rates from vital records. Genealogical Demography B Dyke, WT Morrill 115–38 New York: Academic [Google Scholar]
  6. Akpinar A. 2003. The honor/shame complex revisited: violence against women in the migrant context. Women's Stud. Int. Forum 26:5425–42 [Google Scholar]
  7. Argüelles L, Rivero AM. 1993. Gender/sexuality orientation, violence and transnational migration: conversations with some Latinas we think we know. Urban Anthropol 22:259–75 [Google Scholar]
  8. Barajas M, Ramirez E. 2007. Beyond home-host dichotomies: a comparative examination of gender relations in a transnational Mexican community. Sociol. Perspect. 50:3367–92 [Google Scholar]
  9. Baykara-Krumme H. 2016. Consanguineous marriage in Turkish families in Turkey and in Western Europe. Int. Migr. Rev. 50:3568–98 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bélanger D, Linh TG. 2011. The impact of transnational migration on gender and marriage in sending communities of Vietnam. Curr. Sociol. 59:59–77 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bhattacharjee A. 2006. The public/private mirage: mapping homes and undomesticating violence work in the South Asian immigrant community. The Anthropology of the State A Sharma, A Gupta 337–55 Oxford, UK: Blackwell [Google Scholar]
  12. Boccagni P. 2012. Practising motherhood at a distance: retention and loss in Ecuadorian transnational families. J. Ethnic Migr. Stud. 38:2261–77 [Google Scholar]
  13. Boehm DA. 2008. “Now I am a man and a woman!”: gendered moves and migrations in a transnational Mexican community. Latin Am. Perspect. 35:116–30 [Google Scholar]
  14. Bredal A. 2005. Tackling forced marriages in the Nordic countries: between women's rights and immigration control. ‘Honour’: Crimes, Paradigms, and Violence Against Women L Welchman, S Hossain 332–53 London: Zed Books [Google Scholar]
  15. Brettell CB. 1986. Men Who Migrate, Women Who Wait: Population and History in a Portuguese Parish Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  16. Brettell CB. 2008. Immigrants as Netizens: political mobilization in cyberspace. Citizenship, Political Engagement, and Belonging: Immigrants in Europe and the United States D Reed-Danahay, CB Brettell 226–43 New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  17. Brettell CB. 2015. Following Father Chiniquy: Immigration, Religious Schism, and Social Change in Nineteenth-Century Illinois Carbondale: South. Ill. Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  18. Broughton C. 2008. Migration as engendered practice: Mexican men, masculinity, and northward migration. Gender Soc 22:5568–89 [Google Scholar]
  19. Carling J, Menjívar C, Schmalzbauer L. 2012. Central themes in the study of transnational parenthood. J. Ethnic Migr. Stud. 38:2191–217 [Google Scholar]
  20. Charsley K. 2005. Unhappy husbands: masculinity and migration in transnational Pakistani marriages. J. R. Anthropol. Inst. 11:185–105 [Google Scholar]
  21. Charsley K, Liversage A. 2013. Transforming polygamy: migration, transnationalism, and multiple marriages among Muslim minorities. Glob. Netw. 13:160–78 [Google Scholar]
  22. Chaudhry S, Mohan TD. 2011. Of marriage and migration: Bengali and Bihari brides in a U.P. village. Indian J. Gender Stud. 18:3311–40 [Google Scholar]
  23. Chee MWL. 2005. Taiwanese American Transnational Families: Women and Kin Work New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  24. Chun CSY. 1996. Mail-order bride industry: the perpetuation of transnational economic inequalities and stereotypes. J. Int. Law 17:41115–208 [Google Scholar]
  25. Coe C. 2011. What is the impact of transnational migration on family life? Women's comparisons of internal and international migration in a small town in Ghana. Am. Ethnol. 38:1148–63 [Google Scholar]
  26. Coe C. 2014. The Scattered Family: Parenting, African Migrants, and Global Inequality Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  27. Cohen JH. 2004. The Culture of Migration in Southern Mexico Austin: Univ. Tex. Press [Google Scholar]
  28. Cole J. 2010. Sex and Salvation: Imagining the Future in Madagascar Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  29. Cole J. 2014. Working mis/understandings: the tangled relationship between kinship, Franco-Malagasy binational marriages, and the French state. Cult. Anthropol. 29:3527–51 [Google Scholar]
  30. Constable N. 2003. Romance on a Global Stage: Pen Pals, Virtual Ethnography, and “Mail-Order” Marriages Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  31. Constable N. 2005. Cross-Border Marriages: Gender and Mobility in Transnational Asia Philadelphia: Univ. Pa. Press [Google Scholar]
  32. Constable N. 2009. The commodification of intimacy: marriage, sex and reproductive labor. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 38:49–64 [Google Scholar]
  33. D'Aoust A-M. 2013. In the name of love: marriage migration, governmentality, and technologies of love. Int. Polit. Sociol. 7:3258–74 [Google Scholar]
  34. Davin D. 2007. Marriage migration in China and East Asia. J. Contemp. China 16:5083–95 [Google Scholar]
  35. Dawson AJ, Turkmani S, Varol N, Nanayakkara S, Sullivan E, Homer CSE. 2015. Midwives’ experiences of caring for women with female genital mutilation: insights and ways forward for practice in Australia. Women Birth 28:3207–14 [Google Scholar]
  36. De Haas H, van Rooij A. 2010. Migration as emancipation? The impact of internal and international migration on the position of women left behind in rural Morocco. Oxf. Dev. Stud. 38:143–62 [Google Scholar]
  37. Del Rosario TC. 2005. Bridal diaspora: migration and marriage among Filipino women. Indian J. Gender Stud. 12:2253–73 [Google Scholar]
  38. Dreby J. 2006. Honor and virtue: Mexican parenting in the transnational context. Gender Soc 20:132–59 [Google Scholar]
  39. Eggebø H. 2013. A real marriage? Applying for marriage migration to Norway. J. Ethn. Migr. Stud. 39:773–89 [Google Scholar]
  40. Elman RA. 2000. The limits of citizenship: migration, sex discrimination and same-sex partners in EU law. JCMS: J. Common Mark. Stud. 38:5729–49 [Google Scholar]
  41. Ewing KP. 2006. Between cinema and social work: diasporic Turkish women and the (dis)pleasures of hybridity. Cult. Anthropol. 21:2265–94 [Google Scholar]
  42. Ewing KP. 2008. Stolen Honor: Stigmatizing Muslim Men in Berlin Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  43. Faier L. 2007. Filipina migrants in rural Japan and their professions of love. Am. Ethnol. 34:1148–62 [Google Scholar]
  44. Fan CC, Huang Y. 1998. Waves of rural brides: female marriage migration in China. Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr. 88:2227–51 [Google Scholar]
  45. Fan CC, Li L. 2002. Marriage and migration in transitional China: a field study of Gaozhou, western Guangdong. Environ. Plan. 34:619–38 [Google Scholar]
  46. Fix M, Zimmerman W. 2001. All under one roof: mixed-status families in an era of reform. Int. Migr. Rev. 35:2397–419 [Google Scholar]
  47. Freeman C. 2011. Making and Faking Kinship: Marriage and Labor Migration between China and South Korea Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  48. Frost D. 1999. Work and Community Among West African Migrant Workers since the Nineteenth Century Liverpool, UK: Liverpool Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  49. Gallo E. 2006. ‘Italy is not a good place for men’: narratives of places, marriage, and masculinity among Malayali migrants. Glob. Netw. 6:4357–72 [Google Scholar]
  50. Gamburd MR. 1999. Class identity and the international division of labor: Sri Lanka's migrant housemaids. Anthropol. Work Rev. 19:33–8 [Google Scholar]
  51. Gamburd MR. 2000. The Kitchen Spoon's Handle: Transnationalism and Sri Lanka's Migrant Housemaids Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  52. Gamburd MR. 2008. Milk teeth and jet planes: kin relations in families of Sri Lanka's transnational domestic servants. City Soc 20:15–31 [Google Scholar]
  53. Gardner K. 1995. Global Migrants, Local Lives: Travel and Transformation in Rural Bangladesh Oxford, UK: Clarendon [Google Scholar]
  54. George SM. 2005. When Women Come First: Gender and Class in Transnational Migration Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  55. Gonzalez-Lopez G. 2005. Erotic Journeys: Mexican Immigrants and Their Sex Lives Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  56. Grimes KM. 1998. Crossing Borders: Changing Social Identities in Southern Mexico Tucson: Univ. Ariz. Press [Google Scholar]
  57. Guinnane TW. 1997. The Vanishing Irish: Households, Migration, and the Rural Economy in Ireland, 1850–1914 Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  58. Hirsch JS. 2003. A Courtship After Marriage: Sexuality and Love in Mexican Transnational Families Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  59. Hoang LA, Yeoh BSA. 2011. Breadwinning wives and “left-behind” husbands: men and masculinities in the Vietnamese transnational family. Gender Soc 25:6717–39 [Google Scholar]
  60. Holt M. 2004. ‘Marriage-like’ or married? Lesbian and gay marriage, partnership and migration. Fem. Psychol. 14:130–35 [Google Scholar]
  61. Hondagneu-Sotelo P, Avila E. 1997. “I'm here, but I'm there”: the meanings of Latina transnational motherhood. Gender Soc 11:5548–71 [Google Scholar]
  62. Horton S. 2009. A mother's heart is weighed down with stones: a phenomenological approach to the experience of transnational motherhood. Cult. Med. Psychiatry 33:121–40 [Google Scholar]
  63. Jackson S. 2002. To honor and obey: trafficking in “mail-order brides.”. George Wash. Law Rev. 70:3475 [Google Scholar]
  64. Jackson S. 2007. Marriages of convenience: international marriage brokers, ‘mail-order brides’, and domestic servitude. Univ. Toledo Law Rev. 38:895–922 [Google Scholar]
  65. Johansen REB. 2006. Care for infibulated women giving birth in Norway: an anthropological analysis of health workers’ management of a medical and culturally unfamiliar issue. Med. Anthropol. Q 20:4516–44 [Google Scholar]
  66. Johnson E. 2007. Dreaming of a Mail-Order Husband: Russian-American Internet Romance Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  67. Johnson-Hanks J. 2007. Women on the market: marriage, consumption, and the Internet in urban Cameroon. Am. Ethnol. 34:642–58 [Google Scholar]
  68. Kalpagam U. 2008. ‘American Varan’ marriages among Tamil Brahmans: preferences, strategies and outcomes. See Palriwala & Uberoi 2008 98–122
  69. Kaur R. 2012. Marriage and migration: citizenship and marital experience in cross-border marriages between Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Bangladesh. Econ. Polit. Wkly. 47:Oct. 2778–89 [Google Scholar]
  70. Kertzer DI, Hogan DP. 1989. Family, Political Economy and Demographic Change Madison: Univ. Wisc. Press [Google Scholar]
  71. Kim M. 2010. Gender and international marriage migration. Sociol. Compass 4:9718–31 [Google Scholar]
  72. Kojima Y. 2001. In the business of cultural reproduction: theoretical implications of the male-order bride phenomenon. Women's Stud. Int. Forum 24:2199–210 [Google Scholar]
  73. Korteweg AC. 2012. Understanding honour killing and honour-related violence in the immigrant context: implications for the legal profession and beyond. Can. Crim. Law Rev. 16:233–58 [Google Scholar]
  74. Kwon JH. 2015. The work of waiting: love and money in Chinese transnational migration. Cult. Anthropol. 30:3477–500 [Google Scholar]
  75. Lee C. 2013. Fictive Kinship: Family Reunification and the Meaning of Race and Nation in American Immigration New York: Russell Sage Found. [Google Scholar]
  76. Lee H. 2012. Political economy of cross-border marriage: economic development and social reproduction in Korea. Fem. Econ. 18:2177–200 [Google Scholar]
  77. Leifsen E, Tymczuk A. 2012. Care at a distance: Ukrainian and Ecuadorian transnational parenthood from Spain. J. Ethn. Migr. Stud. 38:2219–36 [Google Scholar]
  78. Leinonen J, Pellander S. 2014. Court decisions over marriage migration in Finland: a problem with transnational family ties. J. Ethn. Migr. Stud. 40:91488–506 [Google Scholar]
  79. Levitt P. 2001. The Transnational Villagers Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  80. Lim I-S. 1997. Korean immigrant women's challenge to gender inequality at home: the interplay of economic resources, gender, and family. Gender Soc 11:131–51 [Google Scholar]
  81. Lloyd KA. 2000. Wives for sale: the modern international mail-order bride industry. Northwest. J. Int. Law Bus. 20:2341–67 [Google Scholar]
  82. Lu MC-W. 2005. Commercially arranged marriage migration: case studies of cross-border marriages in Taiwan. Indian J. Gender Stud. 12:2–3275–303 [Google Scholar]
  83. Luibheid E. 2002. Entry Denied: Controlling Sexuality at the Border Minneapolis: Univ. Minn. Press [Google Scholar]
  84. Luibheid E. 2008. Sexuality, migration, and the shifting line between legal and illegal status. GLQ: J. Lesbian Gay Stud. 14:2–3289–315 [Google Scholar]
  85. Lutz H. 1997. The limits of European-ness: immigrant women in fortress Europe. Fem. Rev. 57:93–111 [Google Scholar]
  86. Mahalingam R, Leu J. 2005. Culture, essentialism, immigration and representations of gender. Theory Psychol 15:6839–60 [Google Scholar]
  87. Mahdi AA. 1999. Trading places: changes in gender roles within the Iranian immigrant family. Critique: Crit. Middle East. Stud. 8:1551–75 [Google Scholar]
  88. Mai N, King R. 2009. Love, sexuality and migration: mapping the issue. Mobilities 4:3295–307 [Google Scholar]
  89. McKenzie S, Menjívar C. 2011. The meanings of migration, remittances and gifts: views of Honduran women who stay. Glob. Netw. 11:163–81 [Google Scholar]
  90. Meetoo V, Mirza HS. 2007. “There is nothing ‘honorourable’ about honour killings”: gender, violence and the limits of multiculturalism. Women's Stud. Int. Forum 30:3187–200 [Google Scholar]
  91. Mehrotra M. 1999. The social construction of wife abuse: experiences of Asian Indian women in the United States. Violence Against Women 5:6619–40 [Google Scholar]
  92. Menjívar C, Salcido O. 2002. Immigrant women and domestic violence: common experiences in different countries. Gender Soc 16:6898–920 [Google Scholar]
  93. Menjívar C, Salcido O. 2013. Gendered Paths to Legal Status: The Case of Latin American Immigrants in Phoenix Spec. Rep Washington, DC: Immigr. Policy Cent. [Google Scholar]
  94. Menski W. 1999. South Asian women in Britain, family integrity, and the primary purpose rule. Ethnicity, Gender and Social Change R Barot, H Bradley 81–98 London: Palgrave and McMillan [Google Scholar]
  95. Millman HL. 2013. Mothering from afar: conceptualizing transnational motherhood. Totem: Univ. West. Ont. J. Anthropol. 21:172–82 [Google Scholar]
  96. Moch LP. 1992. Moving Europeans: Migration in Western Europe Since 1650 Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  97. Montes V. 2013. The role of emotions in the construction of masculinity: Guatemalan migrant men, transnational migration, and family relations. Gender Soc 27:4469–90 [Google Scholar]
  98. Mooney N. 2006. Aspiration, reunification and gender transformation in Jat Sikh marriages from India to Canada. Glob. Netw. 6:4389–403 [Google Scholar]
  99. Nakamatsu T. 2003. International marriage through introduction agencies: social and legal realities of “Asian” wives of Japanese husbands. See Piper & Roces 2003b 181–201
  100. Narayan U. 1995. ‘Male-order’ brides: immigrant women, domestic violence and immigration law. Hypatia 10:1104–19 [Google Scholar]
  101. Netting RM. 1981. Balancing on an Alp: Ecological Change and Continuity in a Swiss Mountain Community Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  102. Nicholson M. 2006. Without their children: rethinking motherhood among transnational migrant women. Soc. Text 24:313–33 [Google Scholar]
  103. Norton SL. 1973. Marital migration in Essex County, Massachusetts, in the colonial and early federal periods. J. Marriage Fam. 36:3406–18 [Google Scholar]
  104. Ong A, Dominguez VR, Friedman J, Glick Schiller N, Stolcke V. et al. 1996. Cultural citizenship as subject making. Curr. Anthropol. 37:5737–62 [Google Scholar]
  105. Oxfeld E. 2005. Cross-border hypergamy? Marriage exchanges in a transnational Hakka community. See Constable 2005 17–33
  106. Palriwala R, Uberoi P. 2008. Marriage, Migration and Gender Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage [Google Scholar]
  107. Pande R. 2014. Geographies of marriage migration: arranged marriages and South Asians in Britain. Geogr. Compass 8:275–86 [Google Scholar]
  108. Parreñas RS. 2001. Mothering from a distance: emotions, gender and intergenerational relations in Filipino transnational families. Fem. Stud. 27:2361–90 [Google Scholar]
  109. Pauli J. 2008. A home of one's own: gender, migration and residence in rural Mexico. Am. Ethnol. 35:1171–87 [Google Scholar]
  110. Pellander S. 2015. “An acceptable marriage”: marriage migration and moral gatekeeping in Finland. J. Fam. Issues 36:111472–89 [Google Scholar]
  111. Piper N, Roces M. 2003a. Introduction: marriage and migration in an age of globalization. See Piper & Roces 2003b 1–21
  112. Piper N, Roces M. 2003b. Wife or Worker: Asian Women and Migration Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield [Google Scholar]
  113. Pratt G. 2012. Families Apart: Migrant Mothers and the Conflicts of Labor and Love Minneapolis: Univ. Minn. Press [Google Scholar]
  114. Pribilsky J. 2004. “Aprendemos a convivir” conjugal relations, co-parenting, and family life among Ecuadorian transnational migrants in New York and the Ecuadorian Andes. Glob. Netw. 4:3313–34 [Google Scholar]
  115. Pribilsky J. 2007. La Chulla Vida: Gender, Migration and the Family in Andean Ecuador and New York Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  116. Pribilsky J. 2012. Consumption dilemmas: tracking masculinity, money and transnational fatherhood between the Ecuadorian Andes and New York City. J. Ethn. Migr. Stud. 38:2323–43 [Google Scholar]
  117. Rao N. 2012. Breadwinners and homemakers: migration and changing conjugal expectations in rural Bangladesh. J. Dev. Stud. 48:126–40 [Google Scholar]
  118. Rasmussen SJ. 2002. Tuareg labor migration, gendered spaces, and the predicament of women. City Soc 14:2281–311 [Google Scholar]
  119. Razack SH. 2004. Imperilled Muslim women, dangerous Muslim men and civilised Europeans: legal and social responses to forced marriages. Fem. Leg. Stud. 12:129–74 [Google Scholar]
  120. Reid R. 1988. Church membership, consanguineous marriage, and migration in a Scotch-Irish frontier population. J. Fam. Hist. 13:40397–414 [Google Scholar]
  121. Rogers SC. 1991. Shaping Modern Times in Rural France: The Transformation and Reproduction of an Aveyronnais Community Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  122. Rytter M. 2012. Between preferences: marriage and mobility among Danish Pakistani youth. J. R. Anthropol. Inst. 18:3572–90 [Google Scholar]
  123. Salcido O, Adelman M. 2004. “He has me tied with the blessed and damned papers”: undocumented-immigrant battered women in Phoenix, Arizona. Hum. Organ. 63:2162–72 [Google Scholar]
  124. Sargent CF. 2011. Problematizing polygamy, managing maternity: the intersections of global, state, and family politics in the lives of West African migrant women in France. Reproduction, Globalization, and the State: New Theoretical and Ethnographic Perspectives CH Browner, CF Sargent 192–203 Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  125. Sargent CF, Cordell D. 2003. Polygamy, disrupted reproduction and the state: Malian migrants in Paris, France. Soc. Sci. Med. 56:1961–72 [Google Scholar]
  126. Scheper-Hughes N. 1979. Saints, Scholars and Schizophrenics: Mental Illness in Rural Ireland Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  127. Schmidt G. 2011. Law and identity: transnational arranged marriages and the boundaries of Danishness. J. Ethn. Migr. Stud. 37:2257–75 [Google Scholar]
  128. Selby JA. 2009. Marriage-partner preference among Muslims in France: reproducing tradition in the Maghrebian diaspora. J. Soc. Anthropol. Eur. 9:24–16 [Google Scholar]
  129. Shaw A. 2001. Kinship, cultural preference and immigration: consanguineous marriage among British Pakistanis. J. R. Anthropol. Inst. 7:2315–34 [Google Scholar]
  130. Shaw A, Charsley K. 2006. Rishtas: adding emotion to strategy in understanding British Pakistani transnational marriages. Glob. Netw. 6:4405–21 [Google Scholar]
  131. Singh RN, Unnithan NP. 1999. Wife burning: cultural cues for lethal violence against women among Asian Indians in the United States. Violence Against Women 5:6641–53 [Google Scholar]
  132. Sinke S. 1999. Migration for labor, migration for love: marriage and family formation across borders. OAH Mag. Hist.-Migr 14:117–21 [Google Scholar]
  133. Sterett S. 1997. Domestic violence and immigration in Britain. PoLAR 20:263–69 [Google Scholar]
  134. Tanaka K. 2004. Japanese picture marriage and the image of immigrant women in early twentieth-century California. Jpn. J. Am. Stud. 15:115–38 [Google Scholar]
  135. Tazanu PM. 2012. Being Available and Reachable. New Media and Cameroon Transnational Sociality Bamenda, Cameroon: Langaa Res. Publ. [Google Scholar]
  136. Thai HC. 2005. Clashing dreams in the Vietnamese diaspora: highly educated overseas brides and low-wage U.S. husbands. See Constable 2005 145–65
  137. Thai HC. 2008. For Better or Worse: Vietnamese International Marriages in the New Global Economy New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  138. Thierfelder C, Tanner M, Bodiang CM. 2005. Female genital mutilation in the context of migration: experience of African women with the Swiss health care system. Eur. J. Public Health 15:186–90 [Google Scholar]
  139. Timmerman C. 2006. Gender dynamics in the context of Turkish marriage migration: the case of Belgium. Turk. Stud. 7:1125–43 [Google Scholar]
  140. Timmerman C, Lodewyckx I, Wets J. 2009. Marriage at the intersection between tradition and globalization: Turkish marriage migration between Emirdag and Belgium from 1989 to present. Hist. Fam. 14:232–44 [Google Scholar]
  141. Walley CJ. 1997. Searching for “voices”: feminism, anthropology, and the global debate over female genital operations. Cult. Anthropol. 12:3405–38 [Google Scholar]
  142. Walsh K. 2009. Geographies of the heart in transnational spaces: love and the intimate lives of British migrants in Dubai. Mobilities 4:3427–45 [Google Scholar]
  143. Wang H-Z, Chang S-M. 2002. The commodification of international marriages: cross-border marriage business in Taiwan and Viet Nam. Int. Migr. 40:693–116 [Google Scholar]
  144. Wikan U. 2002. Generous Betrayal. Politics of Culture in the New Europe Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  145. Wikan U. 2008. In Honor of Fadime: Murder and Shame Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  146. Williams L. 2010. Global Marriage: Cross-Border Marriage Migration in Global Context New York: Palgrave Macmillan [Google Scholar]
  147. Wray H. 2006. An ideal husband? Marriages of convenience, moral gate-keeping and immigration to the UK. Eur. J. Migr. Law 8:303–20 [Google Scholar]
  148. Wray H. 2011. Regulating Marriage Migration into the UK: A Stranger in the Home Surrey, UK: Ashgate [Google Scholar]
  149. Yang W-S, Lu MC-W. 2010. Asian Cross-Border Marriage Migration: Demographic Patterns and Social Issues Amsterdam: Amsterdam Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  150. Yurdakul G, Korteweg AC. 2013. Gender equality and immigrant integration: honor killing and forced marriage debates in the Netherlands, Germany, and Britain. Women's Stud. Int. Forum 41:204–14 [Google Scholar]
  151. Zeiger S. 2010. Entangling Alliances: Foreign War Brides and American Soldiers in the Twentieth Century New York: N. Y. Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  152. Zentgraf KM. 2002. Immigration and women's empowerment: Salvadorans in Los Angeles. Gender Soc 16:5625–46 [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error