1932

Abstract

How is the newness of new media constructed? Rejecting technological determinism, linguistic anthropologists understand that newness emerges when previous strategies for coordinating social interactions are challenged by a communicative channel. People experience a communicative channel as new when it enables people to circulate knowledge in new ways, to call forth new publics, to occupy new communicative roles, to engage in new forms of politics and control—in short, new social practices. Anthropologists studying media have been modifying the analytical tools that linguistic anthropologists have developed for language to uncover when and how media are understood to provide the possibilities for social change and when they are not. Taking coordination to be a vulnerable achievement, I address recent work that elaborates on the ways that linguistic anthropology segments communication to explore how a particular medium offers its own distinctive forms of authorship, circulation, storage, and audiences.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-102116-041300
2017-10-23
2024-04-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/anthro/46/1/annurev-anthro-102116-041300.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-102116-041300&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Acland C. 2006. Residual Media Minneapolis: Univ. Minn. Press
  2. Agha A. 2003. The social life of cultural value. Lang. Commun. 23:3–4231–73 [Google Scholar]
  3. Ahearn LM. 2001. Invitations to Love: Literacy, Love Letters and Social Change in Nepal Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press
  4. Anderson B. 1999. Imagined Communities London: Verso Press
  5. Androutsopoulos J. 2014. Moments of sharing: entextualization and linguistic repertoires in social networking. J. Pragmat. 73:4–18 [Google Scholar]
  6. Archambault JS. 2013. Cruising through uncertainty: cell phones and the politics of display and disguise in Inhambane, Mozambique. Am. Ethnol. 40:188–101 [Google Scholar]
  7. Barber K. 2012. Print Culture and the First Yoruba Novel: I.B. Thomas's ‘Life Story of Me, Segilola’ and Other Texts Leiden, Neth.: Brill [Google Scholar]
  8. Barker J. 2008. Playing with publics: technology, talk and sociability in Indonesia. Lang. Commun. 28:127–42 [Google Scholar]
  9. Baron NS. 2002. Who sets e-mail style? Prescriptivism, coping strategies, and democratizing communication access. Inf. Soc. 18:403–13 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bate B. 2013. ‘To persuade them into speech and action’: vernacular oratory in a genealogy of the Tamil political. Comp. Stud. Soc. Hist. 55:142–66 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bauman R. 2010a. ‘It's not a telescope, it's a telephone’: encounters with the telephone on early commercial sound recordings. Language Ideologies and Media Discourse: Texts, Practices, Politics S Johnson, T Milani 252–73 New York: Continuum [Google Scholar]
  12. Bauman R. 2010b. The remediation of storytelling: narrative performance on early commercial sound recordings. Telling Stories: Building Bridges Among Language, Narrative, Identity, Interaction, Society and Culture D Schiffrin, A De Fina, A Nylund 23–43 Washington, DC: Georgetown Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  13. Bauman R, Briggs CL. 1990. Poetics and performance as critical perspectives on language and social life. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 19:59–88 [Google Scholar]
  14. Bolter J, Grusin R. 1999. Remediation: Understanding New Media Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  15. Bowker GC, Star SL. 1999. Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  16. Briggs CL. 2011. On virtual epidemics and the mediatization of public health. Lang. Commun. 31:217–28 [Google Scholar]
  17. Brink-Danan M. 2011. The meaning of Ladino: the semiotics of an online speech community. Lang. Commun. 31:107–18 [Google Scholar]
  18. Bucholtz M, Hall K. 2005. Identity and interaction: a sociocultural linguistic approach. Discourse Stud 7:585–614 [Google Scholar]
  19. Busch L. 2011. Standards: Recipes for Reality Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  20. Christensen TH. 2009. ‘Connected presence’ in distributed family life. New Media Soc 11:433–51 [Google Scholar]
  21. Chumley LH, Harkness N. 2013. Qualia. Anthropol. Theory 13:3–11 [Google Scholar]
  22. Chun WHK, Keenan T. 2006. New Media, Old Media: A History and Theory Reader New York: Routledge
  23. Cody F. 2013. The Light of Knowledge: Literacy Activism and the Politics of Writing in South India Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press
  24. Cole D, Pellicer R. 2012. Uptake (un)limited: the mediatization of register shifting in US public discourse. Lang. Soc. 41:449–70 [Google Scholar]
  25. Coleman EG. 2010. Ethnographic approaches to digital media. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 39:487–505 [Google Scholar]
  26. Davis DZ, Boellstorff T. 2016. Compulsive creativity: virtual worlds, disability, and digital capital. Int. J. Commun. 10:2096–118 [Google Scholar]
  27. Deger J. 2013. The jolt of the new: making video art in Arnhem Land. Cult. Theory Crit. 54:355–71 [Google Scholar]
  28. Dent AS. 2012. Piracy, circulatory legitimacy, and neoliberal subjectivity in Brazil. Cult. Anthropol. 27:28–49 [Google Scholar]
  29. Doostdar A. 2004. ‘The vulgar spirit of blogging’: on language, culture, and power in Persian weblogestan. Am. Anthropol. 106:651–62 [Google Scholar]
  30. Eisenlohr P. 2010. Materialities of entextualization: the domestication of sound reproduction in Mauritian Muslim devotional practices. J. Linguist. Anthropol. 20:314–33 [Google Scholar]
  31. Eisenlohr P. 2011a. Special issue: What is a medium? Theologies, technologies, and aspirations. Soc. Anthropol 191) [Google Scholar]
  32. Eisenlohr P. 2011b. Media authenticity and authority in Mauritius: on the mediality of language in religion. Lang. Commun. 31:266–73 [Google Scholar]
  33. Englund H. 2015. Multivocal morality: narrative, sentiment and Zambia's radio grandfathers. HAU: J. Ethnogr. 5:251–73 [Google Scholar]
  34. Ferrara K, Brunner H, Whittemore G. 1991. Interactive written discourse as an emergent register. Written Commun 8:8–34 [Google Scholar]
  35. Fischer CS. 1992. America Calling: A Social History of the Telephone to 1940 Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
  36. Fisher D. 2016. The Voice and Its Doubles: Media and Music in Northern Australia Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
  37. Ganti T. 2016. “No one thinks in Hindi here”: language hierarchies in Bollywood. Precarious Creativity: Global Media, Local Labor M Curtin, K Sanson 118–31 Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  38. Gershon I. 2010a. Breaking up is hard to do: media switching and media ideologies. J. Linguist. Anthropol. 20:389–405 [Google Scholar]
  39. Gershon I. 2010b. Media ideologies: an introduction. J. Linguist. Anthropol. 20:283–93 [Google Scholar]
  40. Gershon I. 2017. Down and Out in the New Economy: How People Find (or Don't Find) Work Today Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  41. Gibson JJ. 1979. The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception New York: Taylor and Francis Group
  42. Gitelman L. 2006. Always Already New: Media, History, and the Data of Culture Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  43. Goffman E. 1974. Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. New York: Harper and Row
  44. Goffman E. 1981. Forms of Talk Oxford, UK: Blackwell
  45. Graber K. 2012. Public information: the shifting roles of minority language news media in the Buryat territories of Russia. Lang. Commun. 32:124–36 [Google Scholar]
  46. Greenberg J. 2012. Gaming the system: semiotic indeterminacy and political circulation in the new age of revolution. Lang. Commun. 32:372–85 [Google Scholar]
  47. Gregg M. 2011. Work's Intimacy London: Polity Press
  48. Hagood M. 2011. QuietComfort: noise, otherness, and the mobile production of personal space. Am. Q. 63:573–89 [Google Scholar]
  49. Handman C. 2013. Text messaging in Tok Pisin: etymologies and orthographies in cosmopolitan Papua New Guinea. Cult. Theory Crit. 54:265–84 [Google Scholar]
  50. Harkness N. 2014. Songs of Seoul: An Ethnography of Voice and Voicing in Christian South Korea Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
  51. Hull MS. 2012. Government of Paper: The Materiality of Bureaucracy in Urban Pakistan Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
  52. Helmreich S. 2007. An anthropologist underwater: immersive soundscapes, submarine cyborgs, and transductive ethnography. Am. Ethnol. 34:621–41 [Google Scholar]
  53. Henkin DM. 2006. The Postal Age: The Emergence of Modern Communication in Nineteenth-Century America Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  54. Hutchby I. 2001. Technologies, texts and affordances. Sociology 35:441–56 [Google Scholar]
  55. Inoue M. 2011. Stenography and ventriloquism in late nineteenth century Japan. Lang. Commun. 31:181–90 [Google Scholar]
  56. Irvine JT. 1996. Shadow conversations: the indeterminacy of participant roles. Natural Histories of Discourse M Silverstein, G Urban 131–59 Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  57. Ito M, Baumer S, Bittanti M, boyd d, Cody R. et al. 2010. Hanging Out, Messing Around, and Geeking Out: Kids Living and Learning with New Media Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  58. Ito M, Okabe D. 2005. Technosocial situations: emergent structuring of mobile e-mail use. Personal, Portable, Pedestrian: Mobile Phones in Japanese Life M Ito, D Okabe, M Matsuda 257–73 Cambridge, MA: MIT Press [Google Scholar]
  59. Jaffe A. 2009. Stance: Sociolinguistic Perspectives Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  60. Jakobson R. 1960. Closing statements: language and poetics. Style in Language TA Sebeok 350–77 New York: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  61. Johnstone B. 2016. The sociolinguistics of globalization: standardization and localization in the context of change. Annu. Rev. Linguist. 2:349–65 [Google Scholar]
  62. Jones GM, Schieffelin BB. 2009. Enquoting voices, accomplishing talk: uses of be + like in instant messaging. Lang. Commun 29:77–113 [Google Scholar]
  63. Jones GM, Semel B, Le A. 2015. “There's no rules. It's hackathon.”: negotiating commitment in a context of volatile sociality. J. Linguist. Anthropol. 25:322–45 [Google Scholar]
  64. Jones RH. 2009. Dancing, skating and sex: action and text in the digital age. J. Appl. Linguist. Prof. Pract. 6:283–302 [Google Scholar]
  65. Kaplan D. 2012. Editing the nation: how radio engineers encode Israeli national imaginaries. Radio Fields: Anthropology and the Wireless Sound in the 21st Century L Bessire, D Fisher 89–107 New York: N. Y. Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  66. Keane W. 2003. Semiotics and the social analysis of material things. Lang. Commun. 23:409–25 [Google Scholar]
  67. Keane W. 2013. On spirit writing: materialities of language and the religious work of transduction. J. R. Anthropol. Inst. 19:1–17 [Google Scholar]
  68. Keating E, Mirus G. 2003. American Sign Language in virtual space: interactions between deaf users of computer-mediated video communication and the impact of technology on language practices. Lang. Soc. 32:693–714 [Google Scholar]
  69. Kittler FA. 1999. Gramophone, Film, Typewriter transl. G Winthrop-Young, M Wutz Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press. From German
  70. Kroskrity P. 2000. Regimes of Language: Ideologies, Polities, and Identities Santa Fe, NM: Sch. Am. Res. Press
  71. Kuipers J, Bell JA, Dent A, Kemble A, Kobak B. 2015. Fixing Connections: Language, Culture and Cell Phone Use Among High School and University Students in Washington, D.C David Skomp Disting. Lect. Ser. Anthropol Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
  72. Kunreuther L. 2006. Technologies of the voice: FM radio, telephone, and the Nepali diaspora in Kathmandu. Cult. Anthropol. 21:323–53 [Google Scholar]
  73. Kunreuther L. 2010. Transparent media: radio, voice, and ideologies of directness in postdemocratic Nepal. J. Linguist. Anthropol. 20:334–51 [Google Scholar]
  74. Kunreuther L. 2014. Voicing Subjects: Public Intimacy and Mediation in Kathmandu Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
  75. Lampland M, Star SL. 2008. Standards and Their Stories: How Quantifying, Classifying, and Formalizing Practices Shape Everyday Life Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press
  76. Lange PG. 2014. Kids on YouTube: Technical Identities and Digital Literacies Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press
  77. Larkin B. 2004. Degraded images, distorted sounds: Nigerian video and the infrastructure of piracy. Public Cult 16:289–314 [Google Scholar]
  78. Larkin B. 2008. Signal and Noise: Media, Infrastructure, and Urban Culture in Nigeria Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
  79. Laurier E. 2001. Why people say where they are during mobile phone calls. Environ. Plan. D: Soc. Space 19:485–504 [Google Scholar]
  80. Lave J, Wenger E. 1991. Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
  81. Lemon A. 1998. “Your eyes are green like dollars”: counterfeit cash, national substance, and currency apartheid in 1990s Russia. Cult. Anthropol. 13:22–55 [Google Scholar]
  82. Lempert M, Silverstein M. 2012. Creatures of Politics: Media, Message, and the American Presidency Bloomington, IN: Indiana Univ. Press
  83. Levinson S. 1988. Putting linguistics on a proper footing: explorations in Goffman's concepts of participation. Erving Goffman: An Interdisciplinary Appreciation P Drew, A Wootton 161–227 Oxford, UK: Polity Press [Google Scholar]
  84. Lippi-Green R. 1997. English with an Accent: Language, Ideology and Discrimination in the United States New York: Routledge
  85. Manning HP. 2002. English money and Welsh rocks: divisions of language and divisions of labor in nineteenth-century Welsh slate quarries. Comp. Study Soc. Hist. 44:481–510 [Google Scholar]
  86. Manning P. 2013. Altaholics anonymous: on the pathological proliferation of parasites in massively multiple online worlds. Semiot. Rev. 1: https://www.semioticreview.com/ojs/index.php/sr/article/view/30 [Google Scholar]
  87. Manning P, Gershon I. 2013. Animating interaction. HAU: J. Ethnogr. Theory 3:107–37 [Google Scholar]
  88. Marvin C. 1988. When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking about Electric Communication in the Nineteenth Century New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  89. Mazzarella W. 2010. Beautiful balloon: the digital divide and the charisma of new media. Am. Ethnol. 37:4783–804 [Google Scholar]
  90. McIntosh J. 2010. Mobile phones and Mipoho's prophecy: the powers and dangers of flying language. Am. Ethnol. 37:337–53 [Google Scholar]
  91. Mendoza-Denton N. 2011. The semiotic hitchhiker's guide to creaky voice: circulation and gendered hardcore in a Chicana/o gang persona. J. Linguist. Anthropol. 21:261–80 [Google Scholar]
  92. Meyer B. 2011. Mediation and immediacy: sensational forms, semiotic ideologies and the question of the medium. Soc. Anthropol. 19:23–39 [Google Scholar]
  93. Miller F. 2007. The Moral Resonance of Arab Media: Audiocassette Poetry and Culture: Audiocassette Culture and Poetry in Yemen Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  94. Mitchell L. 2009. Language, Emotion, and Politics in South India: The Making of a Mother Tongue Bloomington, IN: Indiana Univ. Press
  95. Moskowitz ML. 2015. From Mao Zedong to Michael Jackson: revisualizing culture and history in the YouTube age. China Inf 29:3309–32 [Google Scholar]
  96. Nardi B. 2015. Virtuality. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 44:15–31 [Google Scholar]
  97. Nardi BA. 2005. Beyond bandwidth: dimensions of connection in interpersonal communication. Comput.-Supported Cooperative Work 14:91–130 [Google Scholar]
  98. Nozawa S. 2013. Characterization. Semiot. Rev. 3: https://www.semioticreview.com/ojs/index.php/sr/article/view/16 [Google Scholar]
  99. Nozawa S. 2016. Ensoulment and effacement in Japanese voice acting. Media Convergence in Japan PW Galbraith, JG Karlin 169–99 New Haven, CT: Kinema Club [Google Scholar]
  100. Occhi DJ. 2012. Wobbly aesthetics, performance, and message: comparing Japanese Kyara with their anthropomorphic forebears. Asian Ethnol 71:1109–32 [Google Scholar]
  101. Oosterbaan M. 2011. Virtually global: online evangelical cartography. Soc. Anthropol. 19:156–73 [Google Scholar]
  102. Orlikowski WJ, Yates J. 1994. Genre repertoire. Adm. Sci. Q. 39:4541–74 [Google Scholar]
  103. Peters JD. 1999. Speaking into the Air: A History of the Idea of Communication Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  104. Philips S. 1972. Participant structures and communicative competence: Warm Springs children in community and classroom. Functions of Language in the Classroom CB Cazden, VP John, D Hymes 270–394 New York: Teach. Coll. Press [Google Scholar]
  105. Poggiali L. 2016. Seeing (from) digital peripheries: technology and transparency in Kenya's Silicon Savannah. Cult. Anthropol. 31:3387–411 [Google Scholar]
  106. Pype K. 2016. “[Not] talking like a Motorola”: mobile phone practices and politics of masking and unmasking in postcolonial Kinshasa. J. R. Anthropol. Inst. 22:3633–52 [Google Scholar]
  107. Queen R. 2004. ‘Du hast jar keene Ahnung’: African-American English dubbed into German. J. Sociolinguist. 8:4515–37 [Google Scholar]
  108. Raclaw J, Robles JS, DiDomenico SM. 2016. Providing epistemic support for assessments through mobile-supported sharing activities. Res. Lang. Soc. Interact. 49:4362–79 [Google Scholar]
  109. Reed A. 2005. ‘My blog is me’: texts and persons in UK Online Journal Culture (and anthropology). Ethnos 70:220–42 [Google Scholar]
  110. Ribak R, Rosenthal M. 2015. Smartphone resistance as media ambivalence. FirstMonday 20:11 http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/6307/5136 [Google Scholar]
  111. Schulthies B. 2014. Scripted ideologies: orthographic heterogeneity in online Arabics. Al-′Arabiyya, J. Am. Assoc. Teach. Arabic 47:41–56 [Google Scholar]
  112. Sherouse P. 2014. Hazardous digits: telephone keypads and Russian numbers in Tbilisi, Georgia. Lang. Commun. 37:1–11 [Google Scholar]
  113. Silverstein M. 1979. Language structure and linguistic ideology. The Elements: A Parasession on Linguistic Units and Levels PR Cline, WF Hanks, CL Hofbauer 193–247 Chicago: Chicago Linguist. Soc. [Google Scholar]
  114. Silverstein M. 2000. Whorfianism and the linguistic imagination of nationality. See Kroskrity 2000 85–138
  115. Silverstone R. 1999. What's new about new media?. New Media Soc 1:10–12 [Google Scholar]
  116. Silvio T. 2010. Animation: the new performance?. J. Linguist. Anthropol. 20:2422–38 [Google Scholar]
  117. Spitulnik D. 1996. The social circulation of media discourse and the mediation of communities. J. Linguist. Anthropol. 6:2161–87 [Google Scholar]
  118. Spitulnik D. 1998. Mediated modernities: encounters with the electronic in Zambia. Vis. Anthropol. Rev. 14:263–84 [Google Scholar]
  119. Spyer P. 2001. The Cassowary will (not) be photographed: the “primitive,” the “Japanese,” and the elusive “sacred” (Aru, Southeast Moluccas). Religion and Media H de Vries, S Weber 304–20 Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  120. Squires L. 2010. Enregistering Internet language. Lang. Soc. 39:4457–92 [Google Scholar]
  121. Stæhr A, Madsen LM. 2015. Standard language in urban rap: social media, linguistic practice and ethnographic context. Lang. Commun. 40:67–81 [Google Scholar]
  122. Sterne J. 2003. The Audible Past: Cultural Origins of Sound Reproduction Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
  123. Sterne J. 2012. MP3: The Meaning of a Format Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
  124. Strassler K. 2009. The face of money: currency, crisis, and remediation in post-Suharto Indonesia. Cult. Anthropol. 24:168–103 [Google Scholar]
  125. Strassler K. 2014. Seeing the unseen in Indonesia's public sphere: photographic appearances of a spirit queen. Comp. Stud. Soc. Hist. 56:198–130 [Google Scholar]
  126. Strathern M. 2014. Innovation or replication? Crossing and criss-crossing in social science. Arts Humanit. Higher Educ. 13:1–262–76 [Google Scholar]
  127. Street BV. 1984. Literacy in Theory and Practice Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  128. Swank H. 2014. Rewriting Shangri-La: Tibetan Youth, Migrations and Literacies in McLeod Ganj, India Leiden, Neth.: Brill [Google Scholar]
  129. Swinehart KF. 2012. Metadiscursive regime and register formation on Aymara radio. Lang. Commun. 32:102–13 [Google Scholar]
  130. Tannen D. 2013. The medium is the metamessage: conversational style in social media interaction. Discourse 2.0: Language and New Media D Tannen, AM Trester 99–118 Washington, DC: Georgetown Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  131. Taylor J. 2009. “Speaking shadows”: a history of the voice in the transition from silent to sound film in the United States. J. Linguist. Anthropol. 19:11–20 [Google Scholar]
  132. Thorburn D, Jenkins H. 2003. Rethinking Media Change: The Aesthetics of Transition Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  133. Thorner S. 2010. Imagining an indigital interface: Ara Irititja indigenizes the technologies of knowledge management. Collections 6:3125–46 [Google Scholar]
  134. Timmermans S, Epstein S. 2010. A world of standards but not a standard world: toward a sociology of standards and standardization. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 36:69–89 [Google Scholar]
  135. Turner T. 2002. Representation, politics, and cultural imagination in indigenous video: general points and Kayapo examples. Media Worlds: Anthropology on New Terrain F Ginsburg, L Abu-Lughod, B Larkin 75–89 Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  136. Umble DZ. 2000. Holding the Line: The Telephone in Old Order Mennonite and Amish Life Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press
  137. Urban G. 2001. Metaculture: How Cultures Moves Through the World Minneapolis: Univ. Minn. Press
  138. Vokes R, Pype K. 2016. Chronotopes of media in sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnos1–10
  139. Walton S, Jaffe A. 2011. “Stuff white people like”: stance, class, race, and Internet commentary. Digital Discourse: Language in the New Media C Thurlow, K Mroczek 199–219 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  140. Weidman A. 2003. Gender and the politics of voice: colonial modernity and classical music in South India. Cult. Anthropol. 18:2194–232 [Google Scholar]
  141. Weidman A. 2014. Neoliberal logics of voice: playback singing and public femaleness in South India. Cult. Theory Crit. 55:2175–93 [Google Scholar]
  142. Weidman AJ. 2006. Singing the Classical, Voicing the Modern: The Postcolonial Politics of Music in South India Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
  143. Weilenmann A. 2003. “I can't talk now, I'm in a fitting room”: formulating availability and location in mobile phone conversations. Environ. Plan. A 35:1589–606 [Google Scholar]
  144. Wilf E. 2016. The post-it note economy: understanding post-Fordist business innovation through one of its key semiotic technologies. Curr. Anthropol. 57:732–60 [Google Scholar]
  145. Wilson SM, Peterson LC. 2002. The anthropology of online communities. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 31:449–67 [Google Scholar]
  146. Woolard KA, Schieffelin BB. 1994. Language ideology. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 23:55–82 [Google Scholar]
  147. Wortham S. 2003. Accomplishing identity in participant-denoting discourse. J. Linguist. Anthropol. 13:189–210 [Google Scholar]
  148. Yamaguchi M. 2013. Reconsidering communicative competence in Web 2.0 environments: “Asians in the library” and four parodic responses on YouTube. Lang. Commun. 33:4, pt. A376–89 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-102116-041300
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error