New fossil discoveries and new analyses increasingly blur the lines between and , changing scientific ideas about the transition between the two genera. The concept of the genus itself remains an unsettled issue, though recent fossil discoveries and theoretical advances, alongside developments in phylogenetic reconstruction and hypothesis testing, are helping us approach a resolution. A review of the latest discoveries and research reveals that () despite the recent recovery of key fossil specimens, the antiquity of the genus remains uncertain; () although there exist several australopith candidate ancestors for the genus , there is little consensus about which of these, if any, represents the actual ancestor; and () potential convergent evolution (homoplasy) in adaptively significant features in late australopiths and basal members of the clade, combined with probable reticulate evolution, makes it currently impossible to identify the direct ancestor of .


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Ackermann RR, Cheverud JM. 2004. Detecting genetic drift versus selection in human evolution. PNAS 101:17946–51 [Google Scholar]
  2. Ahern J. 1998. Underestimating intraspecific variation: the problem with excluding Sts 19 from Australopithecus africanus. . Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 105:461–80 [Google Scholar]
  3. Alemseged Z, Spoor F, Kimbel WH, Bobe R, Geraads D. et al. 2006. A juvenile early hominin skeleton from Dikika, Ethiopia. Nature 443:296–301 [Google Scholar]
  4. Antón SC. 2003. Natural history of Homo erectus. . Yrbk. Phys. Anthropol. 46:126–70 [Google Scholar]
  5. Antón SC. 2007. Defining Homo erectus: size considered. See Henke & Tattersall 2007 1656–93
  6. Antón SC. 2012. Early Homo: who, when, and where. Curr. Anthropol. 53:S6S278–98 [Google Scholar]
  7. Antón SC, Potts R, Aiello LC. 2014. Evolution of early Homo: an integrated biological perspective. Science 345:1236828 [Google Scholar]
  8. Antón SC, Snodgrass JJ. 2012. Origins and evolution of genus Homo: new perspectives. Curr. Anthropol. 53:S479–96 [Google Scholar]
  9. Antón SC, Taboada HG, Middleton ER, Rainwater CW, Taylor AB. et al. 2016. Morphological variation in Homo erectus and the origins of developmental plasticity. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 371:20150236 [Google Scholar]
  10. Asfaw B, Gilbert WH, Beyene Y, Hart WK, Renne PR. et al. 2002. Remains of Homo erectus from Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature 416:317–20 [Google Scholar]
  11. Asfaw B, White TD, Lovejoy O, Latimer B, Simpson S, Suwa G. 1999. Australopithecus garhi: a new species of early hominid from Ethiopia. Science 284:629–35 [Google Scholar]
  12. Balter M. 2010. Candidate human ancestor for South Africa sparks praise and debate. Science 328:154–55 [Google Scholar]
  13. Berger LR, de Ruiter DJ, Churchill SE, Schmid P, Carlson KJ. et al. 2010. Australopithecus sediba: a new species of Homo-like australopith from South Africa. Science 328:195–204 [Google Scholar]
  14. Berger LR, Hawks J, de Ruiter DJ, Churchill SE, Schmid P. et al. 2015. Homo naledi, a new species of the genus Homo from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa. eLife 4:e09560 [Google Scholar]
  15. Blumenschine RJ, Peters CR, Masao FT, Clarke RJ, Deino AL. et al. 2003. Late Pliocene Homo and hominid land use from western Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Science 299:1217–21 [Google Scholar]
  16. Cartmill M. 2012. Primate origins, human origins, and the end of higher taxa. Evol. Anthropol. 21:208–20 [Google Scholar]
  17. Cela-Conde CJ, Altaba CR. 2002. Multiplying genera versus moving species: a new taxonomic proposal for the family Hominidae. S. Afr. J. Sci. 98:229–32 [Google Scholar]
  18. Cherry M. 2010. Claim over “human ancestor” sparks furore. Nature https://doi.org/10.1038/news.2010.171 [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Churchill SE, Holliday TW, Carlson KJ, Jashashvili T, Macias ME. et al. 2013. The upper limb of Australopithecus sediba. Science 340:1233477 [Google Scholar]
  20. Clarke RJ. 2008. Latest information on Sterkfontein's Australopithecus skeleton and a new look at Australopithecus. S. Afr. J. Sci 104:443–49 [Google Scholar]
  21. Clarke RJ. 2012. A Homo habilis maxilla and other newly discovered hominid fossils from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. J. Hum. Evol. 63:418–28 [Google Scholar]
  22. Clarke RJ. 2013. Australopithecus from Sterkfontein caves, South Africa. See Reed et al. 2013 105–23
  23. Collard M, Wood BA. 2000. How reliable are human phylogenetic hypotheses?. PNAS 97:5003–6 [Google Scholar]
  24. Collard M, Wood BA. 2015. Defining the genus Homo. See Henke & Tattersall 2015 2107–44
  25. Curnoe D. 2010. A review of early Homo in southern Africa focusing on cranial, mandibular and dental remains, with the description of a new species (Homo gautengensis sp. nov.). Homo 61:151–77 [Google Scholar]
  26. Curnoe D, Tobias PV. 2006. Description, new reconstruction, comparative anatomy, and classification of the Sterkfontein StW 53 cranium, with discussions about the taxonomy of other southern African early Homo remains. J. Hum. Evol. 50:36–77 [Google Scholar]
  27. Dean MC. 2016. Measures of maturation in early fossil hominins: events at the first transition from australopiths to early Homo. . Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371:20150234 [Google Scholar]
  28. Dean MC, Leakey MG, Reid D, Schrenk F, Schwartz GT. et al. 2001. Growth processes in teeth distinguish modern humans from Homo erectus and earlier hominins. Nature 414:628–31 [Google Scholar]
  29. Dembo M, Matzke NJ, Mooers , Collard M. 2015. Bayesian analysis of a morphological supermatrix sheds light on controversial fossil hominin relationships. Proc. R. Soc. B 282:20150943 [Google Scholar]
  30. Dembo M, Radovčić D, Garvin HM, Laird MF, Schroeder L. et al. 2016. The evolutionary relationships and age of Homo naledi: an assessment using dated Bayesian phylogenetic methods. J. Hum. Evol. 97:17–26 [Google Scholar]
  31. de Ruiter DJ, Churchill SE, Berger LR. 2013a. Australopithecus sediba from Malapa, South Africa. See Reed et al. 2013 147–60
  32. de Ruiter DJ, DeWitt TJ, Carlson KB, Brophy JK, Schroeder L. et al. 2013b. Mandibular remains support taxonomic validity of Australopithecus sediba. . Science 340:1232997 [Google Scholar]
  33. DeSilva JM, Holt KG, Churchill SE, Carlson KJ, Walker CS. et al. 2013. The lower limb and mechanics of walking in Australopithecus sediba. . Science 340:1232999 [Google Scholar]
  34. Dirks PHGM, Roberts EM, Hilbert-Wolf H, Kramers JD, Hawks J, Dosseto A. et al. 2017. The age of Homo naledi and associated sediments in the Rising Star cave, South Africa. eLife 6:e24231 [Google Scholar]
  35. Gabunia L, Vekua A. 1995. A Plio-Pleistocene hominid from Dmanisi, East Georgia, Caucasus. Nature 373:509–12 [Google Scholar]
  36. Gabunia L, Vekua A, Lordkipanidze D, Swisher CC 3rd, Ferring R. et al. 2000. Earliest Pleistocene hominid cranial remains from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia: taxonomy, geological setting, and age. Science 288:1019–25 [Google Scholar]
  37. Grabowski M, Hatala KG, Jungers WL, Richmond BG. 2015. Body mass estimates of hominin fossils and the evolution of human body size. J. Hum. Evol. 85:75–93 [Google Scholar]
  38. Green RE, Krause J, Briggs AW, Maricic T, Stenzel U. et al. 2010. A draft sequence of the Neanderthal genome. Science 328:710–22 [Google Scholar]
  39. Grine FE. 2005. Early Homo at Swartkrans, South Africa: a review of the evidence and an evaluation of recently proposed morphs. S. Afr. J. Sci. 101:43–52 [Google Scholar]
  40. Grine FE. 2013. The alpha taxonomy of Australopithecus africanus. See Reed et al. 2013 73–104
  41. Grine FE, Delanty MM, Wood BA. 2013. Variation in mandibular postcanine dental morphology and hominin species representation in Member 4, Sterkfontein, South Africa. See Reed et al. 2013 125–46
  42. Grine FE, Fleagle JG, Leakey REF. 2009a. The First Humans—Origin and Evolution of the Genus Homo Dordrecht, Neth.: Springer [Google Scholar]
  43. Grine FE, Jungers WL, Schultz J. 1996. Phenetic affinities among early Homo crania from East and South Africa. J. Hum. Evol. 30:189–225 [Google Scholar]
  44. Grine FE, Smith HF, Heesy CP, Smith EJ. 2009b. Phenetic affinities of Plio-Pleistocene fossils from South Africa: molar cusp proportions. See Grine et al. 2009a 49–62
  45. Haeusler M, McHenry HM. 2007. Evolutionary reversals of limb proportions in early hominids? Evidence from KNM-ER 3735 (Homo habilis). J. Hum. Evol. 53:383–405 [Google Scholar]
  46. Haile-Selassie Y, Latimer BM, Alene M, Deino AL, Gibert L. et al. 2010. An early Australopithecus afarensis postcranium from Woranso-Mille, Ethiopia. PNAS 107:12121–26 [Google Scholar]
  47. Harcourt-Smith WEH, Throckmorton Z, Congdon KA, Zipfel B, Deane AS. et al. 2015. The foot of Homo naledi. . Nat. Commun. 6:8432 [Google Scholar]
  48. Harmand S, Lewis JE, Feibel CS, Lepre CJ, Prat S. et al. 2015. 3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya. Nature 521:310–15 [Google Scholar]
  49. Hawks J. 2004. How much can cladistics tell us about early hominid relationships?. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 125:207–19 [Google Scholar]
  50. Hawks J, Berger LR. 2016. The impact of a date for understanding the importance of Homo naledi. . Trans. R. Soc. S. Afr. 71:125–28 [Google Scholar]
  51. Hawks J, de Ruiter DJ, Berger LR. 2015. Comment on “Early Homo at 2.8 Ma from Ledi-Geraru, Afar, Ethiopia.”. Science 348:1326 [Google Scholar]
  52. Hawks J, Elliot MC, Schmid P, Churchill SE, de Ruiter DJ, Garvin HM. et al. 2017. New fossil remains of Homo naledi from the Lesedi Chamber, South Africa. eLife 6:e24232 [Google Scholar]
  53. Henke W, Tattersall I. 2007. Handbook of Paleoanthropology New York: Springer [Google Scholar]
  54. Henke W, Tattersall I. 2015. Handbook of Paleoanthropology New York: Springer, 2nd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  55. Hennig W. 1966. Phylogenetic Systematics Urbana: Univ. Ill. Press [Google Scholar]
  56. Herries AIR, Shaw J. 2011. Palaeomagnetic analysis of the Sterkfontein paleocave deposits: implications for the age of the hominin fossils and stone tool industries. J. Hum. Evol. 60:523–39 [Google Scholar]
  57. Hill A, Ward S, Deino A, Curtis G, Drake R. 1992. Earliest Homo. . Nature 355:719–22 [Google Scholar]
  58. Holliday TW. 2012. Body size, body shape, and the circumscription of the genus Homo. Curr. Anthropol. 53:S6S330–45 [Google Scholar]
  59. Howell FC, Haesaerts P, de Heinzelin J. 1987. Depositional environments, archeological occurrences and hominids from Members E and F of the Shungura Formation (Omo basin, Ethiopia). J. Hum. Evol. 16:665–700 [Google Scholar]
  60. Hughes AR, Tobias PV. 1977. A fossil skull probably of the genus Homo from Sterkfontein, Transvaal. Nature 265:310–12 [Google Scholar]
  61. Irish JD, Hemphill BE, de Ruiter DJ, Berger LR. 2016. The apportionment of tooth size and its implications in Australopithecus sediba versus other Plio-Pleistocene and recent African hominins. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 161:398–413 [Google Scholar]
  62. Johanson DC, Masao FT, Eck GG, White TD, Walter RC. et al. 1987. New partial skeleton of Homo habilis from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Nature 327:205–9 [Google Scholar]
  63. Johanson DC, White TD. 1979. A systematic assessment of early African hominids. Science 203:321–30 [Google Scholar]
  64. Jungers WL, Grabowski M, Hatala KG, Richmond BG. 2016. The evolution of body size and shape in the human career. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371:20150247 [Google Scholar]
  65. Keyser AW, Menter CG, Moggi-Cecchi J, Pickering TR, Berger LR. 2000. Drimolen: a new hominid-bearing site in Gauteng, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 96:193–97 [Google Scholar]
  66. Kibii JM, Churchill SE, Schmid P, Carlson KJ, Reed ND. et al. 2011. A partial pelvis of Australopithecus sediba. . Science 333:1407–11 [Google Scholar]
  67. Kimbel WH. 2007. The species and diversity of australopiths. See Henke & Tattersall 2007 1539–73
  68. Kimbel WH. 2009. The origin of Homo. See Grine et al. 2009a 31–38
  69. Kimbel WH. 2013. Hesitation on hominin history. Nature 497:573–74 [Google Scholar]
  70. Kimbel WH, Delezene LK. 2009. “Lucy” redux: a review of research on Australopithecus afarensis. . Yrbk. Phys. Anthropol. 52:2–48 [Google Scholar]
  71. Kimbel WH, Johanson DC, Rak Y. 1997. Systematic assessment of a maxilla of Homo from Hadar, Ethiopia. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 103:235–62 [Google Scholar]
  72. Kimbel WH, Rak Y. 1993. The importance of species taxa in paleoanthropology and an argument for the phylogenetic concept of the species category. Species, Species Concepts, and Primate Evolution WH Kimbel, LB Martin 461–84 New York: Plenum [Google Scholar]
  73. Kimbel WH, Rak Y, Johanson DC. 2004. The Skull of Australopithecus afarensis Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  74. Kimbel WH, Villmoare B. 2016. From Australopithecus to Homo: the transition that wasn't. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371:20150248 [Google Scholar]
  75. Kimbel WH, Walter RC, Johanson DC, Reed KE, Aronson JL. et al. 1996. Late Pliocene Homo and Oldowan tools from the Hadar Formation (Kada Hadar Member), Ethiopia. J. Hum. Evol. 31:549–61 [Google Scholar]
  76. Kimbel WH, White TD, Johanson DC. 1984. Cranial morphology of Australopithecus afarensis: a comparative study based on a composite reconstruction of the adult skull. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 64:337–88 [Google Scholar]
  77. Kivell TL, Deane AS, Tocheri MW, Orr CM, Schmid P. et al. 2015. The hand of Homo naledi. . Nat. Commun. 6:8431 [Google Scholar]
  78. Kivell TL, Kibii JM, Churchill SE, Schmid P, Berger LR. 2011. Australopithecus sediba hand demonstrates mosaic evolution of locomotor and manipulative abilities. Science 333:1411–17 [Google Scholar]
  79. Laird MF, Schroeder L, Garvin HM, Scott JE, Dembo M. et al. 2017. The skull of Homo naledi. . J. Hum. Evol. 104:100–23 [Google Scholar]
  80. Leakey LSB, Tobias PV, Napier JR. 1964. A new species of the genus Homo from Olduvai Gorge. Nature 202:7–9 [Google Scholar]
  81. Leakey MG, Spoor F, Brown FH, Gathogo PN, Kiarie C. et al. 2001. New hominin genus from eastern Africa shows diverse middle Pleistocene lineages. Nature 410:433–40 [Google Scholar]
  82. Leakey MG, Spoor F, Dean MC, Feibel CS, Antón SC. et al. 2012. New fossils from Koobi Fora in northern Kenya confirm taxonomic diversity in early Homo. . Nature 488:201–4 [Google Scholar]
  83. Leakey REF, Walker AC, Ward CV, Grausz HM. 1989. A partial skeleton of a gracile hominid from the Upper Burgi Member of the Koobi Fora Formation, East Lake Turkana, Kenya. Hominidae: Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress of Human Paleontology G Giacobini 167–73 Milan: Jaca Books [Google Scholar]
  84. Lieberman DE, Pilbeam DR, Wood BA. 1988. A probabilistic approach to the problem of sexual dimorphism in Homo habilis: a comparison of KNM-ER 1470 and KNM-ER 1813. J. Hum. Evol. 17:503–11 [Google Scholar]
  85. Lockwood CA. 2013. Whence Australopithecus africanus? Comparing the skulls of South African and East African Australopithecus. See Reed et al. 2013 175–82
  86. Lockwood CA, Kimbel WH, Lynch J. 2002. Temporal bone morphology and earliest Homo. . Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Suppl. S34:102–3 [Google Scholar]
  87. Lockwood CA, Tobias PV. 1999. A large male hominin cranium from Sterkfontein, South Africa, and the status of Australopithecus africanus. . J. Hum. Evol. 36:637–85 [Google Scholar]
  88. Lockwood CA, Tobias PV. 2002. Morphology and affinities of new hominin cranial remains from Member 4 of the Sterkfontein Formation, Gauteng Province, South Africa. J. Hum. Evol. 42:389–450 [Google Scholar]
  89. Lordkipanidze D, Jashashvili T, Vekua A, Ponce de León MS, Zollikofer CPE. et al. 2007. Postcranial evidence from early Homo from Dmanisi, Georgia. Nature 449:305–10 [Google Scholar]
  90. Lordkipanidze D, Ponce de León MS, Margvelashvili A, Rak Y, Rightmire JP. et al. 2013. A complete skull from Dmanisi, Georgia, and the evolutionary biology of Homo. . Science 342:326–31 [Google Scholar]
  91. Masao FT, Ichumbaki EB, Cherin M, Barili A, Boschian G. et al. 2016. New footprints from Laetoli (Tanzania) provide evidence for marked body size variation in early hominins. eLife 5:e19568 [Google Scholar]
  92. Mayr E. 1950. Taxonomic categories in fossil hominids. Cold. Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 15:109–18 [Google Scholar]
  93. McHenry HM, Coffing K. 2000. Australopithecus to Homo: transformations in body and mind. Annu. Rev. Anthropol 29:125–46 [Google Scholar]
  94. McPherron SP, Alemseged Z, Marean CW, Wynn JG, Reed D. et al. 2010. Evidence for stone-tool-assisted consumption of animal tissues before 3.39 million years ago at Dikika, Ethiopia. Nature 446:857–60 [Google Scholar]
  95. Migliano AB, Guillon M. 2012. The effects of mortality, subsistence, and ecology on human adult height and implications for Homo evolution. Curr. Anthropol. S53:359–68 [Google Scholar]
  96. Moggi-Cecchi J, Grine FE, Tobias PV. 2006. Early hominid dental remains from Members 4 and 5 of the Sterkfontein Formation (1966–1996 excavations): catalogue, individual associations, morphological descriptions and initial metrical analysis. J. Hum. Evol. 50:239–328 [Google Scholar]
  97. Moggi-Cecchi J, Tobias PV, Beynon AD. 1998. The mixed dentition and associated skull fragments of a juvenile fossil hominid from Sterkfontein, South Africa. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 106:425–65 [Google Scholar]
  98. Pickering R, Dirks PHGM, Jinnah Z, de Ruiter DJ, Churchill SE. et al. 2011. Australopithecus sediba at 1.977 Ma and implications for the origins of the genus Homo. . Science 333:1421–23 [Google Scholar]
  99. Pickering R, Kramers JD. 2010. Re-appraisal of the stratigraphy and determination of new U-Pb dates for the Sterkfontein hominin site, South Africa. J. Hum. Evol. 59:70–86 [Google Scholar]
  100. Pontzer H. 2012. Ecological energetics in early Homo. . Curr. Anthropol. S53:346–58 [Google Scholar]
  101. Potts R. 2012. Environmental and behavioral evidence pertaining to the evolution of early Homo. . Curr. Anthropol. 53:S6S299–317 [Google Scholar]
  102. Potts R, Behrensmeyer AK, Deino A, Ditchfield P, Clark J. 2004. Small mid-Pleistocene hominin associated with East African Acheulean technology. Science 305:75–78 [Google Scholar]
  103. Prat S, Brugal J-P, Tiercelin J-J, Barrat J-A, Bohn M. et al. 2005. First occurrence of early Homo in the Nachukui Formation (West Turkana, Kenya) at 2.3–2.4 Myr. J. Hum. Evol. 49:230–40 [Google Scholar]
  104. Prüfer K, Racimo F, Patterson N, Jay F, Sankararaman S. et al. 2014. The complete genome sequence of a Neanderthal from the Altai Mountains. Nature 505:43–49 [Google Scholar]
  105. Rak Y. 1983. The Australopithecine Face New York: Academic [Google Scholar]
  106. Rak Y, Ginzburg A, Geffen E. 2007. Gorilla-like anatomy on Australopithecus afarensis mandibles suggests Au. afarensis link to robust australopiths. PNAS 104:6568–72 [Google Scholar]
  107. Reed KE, Fleagle JG, Leakey REF. 2013. The Paleobiology of Australopithecus Dordrecht, Neth.: Springer [Google Scholar]
  108. Reich D, Green RE, Kircher M, Krause J, Patterson N. et al. 2010. Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia. Nature 468:1053–60 [Google Scholar]
  109. Richmond BG, Aiello LC, Wood BA. 2002. Early hominin limb proportions. J. Hum. Evol. 43:529–48 [Google Scholar]
  110. Rightmire GP. 1990. The Evolution of Homo erectus: Comparative Anatomical Studies of an Extinct Human Species Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  111. Rightmire GP. 1993. Variation among early Homo crania from Olduvai Gorge and the Koobi Fora region. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 90:1–33 [Google Scholar]
  112. Rightmire GP, Lordkipanidze D, Vekua A. 2006. Anatomical descriptions, comparative studies and evolutionary significance of the hominin skulls from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia. J. Hum. Evol. 50:115–41 [Google Scholar]
  113. Rightmire GP, Ponce de Leon MS, Lordkipanidze D, Margvelashvili A, Zollikofer CPE. 2017. Skull 5 from Dmanisi: descriptive anatomy, comparative studies, and evolutionary significance. J. Hum. Evol. 104:50–79 [Google Scholar]
  114. Ruff C. 2009. Relative limb strength and locomotion in Homo habilis. . Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 138:90–100 [Google Scholar]
  115. Schmid P, Churchill SE, Nalla S, Weissen E, Carlson KJ. et al. 2013. Mosaic morphology in the thorax of Australopithecus sediba. . Science 340:1234598 [Google Scholar]
  116. Schrenk F, Bromage TG, Betzler CG, Ring U, Juwayeyi YM. 1993. Oldest Homo and Pliocene biogeography of the Malawi Rift. Nature 365:833–36 [Google Scholar]
  117. Schroeder L, Roseman CC, Cheverud JM, Ackermann RR. 2014. Characterizing the evolutionary path(s) to early Homo. . PLOS ONE 9:12e114307 [Google Scholar]
  118. Schroeder L, Scott JE, Garvin HM, Laird MF, Dembo M. et al. 2017. Skull diversity in the Homo lineage and the relative position of Homo naledi. . J. Hum. Evol. 104:124–35 [Google Scholar]
  119. Schwartz GT. 2012. Growth, development, and life history throughout the evolution of Homo. Curr. Anthropol. S53:395–408 [Google Scholar]
  120. Schwartz JH, Tattersall I. 2015. Defining the genus Homo. . Science 349:931–32 [Google Scholar]
  121. Schwartz JH, Tattersall I, Chi Z. 2014. Comment on “A complete skull from Dmanisi, Georgia, and the evolutionary biology of early Homo.”. Science 344:360 [Google Scholar]
  122. Simpson SW, Quade J, Levin NE, Butler R, Dupont-Nivet G. et al. 2008. A female Homo erectus pelvis from Gona, Ethiopia. Science 322:1089–92 [Google Scholar]
  123. Skelton RR, McHenry HM. 1992. Evolutionary relationships among early hominids. J. Hum. Evol. 23:309–49 [Google Scholar]
  124. Spoor F. 2011. Malapa and the genus Homo. . Nature 478:44–45 [Google Scholar]
  125. Spoor F. 2013. Small-brained and big-mouthed. Nature 502:452–53 [Google Scholar]
  126. Spoor F, Gunz P, Neuebauer S, Stelzer S, Scott N. et al. 2015. Reconstructed Homo habilis type OH 7 suggests deep-rooted species diversity in early Homo. . Nature 519:83–86 [Google Scholar]
  127. Spoor F, Leakey MG, Gathogo PN, Brown FH, Antón SC. et al. 2007. Implication of new early Homo fossils from Ileret, east of Lake Turkana, Kenya. Nature 448:688–91 [Google Scholar]
  128. Spoor F, Leakey MG, Leakey LN. 2010. Hominin diversity in the Middle Pliocene of eastern Africa: the maxilla of KNM-WT 40000. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 365:3377–88 [Google Scholar]
  129. Spoor F, Leakey MG, O'Higgins P. 2016. Middle Pliocene hominin diversity: Australopithecus deyiremeda and Kenyanthropus platyops. . Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371:20150231 [Google Scholar]
  130. Strait DS, Grine FE. 1999. Cladistics and early hominid phylogeny. Science 285:1209 [Google Scholar]
  131. Strait DS, Grine FE. 2004. Inferring hominoid and early hominid phylogeny using craniodental characters: the role of fossil taxa. J. Hum. Evol. 47:399–452 [Google Scholar]
  132. Strait DS, Grine FE, Fleagle JG. 2015. Analyzing hominin phylogeny: cladistic approach. See Henke & Tattersall 2015 1989–2014
  133. Stringer C. 1986. The credibility of Homo habilis. Major Topics in Primate and Human Evolution BA Wood, R Martin, P Andrews 266–98 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  134. Suwa G, White TD, Howell FC. 1996. Mandibular postcanine dentition from the Shungura Formation, Ethiopia: crown morphology, taxonomic allocations, and Plio-Pleistocene hominid evolution. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 101:247–82 [Google Scholar]
  135. Tattersall I. 2007. Homoergaster and its contemporaries. See Henke & Tattersall 2007 1634–53
  136. Tobias PV. 1967. Olduvai Gorge 2 The Cranium of Australopithecus (Zinjanthropus) boisei Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  137. Tobias PV. 1981. Australopithecus afarensis” and A. africanus: critique and an alternative hypothesis. Palaeont. Afr 23:1–17 [Google Scholar]
  138. Tobias PV. 1991. Olduvai Gorge IV The Skulls, Endocasts and Teeth of Homo habilis Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  139. Ungar P. 2012. Dental evidence for the reconstruction of diet in African early Homo. . Curr. Anthropol. 53:S6S318–29 [Google Scholar]
  140. Ungar P, Sponheimer M. 2011. The diets of early hominins. Science 334:190–93 [Google Scholar]
  141. Villmoare B, Kimbel WH, Seyoum C, Campisano CJ, DiMaggio EN. et al. 2015. Early Homo at 2.8 Ma from Ledi-Geraru, Afar, Ethiopia. Science 347:1352–55 [Google Scholar]
  142. Walker A, Leakey REF. 1993. The Nariokotome Homo erectus Skeleton Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  143. Ward CV. 2013. Postural and locomotor adaptations of Australopithecus species. See Reed et al. 2013 235–45
  144. Ward CV, Feibel CS, Hammond AS, Leakey LN, Moffett EA. et al. 2015. Associated ilium and femur from Koobi Fora, Kenya, and postcranial diversity in early Homo. . J. Hum. Evol. 81:48–67 [Google Scholar]
  145. White TD. 2003. Early hominids—diversity or distortion?. Science 299:1994–97 [Google Scholar]
  146. White TD, Johanson DC, Kimbel WH. 1981. Australopithecus africanus: its phyletic position reconsidered. S. Afr. J. Sci. 77:445–70 [Google Scholar]
  147. Williams SA, Ostrofsky KR, Frater N, Churchill SE, Schmid P, Berger LR. 2013. The vertebral column of Australopithecus sediba. . Science 340:1232996 [Google Scholar]
  148. Wood BA. 1985. Early Homo in Kenya, and its systematic relationships. Ancestors: The Hard Evidence E Delson 206–14 New York: Liss [Google Scholar]
  149. Wood BA. 1991. Koobi Fora Research Project 4 Hominid Cranial Remains Oxford, UK: Clarendon [Google Scholar]
  150. Wood BA. 1992. Origin and evolution of the genus Homo. . Nature 355:783–90 [Google Scholar]
  151. Wood BA. 2009. Where does the genus Homo begin, and how would we know?. See Grine et al. 2009a 17–28
  152. Wood BA. 2014. Fifty years after Homo habilis. . Nature 508:31–33 [Google Scholar]
  153. Wood BA, Boyle EK. 2016. Hominin taxic diversity: fact or fantasy?. Yrbk. Phys. Anthropol. 159:S37–78 [Google Scholar]
  154. Wood BA, Collard M. 1999a. The changing face of the genus Homo. . Evol. Anthropol. 8:195–207 [Google Scholar]
  155. Wood BA, Collard M. 1999b. The human genus. Science 284:65–71 [Google Scholar]
  156. Wood BA, Harrison T. 2011. The evolutionary context of the first hominins. Nature 470:347–52 [Google Scholar]
  157. Zinner D, Groeneveld LF, Keller C, Roos C. 2009. Mitochondrial phylogeography of baboons (Papio spp.)—indication for introgressive hybridization. ? BMC Evol. Biol. 9:83 [Google Scholar]
  158. Zipfel B, DeSilva JM, Kidd RS, Carlson KJ, Churchill SE, Berger LR. 2011. The foot and ankle of Australopithecus sediba. . Science 333:1417–20 [Google Scholar]

Supplementary Data

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error