1932

Abstract

Understanding pathogen exchange among human, wildlife, and livestock populations, and the varying ecological and cultural contexts in which this exchange takes place, is a major challenge. The present review contextualizes the risk factors that result from human interactions with livestock, companion animals, animal exhibits, wildlife through nature-based tourism, and wildlife through consumption. Given their phylogenetic relatedness to humans, primates are emphasized in this discussion; primates serve as reservoirs for several human pathogens, and some human pathogens can decimate wild primate populations. Anthropologists must play a central role in understanding cultural variation in attitudes toward other species as well as perceived risks when interacting with animals. I argue that the remediation of emerging infectious diseases will be accomplished primarily through human behavioral changes rather than through efforts in pathogen discovery. Given the history of human interactions with wildlife, candid discussions on zoonotic diseases will be increasingly important for our combined survival.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-102215-100003
2016-10-21
2024-04-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/anthro/45/1/annurev-anthro-102215-100003.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-102215-100003&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Acevedo-Whitehouse K, Gulland G, Greig D, Amos W. 2003. Disease susceptibility in California sea lions. Nature 422:35 [Google Scholar]
  2. Afrane YA, Zhou G, Lawson BW, Githeko AK, Yan GY. 2006. Effects of microclimate changes caused by deforestation on the survivorship and reproductive fitness of Anopheles gambiae in western Kenya highlands. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg 74:772–78 [Google Scholar]
  3. Aghokeng AF, Ayouba A, Mpoudi-Ngole E, Loul S, Liégeois F. et al. 2010. Extensive survey on the prevalence and genetic diversity of SIVs in primate bushmeat provides insights into risks for potential new cross-species transmissions. Infect. Genet. Evol. 10:386–96 [Google Scholar]
  4. Aguirre AA, Ostfeld RS, Daszak P. 2012. New Directions in Conservation Medicine: Applied Cases of Ecological Health New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  5. Aguirre AA, Ostfeld RS, Tabor GM, House C, Pearl MC. 2002. Conservation Medicine: Ecological Health in Practice New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  6. Allen M, Hunstone M, Waerstad J, Foy E, Hobbins T, Wikner B, Wirrel J. 2002. Human to animal similarity and participant mood influence punishment recommendations for animal abusers. Soc. Anim. 10:267–84 [Google Scholar]
  7. Anderson RM, May RM. 1991. Infectious Diseases of Humans: Dynamics and Control New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  8. Antonovics J, Hood M, Partain J. 2002. The ecology and genetics of a host shift: Microbotryum as a model system. Am. Nat. 160:S40–53 [Google Scholar]
  9. Ascione F, Weber C. 1996. Children's attitudes about the humane treatment of animals and empathy: one-year follow-up of a school-based intervention. Anthrozoos 9:188–95 [Google Scholar]
  10. Awadallah MA, Salem LM. 2015. Zoonotic enteric parasites transmitted from dogs in Egypt with special concern to Toxocara canis infection. Vet. World 8:946–57 [Google Scholar]
  11. Ayouba A, Akoua-Koffi C, Calvignac-Spencer S, Esteban A, Locatelli S. et al. 2013. Evidence for continuing cross-species transmission of SIVsmm to humans: characterization of a new HIV-2 lineage in rural Côte d'Ivoire. AIDS 27:2488–91 [Google Scholar]
  12. AZA (Assoc. Zoos Aquar.) 2016. Currently accredited zoos and aquariums AZA, Silver Spring Md: https://www.aza.org/current-accreditation-list
  13. Bailey AL, Lauck M, Sibley SD, Friedrich TC, Kuhn JH. et al. 2015. Zoonotic potential of simian arteriviruses. J. Virol. 90:630–35 [Google Scholar]
  14. Bailey C, Mansfield K. 2010. Emerging and reemerging infectious diseases of nonhuman primates in the laboratory setting. Vet. Pathol. 47:462–81 [Google Scholar]
  15. Baize S, Pannetier D, Oestereich L, Rieger T, Koivogui L. et al. 2014. Emergence of Zaire Ebola virus disease in Guinea. N. Engl. J. Med. 371:1418–25 [Google Scholar]
  16. Balmford A, Leader-Williams N, Mace GM, Manica A, Walter O. et al. 2008. Message received? Quantifying the impact of informal conservation education on adults visiting UK zoos. Zoos in the 21st Century: Catalysts for Conservation? A Zimmermann, M Hatchwell, L Dickie, C West 120–36 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  17. Bekker JL, Hoffman LC, Jooste PJ. 2012. Wildlife-associated zoonotic diseases in some southern African countries in relation to game meat safety: a review. Onderstepport J. Vet. Res. 79:422 [Google Scholar]
  18. Bender JB, Shulman SA. 2004. Reports of zoonotic disease outbreaks associated with animal exhibits and availability of recommendations for preventing zoonotic disease transmission from animals to people in such settings. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 224:1105–9 [Google Scholar]
  19. Berrilli F, Prisco C, Friedrich KG, Di Cerbo P, Di Cave D, De Liberato C. 2011. Giardia duodenalis assemblages and Entamoeba species infecting non-human primates in an Italian zoological garden: zoonotic potential and management traits. Parasit. Vectors 4:199 [Google Scholar]
  20. Betsem E, Rua R, Tortevoye P, Froment A, Gessain A. 2011. Frequent and recent human acquisition of simian foamy viruses through apes' bites in Central Africa. PLOS Pathog 7:e1002306 [Google Scholar]
  21. Bicca-Marques JC, Freitas DS. 2010. The role of monkeys, mosquitoes and humans in the occurrence of a yellow fever outbreak in a fragmented landscape in south Brazil: Protecting howler monkeys is a matter of public health. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 3:78–89 [Google Scholar]
  22. Billings FS. 1884. The Relation of Animal Diseases to the Public Health, and Their Prevention New York: D. Appleton
  23. Boneva RS, Switzer WM, Spira TJ, Spira TJ, Bhullar VB. et al. 2007. Clinical and virological characterization of persistent human infection with simian foamy viruses. AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 23:1330–37 [Google Scholar]
  24. Bowen-Jones E, Pendry S. 1999. The threat to primates and other animals from the bushmeat trade in Africa, and how this threat could be diminished. Oryx 33:233–46 [Google Scholar]
  25. Brennan EJ, Else JG, Altmann J. 1985. Ecology and behaviour of a pest primate: vervet monkeys in a tourist-lodge habitat. Afr. J. Ecol. 23:35–44 [Google Scholar]
  26. Brownstein JS, Holford TR, Fish D. 2005. Effect of climate change on Lyme disease risk in North America. EcoHealth 2:38–46 [Google Scholar]
  27. Burnham BR, Atchley DH, DeFusco RP, Ferris KE, Zicarelli JC. et al. 1998. Prevalence of fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms among captive green iguanas and potential public health implications. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc 213:48–50 [Google Scholar]
  28. Calattini S, Betsem EBA, Froment A, Mauclère P, Tortevoye P. et al. 2007. Simian foamy virus transmission from apes to humans, rural Cameroon. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:1314–20 [Google Scholar]
  29. Calattini S, Chevalier SA, Duprez R, Bassot S, Froment A. et al. 2005. Discovery of a new human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-3) in Central Africa. Retrovirology 2:30 [Google Scholar]
  30. Calvignac-Spencer S, Adjogoua EV, Akoua-Koffi C, Hedemann C, Schubert G. et al. 2012. Origin of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 18:830–33 [Google Scholar]
  31. CDC (Cent. Dis. Control Prev.) 2016. B virus (herpes B, monkey B virus, herpesvirus simiae, and herpesvirus B). Cause and incidence Updated March 1, CDC, Atlanta. http://www.cdc.gov/herpesbvirus/cause-incidence.html
  32. Chardonnet P, des Clers B, Fischer J, Gerhold R, Jori F, Lamarque F. 2002. The value of wildlife. Rev. Sci. Tech. 21:15–51 [Google Scholar]
  33. Chua KB, Chua BH, Wang CW. 2002. Anthropogenic deforestation, El Niño, and the emergence of Nipah virus in Malaysia. Malays. J. Pathol. 24:15–21 [Google Scholar]
  34. Clayton S, Fraser J, Saunders CD. 2009. Zoo experiences: conversations, connections, and concern for animals. Zoo Biol 28:377–97 [Google Scholar]
  35. Cleaveland S, Laurenson MK, Taylor LH. 2001. Diseases of humans and their domestic mammals: pathogen characteristics, host range and the risk of emergence. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 356:991–99 [Google Scholar]
  36. Combes C. 2004. Parasitism: The Ecology and Evolution of Intimate Interactions Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  37. Corbel MJ. 2006. Brucellosis in Humans and Animals Geneva: World Health Organ., Food Agric. Organ. U. N., World Organ. Anim. Health
  38. Covey R, McGraw WS. 2014. Monkeys in a West African bushmeat market: implications for cercopithecid conservation in eastern Liberia. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7:115–25 [Google Scholar]
  39. Crump JA, Sulka AC, Langer AJ, Schaben C, Crielly AS. et al. 2002. An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections among visitors to a dairy farm. N. Engl. J. Med. 347:555–60 [Google Scholar]
  40. Cunningham AA, Daszak P, Rodriguez JP. 2003. Pathogen pollution: defining a parasitological threat to biodiversity conservation. Parasitology 89:S78–83 [Google Scholar]
  41. Cyranoski D. 2005. Tests in Tokyo reveal flaws in Vietnam's bird flu surveillance. Nature 433:787 [Google Scholar]
  42. Daszak P, Cunningham AA, Hyatt AD. 2000. Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife—threats to biodiversity and human health. Science 287:443–49 [Google Scholar]
  43. Daszak P, Cunningham AA, Hyatt AD. 2001. Anthropogenic environmental change and the emergence of infectious diseases in wildlife. Acta Trop 78:103–16 [Google Scholar]
  44. David EB, Patti M, Coradi ST, Oliveira-Sequeira TCG, Ribolla PEM, Guimarães S. 2014. Molecular typing of Giardia duodenalis isolates from nonhuman primates housed in a Brazilian zoo. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo 56:49–54 [Google Scholar]
  45. Davies G. 2002. Bushmeat and international development. Conserv. Biol. 16:587–89 [Google Scholar]
  46. Davies TJ, Pedersen AB. 2008. Phylogeny and geography predict pathogen community similarity in wild primates and humans. Proc. R. Soc. Biol. B 275:1695–701 [Google Scholar]
  47. De Mérode E, Homewood K, Cowlishaw G. 2003. Wild Resources and Livelihoods of Poor Households in Democratic Republic of Congo Wildl. Policy Brief. No. 1 London: Overseas Dev. Inst.
  48. Decker DJ, Siemer WF, Evensen DTN, Stedman RC, McComas KA. et al. 2012. Public perceptions of wildlife-associated disease: risk communication matters. Hum. Wildl. Interact. 6:112–22 [Google Scholar]
  49. Delwart E. 2012. Animal virus discovery: improving animal health, understanding zoonoses, and opportunities for vaccine development. Curr. Opin. Virol. 2:344–52 [Google Scholar]
  50. Dobson AP, May RM. 1986. Disease and conservation. Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity ME Soule 345–65 Sunderland, UK: Sinauer [Google Scholar]
  51. Engel G, Hungerford LL, Jones-Engel L, Travis D, Eberle R. et al. 2006. Risk assessment: a model for predicting cross-species transmission of Simian Foamy Virus from macaques (M. fascicularis) to humans at a monkey temple in Bali, Indonesia. Am. J. Primatol. 68:934–48 [Google Scholar]
  52. Engel GA, Jones-Engel L. 2012. Primates and primatologists: social contexts for interspecies pathogen transmission. Am. J. Primatol. 74:543–50 [Google Scholar]
  53. Engel GA, Jones-Engel L, Schillaci MA, Suaryana KG, Putra A. et al. 2002. Human exposure to herpesvirus B-seropositive macaques, Bali, Indonesia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:789–95 [Google Scholar]
  54. Engel GA, Small CT, Soliven K, Feeroz MM, Wang X. et al. 2013. Zoonotic simian foamy virus in Bangladesh reflects diverse patterns of transmission and co-infection. Emerg. Microbes Infect. 2:e58 [Google Scholar]
  55. Engelthaler DM, Mosley DG, Cheek JE, Levy CE, Komatsu KK. et al. 1999. Climactic and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Four Corners region, United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:87–94 [Google Scholar]
  56. Fa JE. 1992. Visitor-directed aggression among the Gibraltar macaques. Zoo Biol 11:43–52 [Google Scholar]
  57. Falk JH, Reinhard EM, Vernon C, Bronnenkant K, Heimlich JE, Deans NL. 2007. Why Zoos and Aquariums Matter: Assessing the Impact of a Visit to a Zoo or Aquarium Silver Spring, MD: Am. Zool. Assoc.
  58. Farrell MJ, Berrang-Ford L, Davies TJ. 2013. The study of parasite sharing for surveillance of zoonotic diseases. Environ. Res. Lett. 8:015036 [Google Scholar]
  59. Favoretto SR, de Mattos CC, Morais NB, Alves Araujo FA, de Mattos CA. 2001. Rabies in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), Ceará, Brazil. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:1062–65 [Google Scholar]
  60. Filippone C, Betsem E, Tortevoye P, Cassar O, Bassot S. et al. 2015. A severe bite from a nonhuman primate is a major risk factor for HTLV-1 infection in hunters from Central Africa. Clin. Infect. Dis. 60:1667–76 [Google Scholar]
  61. Flanagan ML, Parrish CR, Cobey S, Glass GE, Bush RM, Leighton TJ. 2012. Anticipating the species jump: surveillance for emerging viral threats. Zoonoses Public Health 59:155–63 [Google Scholar]
  62. Fromm E. 1964. The Heart of Man: Its Genius for Good and Evil New York: Harper & Row
  63. Fuentes A. 2012. Ethnoprimatology and the anthropology of the human-primate interface. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 41:101–17 [Google Scholar]
  64. Fuentes A. 2013. Pets, property, and partners: macaques as commodities in the human-other primate interface. The Macaque Connection: Cooperation and Conflict Between Humans and Macaques S Radhakrishna, MA Huffman, A Sinha 107–23 New York: Springer [Google Scholar]
  65. Fuentes A, Gamerl S. 2005. Disproportionate participation by age/sex classes in aggressive interactions between long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and human tourists at Padangtegal monkey forest, Bali, Indonesia. Am. J. Primatol. 66:197–204 [Google Scholar]
  66. Gallo RC. 2011. Research and discovery of the first human cancer virus, HTLV-1. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Haematol. 24:559–65 [Google Scholar]
  67. Gao F, Bailes E, Robertson DL, Chen Y, Rodenburg CM. et al. 1999. Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes. Nature 397:436–41 [Google Scholar]
  68. Gao F, Yue L, White AT, Pappas PG, Barchue J. et al. 1992. Human infection by genetically diverse SIVSM-related HIV-2 in West Africa. Nature 358:495–99 [Google Scholar]
  69. Gautret P, Blanton J, Dacheux L, Ribadeau-Dumas F, Brouqui P. et al. 2014. Rabies in nonhuman primates and potential for transmission to humans: a literature review and examination of selected French national data. PLOS Negl. Trop. Dis. 8:e2863 [Google Scholar]
  70. Gautret P, Schwartz E, Shaw M, Soula G, Gazin P. et al. 2007. Animal-associated injuries and related diseases among returned travellers: a review of the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Vaccine 25:2656–63 [Google Scholar]
  71. Ghersi BM, Jia H, Aiewsakun P, Katzourakis A, Mendoza P. et al. 2015. Wide distribution and ancient evolutionary history of simian foamy viruses in New World primates. Retrovirology 12:89 [Google Scholar]
  72. Gilardi KV, Gillespie TR, Leendertz FH, Macfie EJ, Travis DA. et al. 2015. Best Practice Guidelines for Health Monitoring and Disease Control in Great Ape Populations Gland, Switz.: IUCN/SSC Primate Spec. Group
  73. Gire SK, Stremlau M, Andersen KG, Schaffner SF. 2012. Emerging disease or diagnosis. Science 338:750–52 [Google Scholar]
  74. Gómez JM, Nunn CL, Verdú M. 2013. Centrality in primate-parasite networks reveals the potential for the transmission of emerging infectious diseases to humans. PNAS 110:7738–41 [Google Scholar]
  75. Guan Y, Zheng BJ, He YQ, Liu XL, Zhuang ZX. et al. 2003. Isolation and characterization of viruses related to the SARS coronavirus from animals in Southern China. Science 302:276–78 [Google Scholar]
  76. Guernier V, Hochberg ME, Guégan JF. 2004. Ecology drives the worldwide distribution of human diseases. PLOS Biol 2:e141 [Google Scholar]
  77. Hales S, de Wet N, Maindonald J, Woodward A. 2002. Potential effect of population and climate changes on global distribution of dengue fever: an empirical model. Lancet 360:830–34 [Google Scholar]
  78. Han BA, Schmidt JP, Bowden SE, Drake JM. 2015. Rodent reservoirs of future zoonotic diseases. PNAS 112:7039–44 [Google Scholar]
  79. Harris NC, Dunn RR. 2013. Species loss on spatial patterns and composition of zoonotic parasites. Proc. R. Soc. B. 280:20131847 [Google Scholar]
  80. Heuvelink AE, Van Heerwaarden C, Zwartkruis-Nahuis JT, Van Oosterom R, Edink K. et al. 2002. Escherichia coli O157 infection associated with a petting zoo. Epidemiol. Infect. 129:295–302 [Google Scholar]
  81. Heymann DL. 2006. SARS and emerging infectious diseases: a challenge to place global solidarity above national sovereignty. Ann. Acad. Med. Singapore 35:350–53 [Google Scholar]
  82. Hirsch VM, Olmsted RA, Murphey-Corb M, Purcell RH, Johnson PR. 1989. An African primate lentivirus (SIVsm) closely related to HIV-2. Nature 339:389–92 [Google Scholar]
  83. Hoffman TS, O'Riain MJ. 2011. The spatial ecology of chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) in a human-modified environment. Int. J. Primatol. 32:308–28 [Google Scholar]
  84. Hogan JN, Miller WA, Cranfield MR, Ramer J, Hassell J. et al. 2014. Giardia in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and domestic cattle in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. J. Wildl. Dis 50:21–30 [Google Scholar]
  85. Holmes EC. 2003. Error thresholds and the constraints to RNA virus evolution. Trends Microbiol 11:543–46 [Google Scholar]
  86. Holmes GP, Chapman LE, Stewart JA, Straus SE, Hilliard JK, Davenport DS. 1995. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of B-virus infections in exposed persons. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20:421–39 [Google Scholar]
  87. Hopkins ME, Nunn CL. 2007. A global gap analysis of infectious agents in wild primates. Divers. Distrib. 13:561–72 [Google Scholar]
  88. Huet T, Heynier R, Meyerhans A, Roelants G, Wain-Hobson S. 1990. Genetic organization of a chimpanzee lentivirus related to HIV-1. Nature 345:356–59 [Google Scholar]
  89. Huff JL, Barry PA. 2003. B-virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) infection in humans and macaques: potential for zoonotic disease. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:246–50 [Google Scholar]
  90. Hutson CL, Lee KN, Abel J, Carroll DS, Montgomery JM. et al. 2007. Monkeypox zoonotic associations: insights from laboratory evaluation of animals associated with the multi-state US outbreak. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 76:757–68 [Google Scholar]
  91. Inst. Lab. Anim. Res., Natl. Res. Counc. 2003. Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Primates Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
  92. Jones KE, Patel NG, Levy MA, Storeygard A, Balk D. et al. 2008. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature 451:990–94 [Google Scholar]
  93. Jones-Engel L, Engel GA, Heidrich J, Chalise M, Poudel N. et al. 2006. Temple monkeys and health implications of commensalism, Kathmandu, Nepal. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:900–6 [Google Scholar]
  94. Jones-Engel L, May CC, Engel GA, Steinkraus KA, Schillaci MA. et al. 2008. Diverse contexts of zoonotic transmission of simian foamy viruses in Asia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:1200–8 [Google Scholar]
  95. Kahn LH, Monath TP, Bokma BH, Gibbs EP, Aguirre AA. 2012. One Health, one medicine. See Aguirre et al. 2012 33–45
  96. Kardamanidis K, Cashman P, Durrheim DN. 2013. Travel and non-travel associated rabies post exposure treatment in New South Wales residents, Australia, 2007–2011: a cross-sectional analysis. Travel Med. Infect. Dis. 11:421–26 [Google Scholar]
  97. Karesh WB, Noble E. 2009. The bushmeat trade: increased opportunities for transmission of zoonotic disease. Mt. Sinai J. Med. 76:429–34 [Google Scholar]
  98. Keele BF, Van Heuverswyn F, Li Y, Bailes E, Takehisa J. et al. 2006. Chimpanzee reservoirs of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1. Science 313:523–26 [Google Scholar]
  99. Keesing F, Belden LK, Daszak P, Dobson A, Harvell CD. et al. 2010. Impacts of biodiversity on the emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. Nature 468:647–52 [Google Scholar]
  100. Keller LF, Waller DM. 2002. Inbreeding effects in wild populations. Trends Ecol. Evol. 17:230–41 [Google Scholar]
  101. Kellert SR. 1996. The Value of Life: Biological Diversity and Human Society Washington, DC: Island Press
  102. Kellert SR, Wilson EO. 1993. The Biophilia Hypothesis Washington, DC: Island Press
  103. Kimball AM, Arima Y, Hodges JR. 2005. Trade related infections: farther, faster, quieter. Glob. Health 1:3 [Google Scholar]
  104. Lapinski MK, Funk JA, Moccia LT. 2015. Recommendations for the role of social science research in One Health. Soc. Sci. Med. 129:51–60 [Google Scholar]
  105. LeBreton M, Prosser AT, Tamoufe U, Sateren W, Mpoudi-Ngole E. et al. 2006. Patterns of bushmeat hunting and perceptions of disease risk among central African communities. Anim. Conserv. 9:357–63 [Google Scholar]
  106. Lederberg J, Shope RE, Oakes SC. 1992. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
  107. LeJeune JT, Davis MA. 2004. Outbreaks of zoonotic enteric disease associated with animal exhibits. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 224:1440–45 [Google Scholar]
  108. Lévi-Strauss C. 1964. Totemism, transl. R Needham London: Merlin Press [Google Scholar]
  109. Li W-C, Ying M, Gong P-T, Li J-H, Yang J. et al. 2015. Pentatrichomonas hominis: prevalence and molecular characterization in humans, dogs, and monkeys in Northern China. Parasitol. Res. 115:569–74 [Google Scholar]
  110. Liégeois F, Boué V, Mouacha F, Butel C, Ondo BM. et al. 2012. New STLV-3 strains and a divergent SIVmus strain identified in non-human primate bushmeat in Gabon. Retrovirology 9:28 [Google Scholar]
  111. Lloyd-Smith JO, George D, Pepin KM, Pitzer VE, Pulliam JRC. et al. 2009. Epidemic dynamics at the human-animal interface. Science 326:1362–67 [Google Scholar]
  112. LoGiudice KM, Duerr S, Newhouse M, Schmidt KA, Killilea ME, Ostfeld RS. 2008. Impact of community composition on Lyme disease risk. Ecology 89:2841–49 [Google Scholar]
  113. Luis AD, Hayman DTS, O'Shea TJ, Cryan PM, Gilbert AT. et al. 2013. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: Are bats special?. Proc. R. Soc. B. 280:20122753 [Google Scholar]
  114. Macfie EJ, Williamson EA. 2010. Best Practice Guidelines for Great Ape Tourism Gland, Switz.: IUCN/SSC Primate Spec. Group
  115. Malone N, Purnama AR, Wedana M, Fuentes A. 2002. Assessment of the sale of primates at Indonesian bird markets. Asian Primates 8:7–11 [Google Scholar]
  116. Marano N, Arguin PM, Pappaioanou M. 2007. Impact of globalization and animal trade on infectious disease ecology. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:1807–9 [Google Scholar]
  117. Marino L, Lilienfeld SO, Malamud R, Nobis N, Broglio R. 2010. Do zoos and aquariums promote attitude change in visitors? A critical evaluation of the American Zoo and Aquarium Study. Soc. Anim. 18:126–38 [Google Scholar]
  118. Mason MR, Gonzalez M, Hodges JS, Muñoz-Zanzi C. 2015. Protective practices against zoonotic infections among rural and slum communities from South Central Chile. BMC Public Health 15:713 [Google Scholar]
  119. Messenger AM, Barnes AN, Gray GC. 2014. Reverse zoonotic disease transmission (zooanthroponosis): a systematic review of seldom-documented human biological threats to animals. PLOS ONE 9:e89055 [Google Scholar]
  120. Millenn. Ecosyst. Assess. 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press
  121. Monroe BP, Doty JB, Moses C, Ibata S, Reynolds M, Carroll D. 2015. Collection and utilization of animal carcasses associated with zoonotic disease in Tshuapa District, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2012. J. Wildl. Dis 51:734–38 [Google Scholar]
  122. Morand S, McIntyre KM, Baylis M. 2014. Domesticated animals and human infectious diseases of zoonotic origins: domestication time matters. Infect. Genet. Evol. 24:76–81 [Google Scholar]
  123. Morens DM, Folkers GK, Fauci AS. 2004. The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Nature 430:242–49 [Google Scholar]
  124. Morgan JM, Hodgkinson M. 1999. The motivation and social orientation of visitors attending a contemporary zoological park. Environ. Behav. 31:227–39 [Google Scholar]
  125. Morris DO, Lautenbach E, Zaoutis T, Leckerman K, Edelstein PH, Rankin SC. 2012. Potential for pet animals to harbour methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus when residing with human MRSA patients. Zoonoses Public Health 59:286–93 [Google Scholar]
  126. Morse SS, Mazet JA, Woolhouse M, Parrish CR, Carroll D. et al. 2012. Prediction and prevention of the next pandemic zoonosis. Lancet 380:1956–65 [Google Scholar]
  127. Mossoun A, Pauly M, Akoua-Koffi C, Couacy-Hymann E, Leendertz SAJ. et al. 2015. Contact to non-human primates and risk factors for zoonotic disease emergence in the Taï region, Côte d'Ivoire. EcoHealth 12:580–91 [Google Scholar]
  128. Mouinga-Ondémé A, Betsem E, Caron M, Makuwa M, Salle B. et al. 2010. Two distinct variants of simian foamy virus in naturally infected mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) and cross-species transmission to humans. Retrovirology 7:105 [Google Scholar]
  129. Mouinga-Ondémé A, Caron M, Nkoghé D, Telfer P, Marx P. et al. 2012. Cross-species transmission of simian foamy virus to humans in rural Gabon, Central Africa. J. Virol. 86:1255–60 [Google Scholar]
  130. Mounts AW, Kwong H, Izurieta HS, Ho Y, Au T. et al. 1999. Case-control study of risk factors for avian influenza A (H5N1) disease, Hong Kong, 1997. J. Infect. Dis. 180:505–8 [Google Scholar]
  131. Muchmore E. 1976. Health program for people in close contact with laboratory primates. Cancer Res. Saf. Monogr. 2:81–99 [Google Scholar]
  132. Muehlenbein MP, Ancrenaz M. 2009. Minimizing pathogen transmission at primate ecotourism destinations: the need for input from travel medicine. J. Travel Med. 16:229–32 [Google Scholar]
  133. Muehlenbein MP, Lewis CM. 2013. Health assessment and epidemiology. Primate Ecology and Conservation: A Handbook of Techniques EJ Sterling, N Bynum, ME Blair 40–57 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  134. Muehlenbein MP, Martinez LA, Lemke AA, Ambu L, Nathan S. et al. 2008. Perceived vaccination status in ecotourists and risks of anthropozoonoses. EcoHealth 5:371–78 [Google Scholar]
  135. Muehlenbein MP, Martinez LA, Lemke AA, Ambu L, Nathan S. et al. 2010. Unhealthy travelers present challenges to sustainable primate ecotourism. Travel Med. Infect. Dis. 8:169–75 [Google Scholar]
  136. Muller MA, Meyer B, Corman VM, Al-Masri M, Turkestani A. et al. 2015. Presence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus antibodies in Saudi Arabia: a nationwide, cross-sectional, serological study. Lancet Infect. Dis. 15:559–64 [Google Scholar]
  137. Muniz CP, Troncoso LL, Moreira MA, Soares EA, Pissinatti A. et al. 2013. Identification and characterization of highly divergent simian foamy viruses in a wide range of New World primates from Brazil. PLOS ONE 8:e67568 [Google Scholar]
  138. Murphy HW, Miller M, Ramer J, Travis D, Barbiers R. et al. 2006. Implications of simian retroviruses for captive primate population management and the occupational safety of primate handlers. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 37:219–33 [Google Scholar]
  139. Murray KA, Preston N, Allen T, Zambrana-Torrelio C, Hosseini PR, Daszak P. 2015. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases. PNAS 112:12746–51 [Google Scholar]
  140. Muyembe-Tamfum JJ, Mulangu S, Masumu J, Kayembe JM, Kemp A, Paweska JT. 2012. Ebola virus outbreaks in Africa: past and present. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 79:451 [Google Scholar]
  141. Neil SJ, Zang T, Bieniasz PD. 2008. Tetherin inhibits retrovirus release and is antagonized by HIV-1 Vpu. Nature 451:425–30 [Google Scholar]
  142. Nizeyi JB, Sebunya D, Dasilva AJ, Cranfield MR, Pieniazek NJ, Graczyk TK. 2002. Cryptosporidiosis in people sharing habitats with free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei), Uganda. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg 66:442–44 [Google Scholar]
  143. Normile D. 2005. WHO faults China for lax outbreak response. Science 309:684 [Google Scholar]
  144. Nyhus PJ, Tilson RL, Tomlinson JL. 2003. Dangerous animals in captivity: ex situ tiger conflict and implications for private ownership of exotic animals. Zoo Biol 22:573–86 [Google Scholar]
  145. Ohnuki-Tierney E. 1987. The Monkey as Mirror: Symbolic Transformations in Japanese History and Ritual Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  146. Olival KJ, Hayman DTS. 2014. Filoviruses in bats: current knowledge and future directions. Viruses 6:1759–88 [Google Scholar]
  147. Osborn FV, Hill CM. 2005. Techniques to reduce crop loss: human and technical dimensions in Africa. People and Wildlife: Conflict or Coexistence? R Woodroffe, S Thirgood, A Rabinowitz 72–86 New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  148. Ostrowski SR, Leslie MJ, Parrott T, Abelt S, Piercy PE. 1998. B-virus from pet macaque monkeys: an emerging threat in the United States?. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4:117–21 [Google Scholar]
  149. Paige SB, Malavé C, Mbabazi E, Mayer J, Goldberg TL. 2015. Uncovering zoonoses awareness in an emerging disease ‘hotspot.’. Soc. Sci. Med 129:78–86 [Google Scholar]
  150. Painter JA, Hoekstra RM, Ayers T, Tauxe RV, Braden CR. et al. 2013. Attribution of foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths to food commodities by using outbreak data, United States, 1998–2008. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 19:407–15 [Google Scholar]
  151. Pascual M, Ahumada JA, Chaves LF, Rodo X, Bouma M. 2006. Malaria resurgence in the East African highlands: temperature trends revisited. PNAS 103:5829–34 [Google Scholar]
  152. Patz JA, Daszak P, Tabor GM, Aguirre AA, Pearl M. et al. 2004. Unhealthy landscapes: policy recommendations on land use change and infectious disease emergence. Environ. Health Perspect. 112:1092–98 [Google Scholar]
  153. Pedersen AB, Davies TJ. 2009. Cross-species pathogen transmission and disease emergence in primates. EcoHealth 6:496–508 [Google Scholar]
  154. Peeters M, Courgnaud V, Abela B, Auzel P, Pourrut X. et al. 2002. Risk to human health from a plethora of simian immunodeficiency viruses in primate bushmeat. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:451–57 [Google Scholar]
  155. Pike BL, Saylors KE, Fair JN, LeBreton M, Tamoufe U. et al. 2010. The origin and prevention of pandemics. Clin Infect. Dis. 50:1636–40 [Google Scholar]
  156. Plantier JC, Leoz M, Dickerson JE, De Oliveira F, Cordonnier F. et al. 2009. A new human immunodeficiency virus derived from gorillas. Nat. Med. 15:871–72 [Google Scholar]
  157. Porten K, Rissland J, Tigges A, Broll S, Hopp W. et al. 2006. A super-spreading ewe infects hundreds with Q fever at a farmers' market in Germany. BMC Infect. Dis. 6:147 [Google Scholar]
  158. Poulin R. 2006. Evolutionary Ecology of Parasites Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 2nd ed..
  159. Pourrut X, Diffo JLD, Somo RM, Bilong CFB, Delaporte E. et al. 2011. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in primate bushmeat and pets in Cameroon. Vet. Parasitol. 175:187–91 [Google Scholar]
  160. Prusiner SB. 1998. Prions. PNAS 95:13363–83 [Google Scholar]
  161. Renquist DM, Whitney RA. 1987. Zoonoses acquired from pet primates. Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract. 17:219–40 [Google Scholar]
  162. Roy S, Vandenberghe LH, Kryazhimskiy S, Grant R, Calcedo R. et al. 2009. Isolation and characterization of Adenoviruses persistently shed from the gastrointestinal tract of non-human primates. PLOS Pathog. 5:e1000503 [Google Scholar]
  163. Saez AM, Weiss S, Nowak K, Lapeyre V, Zimmermann F. et al. 2014. Investigating the zoonotic origin of the West African Ebola epidemic. EMBO Mol. Med. 7:17–23 [Google Scholar]
  164. Schillaci MA, Jones-Engel L, Engel GA, Paramastri Y, Iskandar E. et al. 2005. Prevalence of enzootic simian viruses among urban performance monkeys in Indonesia. Trop. Med. Int. Health 10:1305–14 [Google Scholar]
  165. Schultz M. 2008. Rudolf Virchow.. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:1480–81 [Google Scholar]
  166. Schwabe CW. 1984. Veterinary Medicine and Human Health Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 3rd ed..
  167. Smith KF, Behrens MD, Schloegel LM, Marano N, Burgiel S, Daszak P. 2009. Reducing the risks of the wildlife trade. Science 324:594–95 [Google Scholar]
  168. Smith KM, Anthony SJ, Switzer WM, Epstein JH, Seimon T. et al. 2012. Zoonotic viruses associated with illegally imported wildlife products. PLOS ONE 7:e29505 [Google Scholar]
  169. Soulsbury CD, Iossa G, Kennell S, Harris S. 2009. The welfare and suitability of primates kept as pets. J. Appl. Anim. Welf. Sci. 12:1–20 [Google Scholar]
  170. Sponsel LE, Ruttanadakul N, Natadecha-Sponsel P. 2002. Monkey business? The conservation implications of macaque ethnoprimatology in Southern Thailand. Primates Face to Face: The Conservation Implications of Human-Nonhuman Primate Interconnections A Fuentes, LD Wolfe 28–309 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  171. Stirling J, Griffith M, Dooley JS, Goldsmith CE, Loughrey A. et al. 2008. Zoonoses associated with petting farms and open zoos. Vector Borne Zoonotic. Dis. 8:85–92 [Google Scholar]
  172. Stull JW, Brophy J, Weese JS. 2015. Reducing the risk of pet-associated zoonotic infections. CMAJ 187:736–43 [Google Scholar]
  173. Subramanian M. 2012. Zoonotic disease risk and the bushmeat trade: assessing awareness among hunters and traders in Sierra Leone. EcoHealth 9:471–82 [Google Scholar]
  174. Swaddle J, Calos P. 2008. Increased avian diversity is associated with lower incidence of human West Nile infection: observation of the dilution effect. PLOS ONE 3:e2488 [Google Scholar]
  175. Switzer WM, Garcia AD, Yang C, Wright A, Kalish ML. et al. 2008. Coinfection with HIV-1 and simian foamy virus in West Central Africans. J. Infect. Dis. 197:1389–93 [Google Scholar]
  176. Switzer WM, Tang SH, Ahuka-Mundeke S, Shankar A, Hanson DL. et al. 2012. Novel simian foamy virus infections from multiple monkey species in women from the Democratic Republic of Congo. Retrovirology 9:100 [Google Scholar]
  177. Taylor LH, Latham SM, Woolhouse MEJ. 2001. Risk factors for human disease emergence. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 356:983–89 [Google Scholar]
  178. Toledo LF, Asmüssen MV, Rodríguez JP. 2012. Crime: track illegal trade in wildlife. Nature 483:36 [Google Scholar]
  179. Tuan YF. 1984. Dominance and Affection: The Making of Pets New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press
  180. Valladas H, Clottes J, Geneste J-M, Garcia MA, Arnold M. et al. 2001. Paleolithic paintings: evolution of prehistoric cave art. Nature 413:479 [Google Scholar]
  181. Van Heuverswyn F, Li Y, Neel C, Bailes E, Keele BF. et al. 2006. Human immunodeficiency viruses: SIV infection in wild gorillas. Nature 444:164 [Google Scholar]
  182. Vandamme AM, Salemi M, Desmyter J. 1998. The simian origins of the pathogenic human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. Trends Microbiol 6:477–83 [Google Scholar]
  183. Voisset C, Weiss RA, Griffiths DJ. 2008. Human RNA “rumor” viruses: the search for novel human retroviruses in chronic disease. Microbiol. Mol. Bio. Rev. 72:157–96 [Google Scholar]
  184. Weber DJ, Rutala WA. 1999. Zoonotic infections. Occup. Med. 14:247–84 [Google Scholar]
  185. Webster RG. 2004. Wet markets—a continuing source of severe acute respiratory syndrome and influenza?. Lancet 363:234–36 [Google Scholar]
  186. Weiss RA, McMichael AJ. 2004. Social and environmental risk factors in the emergence of infectious disease. Nat. Med. 10:570–76 [Google Scholar]
  187. Wenz-Mücke A, Sithithaworn P, Petney TN, Taraschewski H. 2013. Human contact influences the foraging behaviour and parasite community in long-tailed macaques. Parasitology 140:709–18 [Google Scholar]
  188. Whewell W. 1840. The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, Founded Upon Their History 2 London: John W. Parker
  189. WHO (World Health Organ.) 2005. International Health Regulations Geneva: WHO, 2nd ed..
  190. WHO (World Health Organ.) 2016. Global Health Estimates (GHE) WHO Geneva: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/en/
  191. Wilcox BA, Aguirre AA, Horwitz P. 2012. Ecohealth: connecting ecology, health, and sustainability. See Aguirre et al. 2012 17–33
  192. Wilson EO. 1984. Biophilia Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  193. Wolf M. 2015. Is there really such a thing as “one health?” Thinking about a more than human world from the perspective of cultural anthropology. Soc. Sci. Med. 129:5–11 [Google Scholar]
  194. Wolfe ND, Daszak P, Kilpatrick AM, Burke DS. 2005a. Bushmeat hunting, deforestation, and prediction of zoonoses emergence. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:1822–27 [Google Scholar]
  195. Wolfe ND, Dunavan CP, Diamond J. 2007. Origins of major human infectious diseases. Nature 447:279–83 [Google Scholar]
  196. Wolfe ND, Heneine W, Carr JK, Garcia AD, Shanmugam V. et al. 2005b. Emergence of unique primate T-lymphotropic viruses among central African bushmeat hunters. PNAS 102:7994–99 [Google Scholar]
  197. Wolfe ND, Switzer WM, Carr JK, Bhullar VB, Shanmugam V. et al. 2004. Naturally acquired simian retrovirus infections in central African hunters. Lancet 363:932–37 [Google Scholar]
  198. Wolfensohn S, Lloyd M. 2013. Handbook of Laboratory Animal Management and Welfare Oxford, UK: Wiley, 4th ed..
  199. Wood JLN, Leach M, Waldman L, MacGregor H, Fooks AR. et al. 2012. A framework for the study of zoonotic disease emergence and its drivers: spillover of bat pathogens as a case study. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 367:2881–92 [Google Scholar]
  200. Woodward DL, Khakhria R, Johnson WM. 1997. Human salmonellosis associated with exotic pets. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:2786–90 [Google Scholar]
  201. Woolhouse M, Scott F, Hudson Z, Howey R, Chase-Topping M. 2012. Human viruses: discovery and emergence. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 367:2864–71 [Google Scholar]
  202. Woolhouse MEJ, Taylor LH, Haydon DT. 2001. Population biology of multihost pathogens. Science 292:1109–12 [Google Scholar]
  203. Worobey M, Gemmel M, Teuwen DE, Haselkorn T, Kunstman K. et al. 2008. Direct evidence of extensive diversity of HIV-1 in Kinshasa by 1960. Nature 455:661–64 [Google Scholar]
  204. Worobey M, Holmes EC. 1999. Evolutionary aspects of recombination in RNA viruses. J. Gen. Virol. 80:2535–43 [Google Scholar]
  205. Yamaguchi J, Devare SG, Brennan CA. 2000. Identification of a new HIV-2 subtype based on phylogenetic analysis of full-length genomic sequence. AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 16:925–30 [Google Scholar]
  206. Young H, Griffin RH, Wood CL, Nunn CL. 2013. Does habitat disturbance increase infectious disease risk for primates?. Ecol. Lett. 16:656–63 [Google Scholar]
  207. Zheng HQ, Wolfe ND, Sintasath DM, Tamoufe U, LeBreton M. et al. 2010. Emergence of a novel and highly divergent HTLV-3 in a primate hunter in Cameroon. Virology 401:137–45 [Google Scholar]
  208. Zinsstag J, Schelling E, Roth F, Bonfoh B, De SD, Tanner M. 2007. Human benefits of animal interventions for zoonosis control. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:527–31 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-102215-100003
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-102215-100003
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error