1932

Abstract

While the categories of adolescence and puberty are often treated as one, the existence of two distinct terms points to different kinds of maturation in humans. Puberty refers to a period of coordinated somatic growth and reproductive maturation that shifts individuals from nonreproductive juvenility to reproductive maturity. Adolescence includes the behavioral and social assumption of adult roles. Life history theory offers powerful tools for understanding why puberty occurs later in humans than in other primates, including the benefits of delayed reproduction as part of a cooperation-intensive life history strategy. It also sheds light on the ways that pubertal timing responds to environmental variation. I review the mechanisms of maturation in humans and propose biocultural approaches to integrate life historical understandings of puberty with a broader definition of environment to encompass the concept of adolescence.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-102218-011118
2019-10-21
2024-04-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/anthro/48/1/annurev-anthro-102218-011118.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-102218-011118&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Ahmed ML, Ong KK, Dunger DB 2009. Childhood obesity and the timing of puberty. Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 20:237–42
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Altmann J, Alberts SC. 2005. Growth rates in a wild primate population: ecological influences and maternal effects. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 57:490–501
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Apicella CL. 2014. Upper-body strength predicts hunting reputation and reproductive success in Hadza hunter-gatherers. Evol. Hum. Behav. 35:508–18
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Apter D, Raisanen I, Ylostalo P, Vihko R 1987. Follicular growth in relation to serum hormonal patterns in adolescent compared with adult menstrual cycles. Fertil. Steril. 47:82–88
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Avendano MS, Vazquez MJ, Tena-Sempere M 2017. Disentangling puberty: novel neuroendocrine pathways and mechanisms for the control of mammalian puberty. Hum. Reprod. Update 23:737–63
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Barrickman NL, Bastian ML, Isler K, van Schaik CP 2008. Life history costs and benefits of encephalization: a comparative test using data from long-term studies of primates in the wild. J. Hum. Evol. 54:568–90
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Belsky J, Steinberg L, Draper P 1991. Childhood experience, interpersonal development, and reproductive strategy: an evolutionary theory of socialization. Child Dev 62:647–70
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Berger K, Eskenazi B, Kogut K, Parra K, Lustig RH et al. 2018. Association of prenatal urinary concentrations of phthalates and bisphenol A and pubertal timing in boys and girls. Environ. Health Perspect. 126:097004
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Binder AM, Corvalan C, Calafat AM, Ye X, Mericq V et al. 2018. Childhood and adolescent phenol and phthalate exposure and the age of menarche in Latina girls. Environ. Health 17:32
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Blume J. 2014. Are You There God? It's Me, Margaret New York: Simon & Schuster
  11. Bogin B. 1999. Patterns of Human Growth New York/Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  12. Bogin B. 2009. Childhood, adolescence, and longevity: a multilevel model of the evolution of reserve capacity in human life history. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 21:567–77
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Bogin B, Bragg J, Kuzawa C 2014. Humans are not cooperative breeders but practice biocultural reproduction. Ann. Hum. Biol. 41:368–80
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bogin B, Smith BH. 1996. Evolution of the human life cycle. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 8:703–16
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bouvattier C, Carel J-C, Lecointre C, David A, Sultan C et al. 2002. Postnatal changes of T, LH, and FSH in 46,XY infants with mutations in the AR gene. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87:29–32
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Bronikowski AM, Altmann J, Brockman DK, Cords M, Fedigan LM et al. 2011. Aging in the natural world: Comparative data reveal similar mortality patterns across primates. Science 331:1325–28
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Burton LM. 1990. Teenage childbearing as an alternative life-course strategy in multigeneration black families. Hum. Nat. 1:123–43
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Buttke DE, Sircar K, Martin C 2012. Exposures to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and age of menarche in adolescent girls in NHANES (2003–2008). Environ. Health Perspect. 120:1613–18
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Carmody RN, Dannemann M, Briggs AW, Nickel B, Groopman EE et al. 2016. Genetic evidence of human adaptation to a cooked diet. Genome Biol. Evol. 8:1091–103
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Carmody RN, Wrangham RW. 2009. The energetic significance of cooking. J. Hum. Evol. 57:379–91
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Casper RC, Schoeller DA, Kushner R, Hnilicka J, Gold ST 1991. Total daily energy expenditure and activity level in anorexia nervosa. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 53:1143–50
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Castellano JM, Bentsen AH, Mikkelsen JD, Tena-Sempere M 2010. Kisspeptins: bridging energy homeostasis and reproduction. Brain Res 1364:129–38
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Charnov EL, Berrigan D. 1993. Why do primates have such long lifespans and so few babies?. Evol. Anthropol. 1:191–94
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Chisholm JS, Ellison PT, Evans J, Lee P, Lieberman LS et al. 1993. Death, hope, and sex: life-history theory and the development of reproductive strategies. Curr. Anthropol. 34:1–24
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Clarkson J. 2013. Effects of estradiol on kisspeptin neurons during puberty. Front. Neuroendocrinol. 34:120–31
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Cunningham MR, Barbee AP, Pike CL 1990. What do women want? Facialmetric assessment of multiple motives in the perception of male facial physical attractiveness. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 59:61–72
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Day FR, Elks CE, Murray A, Ong KK, Perry JR 2015. Puberty timing associated with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and also diverse health outcomes in men and women: the UK Biobank study. Sci. Rep. 5:11208
    [Google Scholar]
  28. De Bond JA, Smith JT 2014. Kisspeptin and energy balance in reproduction. Reproduction 147:R53–63
    [Google Scholar]
  29. DeJaeger D, Willems PA, Heglund NC 2001. The energy cost of walking in children. Pflüg. Arch. 441:538–43
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Dempfle A, Herpertz-Dahlmann B, Timmesfeld N, Schwarte R, Egberts KM et al. 2013. Predictors of the resumption of menses in adolescent anorexia nervosa. BMC Psychiatry 13:308
    [Google Scholar]
  31. de Onis M, Onyango AW, Borghi E, Siyam A, Nishida C, Siekmann J 2007. Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bull. World Health Organ. 85:660–67
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Dressler WW, Oths KS, Gravlee CC 2005. Race and ethnicity in public health research: models to explain health disparities. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 34:231–52
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Dunsworth H. 2018. Why are women smaller than men? Poster presented at Annu. Meet. Am. Assoc. Phys. Anthropol., 87th, Denver, CO, April 12
  34. Elks CE, Perry JR, Sulem P, Chasman DI, Franceschini N et al. 2010. Thirty new loci for age at menarche identified by a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. Nat. Genet. 42:1077–85
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Ellison PT. 1990. Human ovarian function and reproductive ecology: new hypotheses. Am. Anthropol. 92:933–52
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Ellison PT. 2017. Endocrinology, energetics, and human life history: a synthetic model. Horm. Behav. 91:97–106
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Ellison PT, Bribiescas RG, Bentley GR, Campbell BC, Lipson SF et al. 2002. Population variation in age-related decline in male salivary testosterone. Hum. Reprod. 17:3251–53
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Ellison PT, Lipson SF, O'Rourke MT, Bentley GR, Harrigan AM et al. 1993. Population variation in ovarian function. Lancet 342:433–34
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Ellison PT, Reiches MW. 2013. Puberty. Human Growth and Development N Cameron, B Bogin 81–107 Amsterdam: Elsevier. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Ellison PT, Reiches MW, Shattuck-Faegre H, Breakey A, Konecna M et al. 2012. Puberty as a life history transition. Ann. Hum. Biol. 39:352–60
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Eveleth PB. 1975. Differences between ethnic groups in sex dimorphism of adult height. Ann. Hum. Biol. 2:35–39
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Fausto-Sterling A, Crews D, Sung J, García-Coll C, Seifer R 2015. Multimodal sex-related differences in infant and in infant-directed maternal behaviors during months three through twelve of development. Dev. Psychol. 51:1351–66
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Fenberg PB, Roy K. 2008. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of size‐selective harvesting: How much do we know?. Mol. Ecol. 17:209–20
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Floud R, Floud PR, Gregory A, Wachter K 1990. Height, Health and History: Nutritional Status in the United Kingdom, 1750–1980 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  45. Fujii K, Demura S. 2005. Confirmation of delayed menarche based on regression evaluation of age at menarche for age at MPV of height in female ball game players. Environ. Health Prev. Med. 10:48–54
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Gadgil M, Bossert WH. 1970. Life historical consequences of natural selection. Am. Nat. 104:1–24
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Gowers SG, Crisp AH, Joughin N, Bhat A 1991. Premenarcheal anorexia nervosa. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 32:515–24
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Gray JP, Wolfe LD. 1980. Height and sexual dimorphism of stature among human societies. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 53:441–56
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Gustafsson A, Lindenfors P. 2004. Human size evolution: no evolutionary allometric relationship between male and female stature. J. Hum. Evol. 47:253–66
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Hamada Y, Udono T. 2002. Longitudinal analysis of length growth in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 118:268–84
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Hamada Y, Udono T, Teramoto M, Sugawara T 1996. The growth pattern of chimpanzees: somatic growth and reproductive maturation in Pan troglodytes. . Primates 37:279–95
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Harley KG, Berger KP, Kogut K, Parra K, Lustig RH et al. 2018. Association of phthalates, parabens and phenols found in personal care products with pubertal timing in girls and boys. Hum. Reprod. 34:109–17
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Hawkes K, O'Connell JF, Blurton Jones NG, Alvarez H, Charnov EL 1998. Grandmothering, menopause, and the evolution of human life histories. PNAS 95:1336–39
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Hayes FJ, Crowley WF Jr. 1998. Gonadotropin pulsations across development. Horm. Res. Paediatr. 49:163–68
    [Google Scholar]
  55. He C, Kraft P, Chen C, Buring JE, Paré G et al. 2009. Genome-wide association studies identify loci associated with age at menarche and age at natural menopause. Nat. Genet. 41:724–28
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Hendrick CE, Cance JD, Maslowsky J 2016. Peer and individual risk factors in adolescence explaining the relationship between girls’ pubertal timing and teenage childbearing. J. Youth Adolesc. 45:916–27
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Herman-Giddens ME. 2013. The enigmatic pursuit of puberty in girls. Pediatrics 132:1125–26
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Herman-Giddens ME, Steffes J, Harris D, Slora E, Hussey M et al. 2012. Secondary sexual characteristics in boys: data from the Pediatric Research in Office Settings Network. Pediatrics 130:e1058–68
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Hicks K, Leonard WR, Brewis Slade A, Hruschka D, Clancy KB et al. 2014. Developmental systems and inequality: linking evolutionary and political-economic theory in biological anthropology. Curr. Anthropol. 55:532–50
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Hill K, Hurtado AM. 2017. Ache Life History: The Ecology and Demography of a Foraging People New York: Routledge
  61. Hill K, Hurtado AM, Walker RS 2007. High adult mortality among Hiwi hunter-gatherers: implications for human evolution. J. Hum. Evol. 52:443–54
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Hussain MA, Song WJ, Wolfe A 2015. There is kisspeptin—and then there is kisspeptin. Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 26:564–72
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Johannsen TH, Main KM, Ljubicic ML, Jensen TK, Andersen HR et al. 2018. Sex differences in reproductive hormones during mini-puberty in infants with normal and disordered sex development. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 103:3028–37
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Jolly A. 1985. The evolution of primate behavior: a survey of the primate order traces the progressive development of intelligence as a way of life. Am. Sci. 73:230–39
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Juul A. 2001. The effects of oestrogens on linear bone growth. Hum. Reprod. Update 7:303–13
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Kaplan H, Gurven M. 2005. The natural history of human food sharing and cooperation: a review and a new multi-individual approach to the negotiation of norms. Moral Sentiments and Material Interests: The Foundation of Cooperation H Gintis, S Bowles, RT Boyd, E Fehr 75–113 Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Kaplan H, Hill K, Lancaster J, Hurtado AM 2000. A theory of human life history evolution: diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evol. Anthropol. 9:156–85
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Keski-Rahkonen A, Hoek HW, Susser ES, Linna MS, Sihvola E et al. 2007. Epidemiology and course of anorexia nervosa in the community. Am. J. Psychiatry 164:1259–65
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Kimani-Murage EW. 2013. Exploring the paradox: double burden of malnutrition in rural South Africa. Glob. Health Action 6:19249
    [Google Scholar]
  70. King T, Chamberlan C, Courage A 2005. Rehabilitation of orphan gorillas and bonobos in the Congo. Int. Zoo News 52:198–209
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Klentrou P, Plyley M. 2003. Onset of puberty, menstrual frequency, and body fat in elite rhythmic gymnasts compared with normal controls. Br. J. Sports Med. 37:490–94
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Kramer KL. 2010. Cooperative breeding and its significance to the demographic success of humans. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 39:417–36
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Kramer KL. 2018. The cooperative economy of food: implications for human life history and physiology. Physiol. Behav. 193:196–204
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Kramer KL, Greaves RD. 2010. Synchrony between growth and reproductive patterns in human females: early investment in growth among Pumé foragers. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 141:235–44
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Kramer KL, Greaves RD, Ellison PT 2009. Early reproductive maturity among Pumé foragers: implications of a pooled energy model to fast life histories. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 21:430–37
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Kramer KL, Otárola-Castillo E. 2015. When mothers need others: the impact of hominin life history evolution on cooperative breeding. J. Hum. Evol. 84:16–24
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Kuiri-Hänninen T, Haanpää M, Turpeinen U, Hämäläinen E, Seuri R et al. 2013. Postnatal ovarian activation has effects in estrogen target tissues in infant girls. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 98:4709–16
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Kuiri-Hänninen T, Sankilampi U, Dunkel L 2014. Activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis in infancy: minipuberty. Horm. Res. Paediatr. 82:73–80
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Kuiri-Hänninen T, Seuri R, Tyrvainen E, Turpeinen U, Hämäläinen E et al. 2011. Increased activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–testicular axis in infancy results in increased androgen action in premature boys. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 96:98–105
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Kuzawa CW. 1998. Adipose tissue in human infancy and childhood: an evolutionary perspective. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 27:Suppl.177–209
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Lassek WD, Gaulin SJ. 2009. Costs and benefits of fat-free muscle mass in men: relationship to mating success, dietary requirements, and native immunity. Evol. Hum. Behav. 30:322–28
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Lassek WD, Gaulin SJ. 2018a. Do the low WHRs and BMIs judged most attractive indicate better health?. Evol. Psychol. 16:1474704918803998
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Lassek WD, Gaulin SJ. 2018b. Do the low WHRs and BMIs judged most attractive indicate higher fertility?. Evol. Psychol. 16:1474704918800063
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Lebel C, Beaulieu C. 2011. Longitudinal development of human brain wiring continues from childhood into adulthood. J. Neurosci. 31:10937–47
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Lee RB. 1979. The !Kung San: Men, Women and Work in a Foraging Society Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  86. Lee RB. 2017. What hunters do for a living, or, how to make out on scarce resources. Man the Hunter RB Lee, I DeVore 30–48 New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Leigh SR. 1996. Evolution of human growth spurts. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 101:455–74
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Leigh SR. 2001. Evolution of human growth. Evol. Anthropol. 10:223–36
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Leigh SR, Shea BT. 1996. Ontogeny of body size variation in African apes. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 99:43–65
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Lomniczi A, Wright H, Ojeda SR 2015. Epigenetic regulation of female puberty. Front. Neuroendocrinol. 36:90–107
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Mace R. 2000. Evolutionary ecology of human life history. Anim. Behav. 59:1–10
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Martin MA, Valeggia C. 2018. Timing of pubertal growth and menarche in indigenous Qom girls of Argentina. Ann. Hum. Biol. 45:321–29
    [Google Scholar]
  93. McDade TW, Beck MA, Kuzawa CW, Adair LS 2001. Prenatal undernutrition and postnatal growth are associated with adolescent thymic function. J. Nutr. 131:1225–31
    [Google Scholar]
  94. McDade TW, Reyes-Garcia V, Tanner S, Huanca T, Leonard WR 2008. Maintenance versus growth: investigating the costs of immune activation among children in lowland Bolivia. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 136:478–84
    [Google Scholar]
  95. McGuinn LA, Ghazarian AA, Su LJ, Ellison GL 2015. Urinary bisphenol A and age at menarche among adolescent girls: evidence from NHANES 2003–2010. Environ. Res. 136:381–86
    [Google Scholar]
  96. McIntyre MH, Kacerosky PM. 2011. Age and size at maturity in women: a norm of reaction. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 23:305–12
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Mendle J, Ryan RM, McKone KM 2018. Age at menarche, depression, and antisocial behavior in adulthood. Pediatrics 141:e20171703
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Migliano AB, Vinicius L, Lahr MM 2007. Life history trade-offs explain the evolution of human pygmies. PNAS 104:20216–19
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Milos G, Spindler A, Schnyder U, Martz J, Hoek HW, Willi J 2004. Incidence of severe anorexia nervosa in Switzerland: 40 years of development. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 36:118–19
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Mitsushima D, Hei DL, Terasawa E 1994. Gamma-aminobutyric acid is an inhibitory neurotransmitter restricting the release of luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone before the onset of puberty. PNAS 91:395–99
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Modan-Moses D, Yaroslavsky A, Kochavi B, Toledano A, Segev S et al. 2012. Linear growth and final height characteristics in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa. PLOS ONE 7:e45504
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Modan-Moses D, Yaroslavsky A, Novikov I, Segev S, Toledano A et al. 2003. Stunting of growth as a major feature of anorexia nervosa in male adolescents. Pediatrics 111:270–76
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Moerman ML. 1982. Growth of the birth canal in adolescent girls. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 143:528–32
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Mouritsen A, Aksglaede L, Soerensen K, Hagen CP, Petersen JH et al. 2013. The pubertal transition in 179 healthy Danish children: associations between pubarche, adrenarche, gonadarche, and body composition. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 168:129–36
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Muehlenbein MP, Bribiescas RG. 2005. Testosterone-mediated immune functions and male life histories. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 17:527–58
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Murphy M. 2017. The Economization of Life Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
  107. Must A, Phillips S, Naumova E, Blum M, Harris S et al. 2002. Recall of early menstrual history and menarcheal body size: After 30 years, how well do women remember?. Am. J. Epidemiol. 155:672–79
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Nakai Y, Nin K, Noma S, Teramukai S, Fujikawa K, Wonderlich SA 2018. Changing profile of eating disorders between 1963 and 2004 in a Japanese sample. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 51:953–58
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Núñez-de la Mora A, Chatterton RT, Choudhury OA, Napolitano DA, Bentley GR 2007. Childhood conditions influence adult progesterone levels. PLOS Med 4:e167
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Ong KK, Elks CE, Li S, Zhao JH, Luan J et al. 2009. Genetic variation in LIN28B is associated with the timing of puberty. Nat. Genet. 41:729–33
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Parker LN. 1991. Adrenarche. Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. N. Am. 20:71–83
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Plant TM. 2015. Neuroendocrine control of the onset of puberty. Front. Neuroendocrinol. 38:73–88
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Pontzer H, Brown MH, Raichlen DA, Dunsworth H, Hare B et al. 2016. Metabolic acceleration and the evolution of human brain size and life history. Nature 533:390–92
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Pontzer H, Raichlen DA, Sockol MD 2009. The metabolic cost of walking in humans, chimpanzees, and early hominins. J. Hum. Evol. 56:43–54
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Pontzer H, Wrangham RW. 2006. Ontogeny of ranging in wild chimpanzees. Int. J. Primatol. 27:295
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Pralong FP. 2010. Insulin and NPY pathways and the control of GnRH function and puberty onset. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 324:82–86
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Reiches MW, Ellison PT, Lipson SF, Sharrock KC, Gardiner E, Duncan LG 2009. Pooled energy budget and human life history. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 21:421–29
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Reiches MW, Moore SE, Prentice AM, Ellison PT 2014. Endocrine responses, weight change, and energy sparing mechanisms during Ramadan among Gambian adolescent women. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 26:395–400
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Reznick DA, Bryga H, Endler JA 1990. Experimentally induced life-history evolution in a natural population. Nature 346:357–59
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Ridder CD, Bruning P, Zonderland M, Thijssen J, Bonfrer J et al. 1990. Body fat mass, body fat distribution, and plasma hormones in early puberty in females. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 70:888–93
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Roberts DE. 1999. Killing the Black Body: Race, Reproduction, and the Meaning of Liberty New York: Vintage
  122. Robson SL, Van Schaik C 2006. The derived features of human life history. The Evolution of Human Life History RL Paine, K Hawkes 17–44 Santa Fe, NM: Sch. Am. Res. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Roemmich JN, Richmond RJ, Rogol AD 2001. Consequences of sport training during puberty. J. Endocrinol. Investig. 24:708–15
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Rogers DM, Olson BL, Wilmore JH 1995. Scaling for the VO2-to-body size relationship among children and adults. J. Appl. Physiol. 79:958–67
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Rogers ME, Abernethy K, Bermejo M, Cipolletta C, Doran D et al. 2004. Western gorilla diet: a synthesis from six sites. Am. J. Primatol. 64:173–92
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Schultz AH. 1960. Age Changes in Primates and Their Modification in Man London: Pergamon
  127. Sear R, Sheppard P, Coall DA 2019. Cross-cultural evidence does not support universal acceleration of puberty in father-absent households. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 374:20180124
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Shattuck-Heidorn H, Reiches MW, Prentice AM, Moore SE, Ellison PT 2016. Energetics and the immune system: trade-offs associated with non-acute levels of CRP in adolescent Gambian girls. Evol. Med. Public Health 2017:27–38
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Sheppard P, Garcia JR, Sear R 2014. A not-so-grim tale: how childhood family structure influences reproductive and risk-taking outcomes in a historical US population. PLOS ONE 9:e89539
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Silventoinen K, Haukka J, Dunkel L, Tynelius P, Rasmussen F 2008. Genetics of pubertal timing and its associations with relative weight in childhood and adult height: the Swedish Young Male Twins Study. Pediatrics 121:e885–91
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Sironi M, Furstenberg FF. 2012. Trends in the economic independence of young adults in the United States: 1973–2007. Popul. Dev. Rev. 38:609–30
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Smith TM, Tafforeau P, Le Cabec A, Bonnin A, Houssaye A et al. 2015. Dental ontogeny in pliocene and early pleistocene hominins. PLOS ONE 10:e0118118
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Smith TM, Tafforeau P, Reid DJ, Pouech J, Lazzari V et al. 2010. Dental evidence for ontogenetic differences between modern humans and Neanderthals. PNAS 107:20923–28
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Sohn K. 2014. Age and size at maturity in Indonesian women: a norm of reaction?. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 26:713–15
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Sohn K. 2017. The null relation between father absence and earlier menarche. Hum. Nat. 28:407–22
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Stearns S. 1992. The Evolution of Life Histories New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  137. Steinberg L. 2009. Adolescent development and juvenile justice. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 5:459–85
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Steudel-Numbers KL, Tilkens MJ. 2004. The effect of lower limb length on the energetic cost of locomotion: implications for fossil hominins. J. Hum. Evol. 47:95–109
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Stinson S. 1985. Sex differences in environmental sensitivity during growth and development. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 28:123–47
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Sweet E. 2018. “Like you failed at life”: debt, health and neoliberal subjectivity. Soc. Sci. Med. 212:86–93
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Swenne I, Thurfjell B. 2003. Clinical onset and diagnosis of eating disorders in premenarcheal girls is preceded by inadequate weight gain and growth retardation. Acta Paediatr 92:1133–37
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Tanner JM. 1962. Growth at Adolescence: With a General Consideration of the Effects of Hereditary and Environmental Factors upon Growth and Maturation from Birth to Maturity Oxford, UK: Blackwell
  143. Tanner JM. 1989. Fetus into Man: From Conception to Maturity Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  144. Taylor P, Cohn DV, Livingston G, Wang W, Dockterman D 2010. The new demography of American motherhood Soc. Demogr. Trends Rep., Pew Res. Cent., Washington, DC. https://www.pewresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2010/10/754-new-demography-of-motherhood.pdf
  145. Towne B, Czerwinski SA, Demerath EW, Blangero J, Roche AF, Siervogel RM 2005. Heritability of age at menarche in girls from the Fels Longitudinal Study. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 128:210–19
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Tutin CE, Fernandez M. 1993. Composition of the diet of chimpanzees and comparisons with that of sympatric lowland gorillas in the Lopé Reserve. Gabon: Am. J. Primatol. 30:195–211
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Udo T, Grilo CM. 2018. Prevalence and correlates of DSM-5-defined eating disorders in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Biol. Psychiatry 84:345–54
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Uenoyama Y, Pheng V, Tsukamura H, Maeda KI 2016. The roles of kisspeptin revisited: inside and outside the hypothalamus. J. Reprod. Dev. 62:537–45
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Urlacher SS, Blackwell AD, Liebert MA, Madimenos FC, Cepon-Robins TJ et al. 2016. Physical growth of the Shuar: height, weight, and BMI references for an indigenous Amazonian population. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:16–30
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Urlacher SS, Ellison PT, Sugiyama LS, Pontzer H, Eick G et al. 2018. Tradeoffs between immune function and childhood growth among Amazonian forager-horticulturalists. PNAS 115:E3914–21
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Uskul AK. 2004. Women's menarche stories from a multicultural sample. Soc. Sci. Med. 59:667–79
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Walker R, Gurven M, Hill K, Migliano A, Chagnon N et al. 2006. Growth rates and life histories in twenty-two small-scale societies. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 18:295–311
    [Google Scholar]
  153. WHO (World Health Organ.) 2018. Double burden of malnutrition Nutr. Health Top., Dep. Nutr. Health Dev., WHO, Geneva. https://www.who.int/nutrition/double-burden-malnutrition/en/
  154. Wickings E, Dixson A. 1992. Testicular function, secondary sexual development, and social status in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx). Physiol. Behav. 52:909–16
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Wolff MS, Pajak A, Pinney SM, Windham GC, Galvez M et al. 2017. Associations of urinary phthalate and phenol biomarkers with menarche in a multiethnic cohort of young girls. Reprod. Toxicol. 67:56–64
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Worthman CM, Trang K. 2018. Dynamics of body time, social time and life history at adolescence. Nature 554:451–57
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Wrangham R, Conklin-Brittain N. 2003. Cooking as a biological trait. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 136:35–46
    [Google Scholar]
  158. Zullinger EM, Ricklefs RE, Redford KH, Mace GM 1984. Fitting sigmoidal equations to mammalian growth curves. J. Mammal. 65:607–36
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-102218-011118
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-102218-011118
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error