Urban centers have inner and outer landscapes whose physical remains can be read as the materialization of social, political, economic, and ritual interactions. Inner landscapes are manifested in architecture and spatial organizations that configure relationships on the basis of economic status, ethnicity, occupation, age grade, and gender within the city. Outer landscapes are composed of the hinterlands on which urban centers depend for resources, including agricultural products and in-migrating laborers who seek economic and social opportunities. Urban-based elites reach deep into the countryside not only as a matter of political control, but also for investment of centralized resources into infrastructure such as canals, roads, and territorial borders. The monumental and household configurations of cities, expressed both at the heart of urban centers and in their countrysides, enable a distinct phenomenology of interaction mapped into daily experiences.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Abu-Lughod J. 1969. Migrant adjustment to city life: the Egyptian case. The City in Newly Developing Countries GW Breese 376–88 Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall [Google Scholar]
  2. Acuto FA, Troncoso A, Ferrari A. 2012. Recognising strategies for conquered territories: a case study from the Inka North Calchaquí Valley. Antiquity 86:1141–54 [Google Scholar]
  3. Adams RMcC. 1981. Heartland of Cities: Surveys of Ancient Settlement and Land Use on the Central Floodplain of the Euphrates Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  4. Adams RMcC. 2012. Ancient Mesopotamian urbanism and blurred disciplinary boundaries. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 41:1–20 [Google Scholar]
  5. Ahmed QA, Arabi YM, Memish ZA. 2006. Health risks at the Hajj. Lancet 367:1008–15 [Google Scholar]
  6. Ambrose-Oji B. 2009. Urban food systems and African indigenous vegetables: defining the spaces and places for African indigenous vegetables in urban and peri-urban agriculture. African Indigenous Vegetables in Urban Agriculture CM Shackleton, MW Pasquini, AW Drescher 1–33 London: Earthscan [Google Scholar]
  7. Anbinder T. 2001. Five Points: The 19th-Century New York City Neighborhood that Invented Tap Dance, Stole Elections, and Became the World's Most Notorious Slum New York: Free Press
  8. Andersson JA. 2001. Reinterpreting the rural-urban connection: migration practices and socio-cultural dispositions of Buhera workers in Harare. Africa 71:182–112 [Google Scholar]
  9. Anschuetz KF, Wilshusen RH, Scheick CL. 2001. Archaeology of landscapes: perspectives and directions. J. Archaeol. Res. 9:2157–211 [Google Scholar]
  10. Ardren T, Lowry J. 2011. The travels of Maya merchants in the ninth and tenth centuries AD: investigations at Xuenkal and the Greater Cupul Province, Yucatan, Mexico. World Archaeol. 43:3428–43 [Google Scholar]
  11. Ashmore W, Sharer RJ. 2000. Discovering Our Past: A Brief Introduction to Archaeology Mountain View, CA: Mayfield, 3rd ed..
  12. Barthel S, Isendahl C. 2012. Urban gardens, agriculture, and water management: sources of resilience for long-term food security in cities. Ecol. Econ. 86:224–34 [Google Scholar]
  13. Bethard JD. 2013. The bioarchaeology of Inka resettlement practices: insight from biological distance analysis PhD Diss., Dep. Anthropol., Univ. Tenn., Knoxville
  14. Bowser BJ, Zedeño MN. 2009. The Archaeology of Meaningful Places Salt Lake City: Univ. Utah Press
  15. Brady JE, Ashmore W. 1999. Mountains, caves, water: ideational landscapes of the ancient Maya. Archaeologies of Landscape: Contemporary Perspectives W Ashmore, AB Knapp 124–45 Malden, MA: Blackwell [Google Scholar]
  16. Branting SA. 2004. Iron Age pedestrians at Kerkenes Dağ: an archaeological GIS-T approach to movement and transportation PhD Diss., State Univ. N.Y., Buffalo
  17. Brinkley D. 2006. The Great Deluge: Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans, and the Mississippi Gulf Coast New York: Morrow
  18. Brouwer R, Falcão MP. 2004. Wood fuel consumption in Maputo, Mozambique. Biomass Bioenergy 27:233–45 [Google Scholar]
  19. Brown SJ. 2009. The Women of Liulichang: female collectors and bibliophiles in the Late Qing. Material Women, 1750–1950 MD Goggin, BF Tobin 279–94 Burlington, VT: Ashgate [Google Scholar]
  20. Buckley BM, Anchukaitis KJ, Penny D, Fletcher R, Cook ER. et al. 2010. Climate as a contributing factor in the demise of Angkor, Cambodia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 107:156748–52 [Google Scholar]
  21. Campbell M. 2006. Memory and monumentality in the Rarotongan landscape. Antiquity 80:102–17 [Google Scholar]
  22. Carman T. 2012. Foreword. Phenomenology of Perception M Merleau-Ponty vii–xvi Abingdon, UK: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  23. Chase AF, Chase DZ. 2007. Ancient Maya urban development: insights from the archaeology of Caracol, Belize. Belizean Stud. 29:260–72 [Google Scholar]
  24. Chase AF, Chase DZ, Weishampel JF, Drake JB, Shrestha RL. et al. 2011. Airborne LiDAR, archaeology, and the ancient Maya landscape at Caracol, Belize. J. Archaeol. Sci. 38:387–98 [Google Scholar]
  25. Coningham RAE, Gunawardhana P, Manuel M, Adikari G, Katugampola M. et al. 2007. The state of theocracy: defining an early medieval hinterland in Sri Lanka. Antiquity 81:699–719 [Google Scholar]
  26. Corbier M. 1991. City, territory and taxation. City and Country in the Ancient World J Rich, A Wallace-Hadrill 211–39 London: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  27. Cowgill GL. 2003. Teotihuacan: cosmic glories and mundane needs. See ML Smith 2003 37–55
  28. Cowgill GL. 2004. Origins and development of urbanism: archaeological perspectives. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 33:525–49 [Google Scholar]
  29. Cowgill GL. 2008. An update on Teotihuacan. Antiquity 82:962–75 [Google Scholar]
  30. Creekmore A. 2010. The structure of Upper Mesopotamian cities: insight from fluxgate gradiometer survey at Kazane Höyük, southeastern Turkey. Archaeol. Prospect. 17:273–88 [Google Scholar]
  31. Creekmore AT III, Fisher KD. 2014. Making Ancient Cities: Space and Place in Early Urban Societies Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ . Press
  32. David N, Kramer C. 2001. Ethnoarchaeology in Action Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  33. Davis M. 2006. Planet of Slums London: Verso
  34. Dennehy TJ. 2013. Security in the city. SAA Archaeol. Rec. 13:528–32 [Google Scholar]
  35. Dickson DB. 2006. Public transcripts expressed in theatres of cruelty: the royal graves at Ur in Mesopotamia. Cambridge Archaeol. J. 16:2123–44 [Google Scholar]
  36. Douglas I, Alam K, Maghenda M, McDonnell Y, McLean L, Campbell J. 2008. Unjust waters: climate change, flooding and the urban poor in Africa. Environ. Urban. 20:187–205 [Google Scholar]
  37. Emery KF. 2010. Dietary, Environmental, and Societal Implications of Ancient Maya Animal Use in the Petexbatun: A Zooarchaeological Perspective on the Collapse Nashville: Vanderbilt Univ. Press
  38. Erdkamp PPM. 2001. Beyond the limits of the ‘consumer city’: a model of the urban and rural economy in the Roman world. Hist. Z. Alte Gesch. 50:3332–56 [Google Scholar]
  39. Erickson CL, Walker CL. 2009. Precolumbian causeways and canals as landesque capital. Landscapes of Movement: Trails, Paths, and Roads in Anthropological Perspective JE Snead, CL Erickson, JA Darling 233–52 Philadelphia: Univ. Pa. Mus. Archaeol. Anthropol. [Google Scholar]
  40. Evans DH, Fletcher RJ, Pottier C, Chevance J-B, Soutif D. et al. 2013. Uncovering archaeological landscapes at Angkor using LiDAR. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110:3112595–600 [Google Scholar]
  41. Falconer SE, Fall PL. 1995. Human impacts on the environment during the rise and collapse of civilization in the eastern Mediterranean. Late Quaternary Environments and Deep History: A Tribute to Paul S. Martin DW Steadman, JI Mead 84–101 Sci. Pap. Vol. 3. Hot Springs, SD: Mammoth Site Hot Springs, South Dakota [Google Scholar]
  42. Fisher K, Creekmore A. 2014. Making ancient cities: new perspectives on the production of urban spaces. See Creekmore & Fisher 2014 1–31
  43. Flad RK, Chen P. 2013. Ancient Central China: Centers and Peripheries Along the Yangzi River Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  44. Fletcher R, Penny D, Evans D, Pottier C, Barbetti M. et al. 2008. The water management network of Angkor, Cambodia. Antiquity 82:658–70 [Google Scholar]
  45. Fustel de Coulanges ND. 1864. La cité antique Paris/Strasbourg: Durand
  46. Gallon M. 2013. Ideology, identity and the construction of urban communities: the archaeology of Kamphaeng Saen, Central Thailand (c. fifth to ninth century CE). PhD Diss., Dep. Anthropol., Univ. Mich., Ann Arbor [Google Scholar]
  47. Garnsey P. 1983. Grain for Rome. Trade in the Ancient Economy P Garnsey, K Hopkins, CR Whittaker 118–30 Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  48. Glaeser E. 2011. Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier New York: Penguin
  49. Golden CW. 2003. The politics of warfare in the Usumacinta Basin: La Pasadita and the realm of Bird Jaguar. Ancient Mesoamerican Warfare MK Brown, TW Stanton 31–48 Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira [Google Scholar]
  50. Goodman PJ. 2007. The Roman City and Its Periphery: From Rome to Gaul London: Routledge
  51. Grieco M. 1995. Transported lives: urban social networks and labour circulation. The Urban Context: Ethnicity, Social Networks and Situational Analysis A Rogers, S Vertovec 189–212 Oxford: Berg [Google Scholar]
  52. Hanson JW. 2011. The urban system of Roman Asia Minor and wider urban connectivity. Settlement, Urbanization, and Population A Bowman, A Wilson 229–75 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  53. Harmanşah Ö. 2007. ‘Source of the Tigris’: event, place, and performance in the Assyrian landscapes of the Early Iron Age. Archaeol. Dialogues 14:2179–204 [Google Scholar]
  54. Harmanşah Ö. 2012. Beyond Aššur: new cities and the Assyrian politics of landscape. Bull. Am. Sch. Orient. Res. 365:53–77 [Google Scholar]
  55. Hartman G, Bar-Oz G, Bouchnick R, Reich R. 2013. The pilgrimage economy of Early Roman Jerusalem (1st century BCE–70 CE) reconstructed from the δ15N and δ13C values of goat and sheep remains. J. Archaeol. Sci. 40:4369–76 [Google Scholar]
  56. Hegmon M. 2013. The archaeology of the human experience. SAA Archaeol. Rec. 13:516–19 [Google Scholar]
  57. Heiman R, Freeman C, Leichty M. 2012. The Global Middle Classes: Theorizing Through Ethnography Santa Fe, NM: Sch. Adv. Res. Press
  58. Hirth K. 2013. Economic consumption and domestic economy in Cholula's rural hinterland, Mexico. Latin Am. Antiq. 24:2123–48 [Google Scholar]
  59. Hodell DA, Quinn RL, Brenner M, Kamenov G. 2004. Spatial variation of strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) in the Maya region: a tool for tracking ancient human migration. J. Archaeol. Sci. 31:5585–601 [Google Scholar]
  60. Holtorf C, Fairclough G. 2013. The New Heritage and re-shapings of the past. Reclaiming Archaeology: Beyond the Tropes of Modernity A González-Ruibal 197–210 New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  61. Inomata T, Coben LS. 2006. Archaeology of Performance: Theaters of Power, Community, and Politics Lanham, MD: AltaMira
  62. Iyenda G. 2005. Street enterprises, urban livelihoods and poverty in Kinshasa. Environ. Urban. 17:255–67 [Google Scholar]
  63. Janusek JW, Kolata AL. 2004. Top-down or bottom-up: rural settlement and raised field agriculture in the Lake Titicaca Basin, Bolivia. J. Anthropol. Archaeol. 23:404–30 [Google Scholar]
  64. Jeffery R, Jeffery P, Jeffery C. 2011. Are rich rural Jats middle-class?. Elite and Everyman: The Cultural Politics of the Indian Middle Classes A Baviskar, R Ray 140–63 New Delhi: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  65. Jenkins D. 2001. A network analysis of Inka roads, administrative centers, and storage facilities. Ethnohistory 48:4655–87 [Google Scholar]
  66. Joffe AH. 1998. Disembedded capitals in West Asian perspective. Comp. Stud. Soc. Hist. 40:3549–80 [Google Scholar]
  67. Johnson MH. 2012. Phenomenological approaches in landscape archaeology. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 41:269–84 [Google Scholar]
  68. Kaldjian PJ. 2004. Istanbul's bostans: a millennium of market gardens. Geogr. Rev. 94:3284–304 [Google Scholar]
  69. Keith K. 2003. The spatial patterns of everyday life in Old Babylonian neighborhoods. See ML Smith 2003 56–80
  70. Kenoyer JM. 1998. Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford Univ. Press
  71. Khalaf S, Kongstad P. 1973. Hamra of Beirut: A Case of Rapid Urbanization Leiden: E.J. Brill
  72. Khazeni A. 2010. The city of Balkh and the central Eurasian caravan trade in the early nineteenth century. Comp. Stud. South Asia, Afr. Middle East 30:3463–72 [Google Scholar]
  73. Kim NC. 2013. Lasting monuments and durable institutions: labor, urbanism, and statehood in Northern Vietnam and beyond. J. Archaeol. Res. 21:1217–67 [Google Scholar]
  74. Kim NC, Toi LV, Hiep TH. 2010. Co Loa: an investigation of Vietnam's ancient capital. Antiquity 84:1011–27 [Google Scholar]
  75. Klarich EA. 2010. Inside Ancient Kitchens: New Directions in the Study of Daily Meals and Feasts Boulder: Univ. Press Colo.
  76. Klein Goldewijk K, Beusen A, van Drecht G, de Vos M. 2011. The HYDE 3.1 spatially explicit database of human-induced global land-use change over the past 12,000 years. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 20:73–86 [Google Scholar]
  77. Knappett C. 2013. Network Analysis in Archaeology: New Approaches to Regional Interaction Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  78. Kohn AS. 2010. The production of urban vernacular space in a postcolonial context: city-building and social transformation from the margins of La Paz, Bolivia PhD Diss., Dep. Anthropol., Univ. Chicago
  79. Laurence R. 1994. Roman Pompeii: Space and Society London: Routledge
  80. Lu H. 1995. Creating urban outcasts: shantytowns in Shanghai, 1920–1950. J. Urban Hist. 21:563–96 [Google Scholar]
  81. Lu X. 1998. Rhetoric in Ancient China, Fifth to Third Century B.C.E.: A Comparison with Classical Greek Rhetoric. Columbia: Univ. S.C. Press
  82. Lusambili AM. 2007. Environmental sanitation and gender among the urban poor: a case study of the Kibera slum, Kenya PhD Diss., Dep. Anthropol., Am. Univ., Washington DC
  83. Marcus J. 2003. Recent advances in Maya archaeology. J. Archaeol. Res. 11:271–148 [Google Scholar]
  84. Martin AK, Kryst S. 1998. Encountering Mary: ritualization and place contagion in postmodernity. Places Through the Body HJ Nast, S Pile 207–29 London: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  85. Mattingly DJ. 1992. The field survey: strategy, methodology and preliminary results. Leptiminus (Lamta): A Roman Port City in Tunisia N Ben Lazreg, DJ Mattingly 89–114 J. Rom. Archaeol. Suppl. No. 4 Ann Arbor: Kelsey Mus., Univ. Mich. [Google Scholar]
  86. Mattingly DJ, Stone D, Stirling L, Ben Lazreg N. 2001. Leptiminus (Tunisia): a ‘producer’ city?. Economies Beyond Agriculture in the Classical World DJ Mattingly, J Salmon 66–89 London: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  87. McCorriston J. 1997. The fiber revolution: textile extensification, alienation, and social stratification in ancient Mesopotamia. Curr. Anthropol. 38:4517–35 [Google Scholar]
  88. McMahon A, Sołtysiak A, Weber J. 2011. Late Chalcolithic mass graves at Tell Brak, Syria, and violent conflict during the growth of early city-states. J. Field Archaeol. 36:3201–20 [Google Scholar]
  89. McNeil CL, Burney DA, Burney LP. 2010. Evidence disputing deforestation as the cause for the collapse of the ancient Maya polity of Copan, Honduras. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107:31017–22 [Google Scholar]
  90. Mohamed-Ali MA, Herbich T, Grzymski K, Hobbs R. 2012. Magnetic gradient and electrical resistivity tomography surveys in Meroe, the capital city of the Kush kingdom, Sudan. Archaeol. Prospect. 19:59–68 [Google Scholar]
  91. Moore JD. 2005. Cultural Landscapes in the Ancient Andes: Archaeologies of Place Gainesville: Univ. Press Fla.
  92. Morrison KD. 1994. The intensification of production: archaeological approaches. J. Archaeol. Method Theory 1:2111–59 [Google Scholar]
  93. Morrison KD. 2000 (1995). Fields of Victory: Vijayanagara and the Course of Intensification New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal
  94. Mrozowski SA. 2006. Environments of history: biological dimensions of historical archaeology. Historical Archaeology M Hall, SW Silliman 23–41 Malden, MA: Blackwell [Google Scholar]
  95. Mustafa D. 2005. The production of an urban hazardscape in Pakistan: modernity, vulnerability, and the range of choice. Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr. 95:3566–86 [Google Scholar]
  96. Nenzi LND. 2008. Excursions in Identity: Travel and the Intersection of Place, Gender, and Status in Edo Japan Honolulu: Univ. Hawai'i
  97. Nguyen TA, Rigg J, Luong TTH, Dinh TD. 2012. Becoming and being urban in Hanoi: rural-urban migration and relations in Viet Nam. J. Peasant Stud. 39:51103–31 [Google Scholar]
  98. Nichols DL, Spence MW, Borland MD. 1991. Watering the fields of Teotihuacan: early irrigation at the ancient city. Ancient Mesoam. 2:119–29 [Google Scholar]
  99. Pepper S, Richmond P. 2009. Homes unfit for heroes: the slum problem in London and Neville Chamberlain's Unhealthy Areas Committee, 1919–21. Town Plan. Rev. 80:2143–71 [Google Scholar]
  100. Pollard J. 2008. Deposition and material agency in the Early Neolithic of southern Britain. Memory Work: Archaeologies of Material Practices BJ Mills, WH Walker 41–59 Santa Fe, NM: Sch. Adv. Res. [Google Scholar]
  101. Porter BN. 2001. The importance of place: Esarhaddon's stelae at Til Barsnip and Sam'al. Historiography in the Cuneiform World T Abusch, P-A Beaulieu, J Huehnergard, P Machinist, P Steinkeller, et al. 373–90 Bethesda, MD: CDL Press [Google Scholar]
  102. Price TD, Manzanilla L, Middleton WD. 2000. Immigration and the ancient city of Teotihuacan in Mexico: a study using strontium isotope ratios in human bone and teeth. J. Archaeol. Sci. 27:10903–13 [Google Scholar]
  103. Quirke S. 1991. “Townsmen” in the Middle Kingdom. Z. Äegypt. Spr. Altertumskunde 118:2141–49 [Google Scholar]
  104. Rapoport A. 1982. The Meaning of the Built Environment: A Nonverbal Communication Approach Tucson: Univ. Ariz. Press
  105. Redman CL. 1999. Human Impact on Ancient Environments Tucson: Univ. Ariz. Press
  106. Reid JJ, Schiffer MB, Rathje WL. 1975. Behavioral archaeology: four strategies. Am. Anthropol. 77:4864–69 [Google Scholar]
  107. Richardson G, McBride M. 2009. Religion, longevity, and cooperation: the case of the craft guild. J. Econ. Behav. Organ. 71:2172–86 [Google Scholar]
  108. Rodning C. 2010. Place, landscape, and environment: anthropological archaeology in 2009. Am. Anthropol. 112:2180–90 [Google Scholar]
  109. Safi KN, Mazariegos OC, Lipo CP, Neff H. 2012. Using ground-penetrating radar to examine spatial organization at the Late Classic Maya Site of El Baúl, Cotzumalhuapa, Guatemala. Geoarchaeology 27:410–25 [Google Scholar]
  110. Sanders J, Nee V, Sernau S. 2002. Asian immigrants' reliance on social ties in a multiethnic labor market. Soc. Forces 81:1281–314 [Google Scholar]
  111. Sanders WT, Parsons JR, Santley RS. 1979. The Basin of Mexico: Ecological Processes in the Evolution of a Civilization New York: Academic
  112. Sassen S. 2004. Going beyond the national state in the USA: the politics of minoritized groups in global cities. Diogenes 51:20359–65 [Google Scholar]
  113. Scarborough VL. 2003. The Flow of Power: Ancient Water Systems and Landscapes Santa Fe, NM: Sch. Am. Res.
  114. Scheld S. 2007. Youth cosmopolitanism: clothing, the city and globalization in Dakar, Senegal. City Soc. 19:232–53 [Google Scholar]
  115. Scott JC. 1985. Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press
  116. Shaw JC. 2013. Buddhist Landscapes in Central India: Sanchi Hill and Archaeologies of Religious and Social Change, c. Third Century BC to Fifth Century AD. London: Br. Assoc. South Asian Stud.
  117. Singh GK, Siahpush M. 2002. Increasing rural-urban gradients in US suicide mortality, 1970–1997. Am. J. Public Health 92:71161–67 [Google Scholar]
  118. Sinopoli CM. 2003. The Political Economy of Craft Production: Crafting Empire in South India, c. 1350–1650 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  119. Smith AT. 2003. The Political Landscape: Constellations of Authority in Early Complex Polities Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
  120. Smith ME. 2010. Sprawl, squatters and sustainable cities: Can archaeological data shed light on modern urban Issues?. Cambridge Archaeol. J. 20:2229–53 [Google Scholar]
  121. Smith ML. 2003. The Social Construction of Ancient Cities Washington, DC: Smithson. Inst. Press
  122. Smith ML. 2006a. The archaeology of food preference. Am. Anthropol. 108:3480–93 [Google Scholar]
  123. Smith ML. 2006b. The archaeology of South Asian cities. J. Archaeol. Res. 14:297–142 [Google Scholar]
  124. Smith ML. 2012. Seeking abundance: consumption as a motivating factor in cities past and present. Res. Econ. Anthropol. 32:27–51 [Google Scholar]
  125. Snead JE. 2008. Ancestral Landscapes of the Pueblo World Tucson: Univ. Ariz. Press
  126. Stark BL. 2014. Ancient open spaces, gardens, and parks: a comparative discussion of Mesoamerican urbanism. See Creekmore & Fisher 2014 370–406
  127. Stark BL, Ossa A. 2007. Ancient settlement, urban gardening, and environment in the Gulf Lowlands of Mexico. Latin Am. Antiq. 18:4385–406 [Google Scholar]
  128. Stein GJ. 2002. From passive periphery to active agents: emerging perspectives in the archaeology of interregional interaction. Am. Anthropol. 104:3903–16 [Google Scholar]
  129. Steinkeller P. 2007. City and countryside in third-millennium southern Babylonia. Settlement and Society: Essays Dedicated to Robert McCormick Adams EC Stone 185–212 Los Angeles: Cotsen Inst. Archaeol., Univ. Calif. [Google Scholar]
  130. Stissi V. 2013. Giving the kerameikos a context: ancient Greek potters' quarters as part of the polis space, economy and society. “Quartiers” artisanaux en Grèce ancienne: Une perspective méditerranéen A Esposito, GM Sanidas 201–30 Lille: Press. Univ. Septentrion [Google Scholar]
  131. Stol M. 1995. Women in Mesopotamia. J. Econ. Soc. Hist. Orient 38:2123–44 [Google Scholar]
  132. Stone EC. 2013. The organization of a Sumerian town: the physical remains of ancient social systems. The Sumerian World ed. H Crawford 156–77 New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  133. Storey R. 1992. Life and Death in the Ancient City of Teotihuacan: A Modern Paleodemographic Synthesis Tuscaloosa: Univ. Ala. Press
  134. Streicker J. 1997. Spatial reconfigurations, imagined geographies, and social conflicts in Cartagena, Colombia. Cult. Anthropol. 12:1109–28 [Google Scholar]
  135. Sugiyama S. 2005. Human Sacrifice, Militarism, and Rulership: Materialization of State Ideology at the Feathered Serpent Pyramid, Teotihuacan Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  136. Swenson ER. 2003. Cities of violence: sacrifice, power and urbanization in the Andes. J. Soc. Archaeol. 3:2256–96 [Google Scholar]
  137. Taylor PJ. 2013. Extraordinary Cities: Millennia of Moral Syndromes, World-Systems and City/State Relations Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar
  138. Tilley C, Bennett W. 2004. The Materiality of Stone: Explorations in Landscape Phenomenology Oxford: Berg
  139. Ur JA. 2003. CORONA satellite photography and ancient road networks: a northern Mesopotamian case study. Antiquity 77:295102–15 [Google Scholar]
  140. Ur JA. 2006. Google Earth and archaeology. SAA Archaeol. Rec. 6:335–38 [Google Scholar]
  141. Ur JA. 2012. Southern Mesopotamia. A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East DT Potts 533–55 Malden, MA: Blackwell [Google Scholar]
  142. van de Pol L, Kuijpers E. 2005. Poor women's migration to the city: the attraction of Amsterdam health care and social assistance in early modern times. J. Urban Hist. 32:144–60 [Google Scholar]
  143. van der Veen M. 2011. Consumption, Trade and Innovation: Exploring the Botanical Remains from the Roman and Islamic Ports at Quseir al-Qadim, Egypt J. Afr. Archaeol. Monogr. Ser. 6 Frankfurt, Ger.: Afr . Magna Verlag
  144. Van Dyke R. 2008. The Chaco Experience: Landscape and Ideology at the Center Place Santa Fe, NM: Sch. Adv. Res.
  145. von Falkenhausen L. 2008. Stages in the development of “cities” in pre-Imperial China. The Ancient City: New Perspectives on Urbanism in the Old and New Worlds J Marcus, JA Sabloff 209–28 Santa Fe, NM: Sch. Adv. Res. [Google Scholar]
  146. Wallerstein I. 1974. The Modern World-System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century San Diego: Academic
  147. Weber M. 1958 (1921). The City transl. D Martindale, G Neuwirth Glencoe, IL: Free Press
  148. Webb MC. 1975. The flag follows trade: an essay on the necessary interaction of military and commercial factors in state formation. Ancient Civilization and Trade JA Sabloff, CC Lamberg-Karlovsky 155–209 Albuquerque: Univ. N.M. Press [Google Scholar]
  149. Webber G, Edwards N, Graham ID, Amaratunga C, Keane V, Socheat R. 2010. Life in the big city: the multiple vulnerabilities of migrant Cambodian garment factory workers to HIV. Women's Stud. Int. Forum 33:159–69 [Google Scholar]
  150. Webster D, Murtha T, Straight KD, Silverstein J, Martinez H. et al. 2007. The Great Tikal Earthwork revisited. J. Field Archaeol. 32:141–64 [Google Scholar]
  151. Wheatley P. 1971. The Pivot of the Four Quarters: A Preliminary Enquiry into the Origins and Character of the Ancient Chinese City Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press
  152. Wilkinson TJ. 1982. The definition of ancient manured zones by means of extensive sherd-sampling techniques. J. Field Archaeol. 9:3323–33 [Google Scholar]
  153. Wilson TD. 1992. Vamos para buscar la vida: a comparison of patterns of outmigration from a rancho in Jalisco and internal migration into a Mexicali squatter settlement PhD Diss., Univ. Calif., Los Angeles
  154. Wirth L. 1938. Urbanism as a way of life. Am. J. Sociol. 44:11–24 [Google Scholar]
  155. Wright HT. 1986. The evolution of civilizations. American Archaeology Past and Future: A Celebration of the Society for American Archaeology, 1935–1985 D Meltzer, D Fowler, J Sabloff 323–68 Washington, DC: Smithson. Inst. Press [Google Scholar]
  156. Wright HT, Johnson GA. 1975. Population, exchange, and early state formation in Southwestern Iran. Am. Anthropol. 77:267–89 [Google Scholar]
  157. Yoffee N. 1995. Political economy in early Mesopotamian states. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 24:281–311 [Google Scholar]
  158. Young AL. 2000. Archaeology of Southern Urban Landscapes Tuscaloosa: Univ. Ala. Press
  159. Yu H. 2004. Los Angeles and American studies in a Pacific world of migrations. Am. Q. 56:3531–43 [Google Scholar]
  160. Zarkadoulas N, Koutsoyiannis D, Mamassis N, Angelakis AN. 2012. A brief history of urban water management in ancient Greece. Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia AN Angelakis, LW Mays, D Koutsoyiannis, N Mamassis 259–70 London: IWA [Google Scholar]
  161. Zeder MA. 1991. Feeding Cities Washington, DC: Smithson. Inst. Press
  162. Zeder MA. 2012. The Broad Spectrum Revolution at 40: resource diversity, intensification, and an alternative to optimal foraging explanations. J. Anthropol. Archaeol. 31:3241–64 [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error