Since its enactment over five decades ago, the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) and the organizations, policies, and regulations implementing it have strongly influenced how archaeology is conducted in the United States. The NHPA created a national network of archaeologists in government agencies. This network reviews the possible impact on important archaeological resources of tens of thousands of public projects planned each year. These reviews often include investigations, of which there have been millions. The archaeological profession has shifted from one oriented mainly on academic research and teaching to one focused on field investigations, planning, resource management, public outreach, and resource protection, bundled under the term cultural resource management (CRM). Since 1966, growth has produced good outcomes as well as some troubling developments. Current and new challenges include avoiding lock-step, overly bureaucratic procedures and finding the financial, professional, and technical resources, as well as political support, to build on the achievements so far.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. ACHP (Advis. Counc. Hist. Preserv.) 1986. Twenty Years of the National Historic Preservation Act Washington, DC: ACHP
  2. ACHP (Advis. Counc. Hist. Preserv.) 2011. Plan for reviewing the regulations implementing Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act pursuant to Executive Order 13563 “Improving Regulation and Regulatory Practice ACHP Plan Aug. 17. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/other/2011-regulatory-action-plans/advisorycouncilonhistoricpreservationregulatoryreformplanaugust2011.pdf
  3. ACHP (Advis. Counc. Hist. Preserv.) 2014. The National Historic Preservation Act As Amended through December 19, 2014 and Codified in Title 54 of the United States Code Doc. ACHP Washington, DC: https://www.achp.gov/sites/default/files/2018-06/nhpa.pdf
  4. ACHP (Advis. Counc. Hist. Preserv.) 2016. Protecting historic properties: a citizen's guide to Section 106 review. Rep., ACHP Washington, DC: https://www.achp.gov/sites/default/files/documents/2017-01/CitizenGuide.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  5. ACHP (Advis. Counc. Hist. Preserv.) 2018. The National Historic Preservation Program at 50: priorities and recommendations for the future Rep. ACHP Washington, DC: http://preservation50.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Preservation50FinalReport.pdf
  6. Altschul JH. 2016a. The role of synthesis in American archaeology and cultural resource management as seen through an Arizona lens. J. Ariz. Archaeol. 4:168–81
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Altschul JH. 2016b. The Society for American Archaeology's Task Forces on Landscape Policy Issues. Adv. Archaeol. Pract. 4:2102–5
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Altschul JH, Kintigh KW, Klein TH, Doelle WH, Hays-Gilpin KA et al. 2017. Fostering synthesis in archaeology to advance science and benefit society. PNAS 114:4210999–1002
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Altschul JH, Kintigh KW, Klein TH, Doelle WH, Hays-Gilpin KA et al. 2018. Fostering synthesis in archaeology to advance science and benefit society. Adv. Archaeol. Pract. 6:119–29
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Altschul JH, Patterson TC 2010. Trends in the employment and training in American archaeology. Voices in American Archaeology W Ashmore, DT Lippert, BJ Mills 291–316 Washington: Soc. Am. Archaeol. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Anderson DG. 2018. Using CRM data for “big picture” research. See McManamon 2018b 197–212
  12. Anderson DG, Bissett TG, Yerka SJ, Wells JJ, Kansa EC et al. 2017. Sea-level rise and archaeological site destruction: An example from the southeastern US using DINAA (Digital Index of North American Archaeology). PLOS ONE 12:11e0188142
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Anyon R, Ferguson TJ, Welch JR 2000. Heritage management by American Indian tribes in the southwestern United States. Cultural Resource Management in Contemporary Society: Perspectives on Managing and Presenting the Past FP McManamon, A Hatton 120–41 London/New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Anzalone RD. 2017. The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation at 50. Forum J 31:1–246–54
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Banks KM, Boen RM 2016. Who's on first: Federal agencies and compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act. See Banks & Scott 2016 47–64
  16. Banks KM, Scott AM 2016. The National Historic Preservation Act: Past, Present, and Future London/New York: Routledge
  17. Barker P. 2009. The process made me do it: Or, would a reasonably intelligent person agree that CRM is reasonably intelligent. See Sebastian & Lipe 2009 65–90
  18. Barras LE. 2010. Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act: back to basics Part 2 Tech. Rep. Natl. Trust Hist. Preserv. Washington, DC: http://www.mhpn.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/NTHP-Back-to-Basics-Technical-Report.pdf
  19. Barras LE. 2012. Back to basics—directions for change in implementation of Section 106. ForumJournal 2012:Winter57–64
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Brew JO. 1968. Foreword. Bibliography of Salvage Archaeology in the United States compil. JE Petsche 1–11 Lincoln, Neb.: Natl. Park Serv.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Chandler SM. 2009. Innovative approaches to mitigation. See Sebastian & Lipe 2009 115–40
  22. Childs ST. 1995. The curation crisis—What's being done. Fed. Archeol. 7:411–15
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Childs ST 2004. Our Collective Responsibility: The Ethics and Practice of Archaeological Collections Stewardship Washington, DC: Soc. Am. Archaeol. Press
  24. Childs ST, Benden DM 2017. A checklist for sustainable management of archaeological collections. Adv. Archaeol. Pract. 5:112–25
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Colwell C. 2016. Collaborative archaeologies and descendant communities. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 45:113–27
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Connally EA. 1986a. Origins of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. CRM Bull 9:17–10
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Connally EA. 1986b. Origins of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966—Part II. CRM Bull 9:29–14
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Crass DC. 2009. The crisis in communication: still with us. ? See Sebastian & Lipe 2009 253–82
  29. Cult. Heritage Partn., PLLC 2012 Cult. Heritage Partn., PLLC. 2012. Federal laws and regulations requiring curation of digital archaeological documents and data Rep. for the Off. Gen. Couns., Ariz. State Univ. Tucson: https://www.digitalantiquity.org/wp-uploads/2013/05/2013-CHP-Legal-Analysis-of-Fed-Req-for-Curation-of-Dig-Arch-Docs-Data-.pdf
  30. Davis HA. 1972. The crisis in American archaeology. Science 176:267–72
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Davis HA. 1991. Archaeology in the next 25 years. Past Meets Future: Saving America's Historic Environments AJ Lee 181–88 Washington: Preserv. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Davis HA. 1996. NHPA and the practice of archaeology. CRM 19:642–44
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Davis HA. 2009. Archaeologists looked to the future in the past. See Sebastian & Lipe 2009 19–40
  34. Dep. Consult. Archeol 2009. The goals and accomplishments of the Federal Archaeology Program: the Secretary of the Interior's report to Congress on the Federal Archaeology Program, 1998–2003 Rep., Archaeol. Progr., Natl. Park Serv. Washington, DC: https://www.nps.gov/archeology/src/reportpdfs/1998-03.pdf
  35. Dep. Consult. Archeol 2010. The Secretary of the Interior's report to Congress on the Federal Archaeology Program, 2004–2007 Rep., Archaeol. Progr., Natl. Park Serv. Washington, DC: https://www.nps.gov/archeology/src/reportPdfs/2004-07.pdf
  36. Doelle WH, Altschul JH 2009. Preparing for work in the billion-dollar CRM industry. Anthropol. News 2009:April27
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Doelle WH, Barker P, Cushman D, Heilen M, Herhahn C, Reith C 2016. Incorporating archaeological resources in landscape-level planning and management. Adv. Archaeol. Pract. 4:118–31
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Doelle WH, Phillips DA Jr. 2005. From the academy to the private sector: CRM's rapid transformation within the archaeological profession. Southwest Archaeology in the Twentieth Century LS Cordell, DD Fowler 97–108 Salt Lake City: Univ. Utah Press
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Dongoske CK, Dongoske KE, Ferguson TJ 2018. Zuni and 40 years of CRM: a perspective from on and off the reservation. See McManamon 2018b 155–63
  40. Dongoske KE, Aldenderfer M, Doehner K 2000. Working Together: Native Americans and Archaeologists Washington, DC: Soc. Am. Archaeol. Press
  41. Downer A. 2012. Section 106 in Indian country. ForumJournal 28:247–50
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Everill P. 2007. British commercial archaeology: antiquarians and labourers; developers and diggers. See Hamilakis & Duke 2007 119–36
  43. Faniel IM, Austin A, Kansa E, Kansa SW, France P et al. 2018. Beyond the archive: bridging data creation and reuse in archaeology. Adv. Archaeol. Pract. 6:2105–16
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Ferguson TJ. 1996. Native Americans and the practice of archaeology. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 25:63–79
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Ferguson TJ. 2009. Improving the quality of archaeology in the United States through consultation and collaboration with Native American and descendant communities. See Sebastian & Lipe 2009 169–90
  46. Fowler DD. 1982. Cultural resource management. Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory edited by MB Schiffer 1–50 New York: Academic
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Fowler DD. 1986. Conserving American archaeological resources. See Meltzer et al. 1986 135–62
  48. Glass JA. 1990. The Beginnings of a New National Historic Preservation Program, 1957 to 1969 Nashville, TN: Am. Assoc. State Local Hist.
  49. Gnecco C, Dias AS 2015. On contract archaeology. Int. J. Hist. Archaeol. 19:687–98
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Gould PG, Burtenshaw P 2014. Archaeology and economic development. Public Archaeol 13:1–33–9
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Grady M, Lipe WD 1977. The role of preservation in conservation archaeology. Proceedings 1976: American Society for Conservation Archaeology TC Klinger 1–11 Fayetteville, AR: Am. Soc. Conserv. Archaeol.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Hamilakis Y, Duke P 2007. Archaeology and Capitalism Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press
  53. Hardesty DL, Little BJ 2000. Assessing Site Significance: A Guide for Archaeologists and Historians Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press
  54. Harmon D, McManamon FP, Pitcaithley DT 2006. The Antiquities Act: A Century of American Archaeology, Historic Preservation, and Nature Conservation Tucson: Univ. Ariz. Press
  55. Hawkins RA. 2016. A great unconformity: American Indian tribes and the National Historic Preservation Act. See Banks & Scott 2016 85–105
  56. Herr SA, Grindell B 2016. The expansion and acceleration of historic preservation in Arizona and New Mexico. See Banks & Scott 2016 141–62
  57. Hosmer CB Jr. 1981. Preservation Comes of Age: From Williamsburg to the National Trust, 1926–1949 Charlottesville: Univ. Va. Press
  58. Hosmer CB Jr. 1999. Introduction to the 1983 edition. See US Conf. Mayors 9–15
  59. Howland RH. 1999 (1966). Travelers to Olympus. See US Conf. Mayors 171–74
  60. Jennings JD. 1985. River basin surveys: origins, operations, and results, 1945 to 1969. Am. Antiq. 50:281–96
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Jennings JD. 1986. Themes in the history of archaeology: American archaeology, 1930–1985. See Meltzer et al. 1986 53–62
  62. Kansa SW, Kansa EC 2018. Data beyond the archive in digital archaeology: an introduction to the special section. Adv. Archaeol. Pract. 6:289–92
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Kehoe A. 2007. Archaeology within marketing capitalism. See Hamilakis & Duke 2007 169–78
  64. King JA. 2009. The challenges of dissemination: accessing archaeological data and interpretations. See Sebastian & Lipe 2009 141–68
  65. King TF. 1987. Prehistory and beyond: the place of archaeology. The American Mosaic: Preserving a Nation's Heritage RE Stipe, AJ Lee 236–64 Washington, DC: US Int. Counc. Monum. Sites
    [Google Scholar]
  66. King TF. 2000. Federal Planning and Historic Places: The Section 106 Process Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press
  67. King TF. 2009. Our Unprotected Heritage: Whitewashing the Destruction of our Cultural and Natural Environment Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press
  68. King TF. 2013. Cultural Resource Laws and Practice: An Introductory Guide Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. , 4th ed..
  69. King TF. 2017. The unfulfilled potential of the National Historic Preservation Act. ForumJournal 31:1–233–40
    [Google Scholar]
  70. King TF, Hickman PP, Berg G 1977. Anthropology in Historic Preservation: Caring for Culture's Clutter New York: Academic
  71. King TF, Lyneis MM 1978. Preservation: a developing focus of American archaeology. Am. Anthropol. 80:873–93
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Kintigh KW, Spielmann KA, Brin A, Candan SK, Clark TC, Peeples M 2018. Data integration in the service of synthetic research. Adv. Archaeol. Pract. 6:130–41
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Klesert AL, Downer AS 1990. Preservation on the Reservation: Native Americans, Native American Lands and Archaeology Navajo Nation Pap. Anthropol. 26 Window Rock, AZ: Navajo Nation Archaeol. Dep., Navajo Nation Hist. Preserv. Dep.
  74. Kohler TA, Smith ME, Bogaard A, Feinman GM, Peterson CE et al. 2017. Greater post-Neolithic wealth disparities in Eurasia than in North America and Mesoamerica. Nature 551:619–22
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Koriech H, Sterling C 2013. Archaeology and economic development. Pap. Inst. Archaeol. 22:158–65
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Lindauer O. 2018. Transportation archaeology: 40 years of contributions, issues, and challenges. See McManamon 2018b 101–11
  77. Lipe WD. 2009. Archaeological values and resource management. See Sebastian & Lipe 2009 41–64
  78. Lipe WD. 2012. Why we did we do it that way: the University of Utah Glen Canyon Project in Retrospect. Glen Canyon, Legislative Struggles, and Contract Archaeology: Papers in Honor of Carol Condie EJ Brown, CJ Condie, HH Crotty 87–104 Pap. Archaeol. Soc. N.M. 38 Albuquerque: Archaeol. Soc. N.M.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Lipe WD. 2018. Glen Canyon, Dolores, and Animas-La Plata: big projects and big changes in public archaeology. See McManamon 2018b 61–84
  80. Lipe WD, Lindsay AJ 1974. Proceedings of the 1974 Conference, Federal Center, Denver, Colorado Tech. Ser. 14 Flagstaff, AZ: Mus. North. Ariz.
  81. Lipe WD, Sebastian L 2009. Perspectives from the advanced seminar. See Sebastian & Lipe 2009 283–99
  82. Little BJ, Seibert EM, Townsend J, Sprinkle JH Jr., Knoerl J 2000. Guideline for evaluating and registering archaeological properties Natl. Regist. Bull. 36 Natl. Regist. Hist. Places, Natl. Park Serv. Washington, DC: https://www.nps.gov/nr/publications/bulletins/pdfs/nrb36.pdf
  83. Mackey DP Jr. 2009. Is the same old thing enough for twenty-first century CRM? Keeping CRM archaeology relevant in the new millennium. See Sebastian & Lipe 2009 195–222
  84. Mackintosh B. 1986. The National Historic Preservation Act and the National Park Service: A History Washington, DC: Hist. Div., Natl. Park Serv., Dep. Inter http://npshistory.com/publications/national-historic-preservation-act.pdf
  85. Mathers C, Darvill T, Little BJ 2005. Heritage of Value, Archaeology of Renown: Reshaping Archaeological Assessment and Significance Gainesville: Univ. Fla. Press
  86. Mayro L, Doelle W 2018. Heritage conservation: cultural resource management results for public planning, preservation, research, and outreach. See McManamon 2018b 240–56
  87. McGimsey CR III 1972. Public Archaeology New York: Seminar Press
  88. McGimsey CR III 1981. Archeology: a profession in transition. Early Man 1981:Autumn28–32
    [Google Scholar]
  89. McGimsey CR III 1985. “This, too, will pass”: Moss-Bennett in perspective. Am. Antiq. 50:2326–31
    [Google Scholar]
  90. McGimsey CR III 2004. CRM on CRM: Charles R. McGimsey III on Cultural Resource Management Ark. Archaeol. Survey Res. Ser. 61 Fayetteville, AR: Ark. Archaeol. Survey
  91. McGimsey CR III, Davis HA 1977. The Management of Archaeological Resources: The Airlie House Report Washington, DC: Soc. Am. Archaeol.
  92. McManamon FP. 1991. The many publics for archaeology. Am. Antiq. 56:1121–30
    [Google Scholar]
  93. McManamon FP. 1994. Changing relationships between Native Americans and archaeologists. Hist. Preserv. Forum 8:215–20
    [Google Scholar]
  94. McManamon FP. 1996. The Antiquities Act—setting basic preservation policies. CRM Bull 19:718–23
    [Google Scholar]
  95. McManamon FP. 2000. Archaeological messages and messengers. Public Archaeol 1:15–20
    [Google Scholar]
  96. McManamon FP. 2001. Promoting an archaeological perspective. Public Archaeol 1:3216–19
    [Google Scholar]
  97. McManamon FP. 2006. The foundation for American public archaeology. See Harmon et al. 2006 153–75
  98. McManamon FP. 2018a. The development of cultural resource management in the United States. See McManamon 2018b 11–55
  99. McManamon FP 2018b. New Perspectives in Cultural Resources Management London/New York: Routledge
  100. McManamon FP, Doershuk J, Lipe WD, McCulloch T, Polglase C et al. 2016. Values-based management of archaeological resources at a landscape scale. Adv. Archaeol. Pract. 4:2132–48
    [Google Scholar]
  101. McManamon FP, Kintigh KW 2016. Making archaeological data and information discoverable, accessible, and usable for 21st century research: the Theodore Roosevelt Dam archaeological project, Tonto Basin, Arizona. J. Ariz. Archaeol. 4:160–67
    [Google Scholar]
  102. McManamon FP, Kintigh KW, Ellison LA, Brin A 2017. tDAR: a cultural heritage archive for twenty-first century public outreach, research, and resource management. Adv. Archaeol. Pract. 5:3238–49
    [Google Scholar]
  103. McManamon FP, Rogers JL 2018. Perspectives on leadership and CRM programs for the twenty-first century. See McManamon 2018b 271–87
  104. Meltzer DJ, Fowler DD, Sabloff 1986. American Archaeology, Past and Future: A Celebration of the Society for American Archaeology, 1935–1985 Washington, DC: Smithson. Inst. Press
  105. Murtagh WJ. 1988. Keeping Time: The History and Theory of Preservation in America Pittstown, NJ: Main Street Press
  106. Nelson RJ. 2016. Section 106 turns fifty. See Banks & Scott 2016 29–46
  107. Neumann TW, Sanford RM 2001. Practicing Archaeology: A Training Manual for Cultural Resources Archaeology Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press
  108. Peeples MA, Clark JJ, Doelle WH, Laurenzi A, Mills BJ 2016. The big picture: the National Historic Preservation Act and regional syntheses in the US Southwest. J. Ariz. Archaeol. 4:11–9
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Perry WR, Howson J, Bianco BA 2006. New York African burial ground, archaeology final report series, volumes 1 to 4 Rep. Gen. Serv. Adm., Howard Univ. Washington, DC: https://core.tdar.org/collection/23851/the-archaeology-of-african-burial-ground-national-monument-new-york-city-ny
  110. Peter DE, Scott AM, Kenmotsu N 2016. History (including prehistory) matters: the NHPA in the Southern Plains. See Banks & Scott 2016 181–98
  111. Potts C. 2012. Section 106 from the SHPO Perspective. ForumJournal 2012:Winter https://forum.savingplaces.org/viewdocument/section-106-from-the-shpo-perspecti
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Richards JD. 2017. Twenty years preserving data: a view from the United Kingdom. Adv. Archaeol. Pract. 5:3227–37
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Roberts HR, Ahlstrom RVN, Roth B 2004. From Campus to Corporation: The Emergence of Contract Archaeology in the Southwest United States Washington, DC: Soc. Am. Archaeol. Press
  114. Robinson PA. 2018. Travels among the states: noting accomplishments and identifying challenges for the twenty-first century. See McManamon 2018b 125–54
  115. Rogers JL. 1986. National Historic Preservation Act—a retrospective. CRM Bull 9:11–4
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Rogers JL. 2006. The Antiquities Act and historic preservation. See Harmon et al. 2006 176–86
  117. Rogers JL. 2016. The National Historic Preservation Act: Fifty years young and still going strong. See Banks & Scott 2016 9–17
  118. Rogers JL. 2018. From an honor roll to a planning process. See McManamon 2018b 56–60
  119. Schlanger S, MacDonell G, Larralde S, Stein M 2013. Going big: The Permian Basin memorandum of agreement as a fundamental shift in Section 106 compliance. Adv. Archaeol. Pract. 1:113–23
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Schlanger S, Wilshusen R, Roberts H 2015. From mining sites to mining data: archaeology's future. Kiva 81:80–99
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Schlanger SH, Larralde S 2018. All the gold on the map. See McManamon 2018b 112–24
  122. Sebastian L. 2006. The conservation model today and historic preservation. Tracking Ancient Footsteps: William D. Lipe's Contributions to Southwestern Prehistory and Public Archaeology RG Matson, TA Kohler 109–26 Pullman: Wash. State Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Sebastian L. 2009a. Deciding what matters: archaeology, eligibility, significance. See Sebastian & Lipe 2009 91–114
  124. Sebastian L. 2009b. The future of CRM archaeology. See Sebastian & Lipe 2009 3–18
  125. Sebastian L. 2016. How did we get here and where are we going. ? See Banks & Scott 2016 265–82
  126. Sebastian L. 2018. If a genie offered me three wishes…. See McManamon 2018b 259–70
  127. Sebastian L, Lipe WD 2009. Archaeology and Cultural Resource Management: Visions for the Future Santa Fe, NM: Sch. Adv. Res. Press
  128. Swidler N, Dongoske KE, Anyon R, Downer AS 1997. Native Americans and Archaeologists: Stepping Stones to Common Ground Walnut Creek, CA/London: AltaMira Press
  129. Thomas DH. 2000. Skull Wars: Kennewick Man, Archaeology, and the Battle for Native Identity New York: Basic Books
  130. Townsend J. 1994. Archaeology and the National Register. CRM 17:210–12
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Tribal Preserv. Progr 2016. Tribal preservation program, 2016 annual report Rep., Natl. Park Serv. Washington, DC: https://www.nps.gov/thpo/downloads/2016_THPOAnnualReport.pdf
  132. Trimble MK, Farmer A 2018. The development of archaeological collections management strategies: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers approach. See McManamon 2018b 213–28
  133. US Conf. Mayors, Spec. Comm. Hist. Preserv 1999 (1966). With Heritage So Rich Washington, DC: Natl. Trust. Hist. Preserv http://preservation50.org/about/with-heritage-so-rich
  134. Watkins JE. 2006. The Antiquities Act at one hundred years: a Native American perspective. See Harmon et al. 2006 187–97
  135. Werkheiser MF, Burgess EL, Green C 2016. The National Historic Preservation Act and 36 CFR 800. See Banks & Scott 2016 18–28
  136. Wilshusen RH, Heilen M, Catts W, de Dufour K, Jones B 2016. Archaeological survey data quality, durability, and use in the United States: findings and recommendations. Adv. Archaeol. Pract. 4:2106–17
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Zeder MA. 1997. The American Archaeologist: A Profile Walnut Creek, CA/London: AltaMira Press

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error