1932

Abstract

The practice of human biology requires the negotiation of a range of ethical issues, including the politics of race and indigeneity, the appropriate use of research materials, and the relationship between researchers and those people from whose bodies they seek to gain knowledge. Grounding my discussion in a history of the field, I discuss key ethical turning points that have shaped the present. These include the field's complex historical relationship to race and colonialism and the implications this relationship has for research, including the needs and desires of Indigenous peoples. This review demonstrates that human biology has been a crucible for many of the most complex ethical issues facing anthropology and allied practices of biomedicine and life science. Its future success as a field is inextricable from its practitioners’ ability to adapt in ways that foster the trust and engagement of those humans whose bodies constitute the basis for their knowledge making.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-102317-045922
2018-10-21
2024-06-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/anthro/47/1/annurev-anthro-102317-045922.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-102317-045922&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Allen M. 2011. Some reflections on anthropological research in a colonial regime. Working Together in Vanuatu: Research Histories, Collaborations, Projects and Reflections J Taylor, N Thielberger 1–9 Canberra: Aust. Natl. Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Annas GJ, Grodin MA 1992. The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Arbour L, Cook D 2006. DNA on loan: issues to consider when carrying out genetic research with aboriginal families and communities. Community Genet 9:3153–60
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Asad T 1973. Anthropology and the Colonial Encounter New York: Humanit. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bangham J. 2015. What Is Race? UNESCO, mass communication and human genetics in the early 1950s. Hist. Hum. Sci. 28:580–107
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bangham J, de Chadarevian S 2014. Human heredity after 1945: Moving populations centre stage. Stud. Hist. Philos. Sci. Part C 47A:45–49
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Barkan E. 1992. The Retreat of Scientific Racism: Changing Concepts of Race in Britain and the United States Between the World Wars Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Beecher HK. 1966. Ethics and clinical research. New Engl. J. Med. 274:241354–60
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Benjamin R. 2016. Informed refusal: toward a justice-based bioethics. Sci. Technol. Hum. Values 41:967–90
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Birn A-E. 2014. Philanthrocapitalism, past and present: the Rockefeller Foundation, the Gates Foundation, and the setting(s) of the international/global health agenda. Hypothesis 12:1e8
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bliss CA. 2012. Race Decoded: The Genomic Fight for Social Justice Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Borofsky R. 2005. Yanomami: The Fierce Controversy and What We Might Learn from It Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Bosk CL. 1999. Professional ethicist available: logical, secular, friendly. Daedalus 128:447–68
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Brugge D, Missaghian M 2006. Protecting the Navajo people through tribal regulation of research. Sci. Eng. Ethics 12:3491–507
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Cavalli-Sforza LL. 2005. The Human Genome Diversity Project: past, present and future. Nat. Rev. Genet. 6:333–40
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Clark T. 2008. “We're over-researched here!” Exploring accounts of research fatigue within qualitative research engagements. Sociology 42:953–70
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Collins KJ, Weiner JS 1977. Human Adaptability: A History and Compendium of Research in the International Biological Programme London: Taylor & Francis
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Cooper M, Waldby C 2014. Clinical Labor: Tissue Donors and Research Subjects in the Global Bioeconomy Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Cooter R. 1995. The resistible rise of medical ethics. Soc. Hist. Med. 8:22257–70
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Crane JT. 2010. Unequal “partners”: AIDS, academia and the rise of global health. Behemoth 3:78–97
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Crane JT. 2013. Scrambling for Africa: AIDS, Expertise, and the Rise of American Global Health Science Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Darnell R. 1998. And Along Came Boas: Continuity and Revolution in Americanist Anthropology Philadelphia: Benjamins
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Darnell R. 2008. North American traditions in anthropology: the historiographic baseline. See Kuklick 2008.35–51
  24. Deloria V Jr 1969. Anthropologists and other friends. Custer Died For Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto78–100 New York: Macmillan
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Dent R. 2016. The Xavante in perspective: anthropology and history in the study of indigenous populations. Rev. Bras. Estud. Popul. 33:2451–55
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Dent R, Santos RV 2017. “An unusual and fast disappearing opportunity”: infectious disease, Indigenous populations, and new biomedical knowledge in Amazonia, 1960–1970. Perspect. Sci. 25:5585–605
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Diamond S. 1974. In Search of the Primitive: A Critique of Civilization New Brunswick, NJ: Trans. Books
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Dukepoo F. 1998. The trouble with the Human Genome Diversity Project. Mol. Med. Today 4:242–43
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Duster T. 2006. The molecular reinscription of race: unanticipated issues in biotechnology and forensic science. Patterns Prejudice 40:427–41
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Epstein S. 2007. Inclusion: The Politics of Difference in Medical Research Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Fabian J. 1983. Time and the Other: How Anthropology Makes Its Object New York: Columbia Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Fischer MMJ. 2001. In the science zone: the Yanomami and the fight for representation. Anthropol. Today 17:9–14
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Franklin S, Lock MM 2003. Remaking Life and Death: Toward an Anthropology of the Biosciences Santa Fe, NM: Sch. Am. Res. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Fricker M. 2007. Epistemic Injustice: Power and the Ethics of Knowing Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Friedlaender JS. 1996. Genes, people, and property: furor erupts over genetic research on Indigenous groups. Cult. Surviv. Q. 20:22
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Froment A. 2011. Anthropobiological surveys in the field: reflections on the bioethics of human medical and DNA surveys. Centralizing Fieldwork: Critical Perspectives from Primatology, Biological, and Social Anthropology J MacClancy, A Fuentes 186–99 New York: Berghahn
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Fujimura JH, Bolnick DA, Rajagopalan R, Kaufman JS, Lewontin RC et al. 2014. Clines without classes: how to make sense of human variation. Sociol. Theory 32:208–27
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Gannett L. 2001. Racism and human genome diversity research: the ethical limits of “population thinking.”. Philos. Sci. 68:479–92
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Garrison NA. 2013. Genomic justice for Native Americans: impact of the Havasupai case on genetic research. Sci. Technol. Hum. Values 38:2201–23
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Garrison NA. 2017. Evolving consent: insights from researchers and participants in the age of broad consent and data sharing. Specimen Science: Ethics and Policy Implications HF Lynch, BE Bierer, IG Cohen, SM Rivera 185–99 Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Garruto RM, Little MA, James GD, Brown DE 1999. Natural experimental models: the global search for biomedical paradigms among traditional, modernizing, and modern populations. PNAS 96:10536–43
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Gil-Riaño S. 2014. Historicizing anti-racism: UNESCO's campaigns against race prejudice in the 1950s PhD Thesis, Univ. Tor
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Gilchrist L. 1997. Aboriginal communities and social science research: voyeurism in transition. Native Soc. Work. J. 1:69–85
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Goodman AH, Leatherman TL 1998. Building a New Biocultural Synthesis: Political-Economic Perspectives on Human Biology Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Haraway DJ. 1988a. Remodeling the human way of life: Sherwood Washburn and the new physical anthropology, 1950–1980. Bones, Bodies, Behavior: Essays on Biological Anthropology GW Stocking 206–59 Madison: Univ. Wisc. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Haraway DJ. 1988b. Situated knowledges: the science question in feminism and the privilege of partial perspective. Fem. Stud. 14:575–99
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Haraway DJ. 1997. [email protected]_Meets_OncoMouse: Feminism and Technoscience New York/London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Harding S. 2009. Postcolonial and feminist philosophies of science and technology: convergences and dissonances. Postcolon. Stud. 12:401–21
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Harrison GA, Weiner JS, Tanner JM, Barnicot NA 1964. Human Biology: An Introduction to Human Evolution, Variation, and Growth New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Havasupai Tribe v. Arizona Board of Regents 204 P.3d 1063 (Ariz. Appell. Div. 1 2008)
  51. Hayden CP. 1996. A biodiversity sampler for the millennium. Reproducing Reproduction: Kinship, Power and Technological Innovation S Franklin, H Ragone 173–206 Philadelphia: Univ. Pa. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Heimer CA, Petty J 2010. Bureaucratic ethics: IRBs and the legal regulation of human subjects research. Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 6:601–26
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Hirsch E, Strathern M 2004. Transactions and Creations: Property Debates and the Stimulus of Melanesia, Vol. 11 New York: Berghahn Books
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Hoeyer K, Hogle LF 2014. Informed consent: the politics of intent and practice in medical research ethics. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 43:347–62
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Jackson JP, Depew DJ 2017. Darwinism, Democracy and Race: American Anthropology and Evolutionary Biology in the Twentieth Century New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  56. James R, Tsosie R, Sahota P, Parker M, Dillard D et al. 2014. Exploring pathways to trust: a tribal perspective on data sharing. Genet. Med. 16:11820–26
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Jonsen AR. 2007. A history of bioethics as discipline and discourse. Bioethics: An Introduction to the History, Methods, and Practice NS Jecker, AR Jonsen, RA Pearlman 3–16 Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Kakaliouras AM. 2012. An anthropology of repatriation: contemporary physical anthropological and Native American ontologies of practice. Curr. Anthropol. 53:S5S210–21
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Kaye J, Curren L, Anderson N, Edwards K, Fullerton SM et al. 2012. From patients to partners: participant-centric initiatives in biomedical research. Nat. Rev. Genet. 13:5371–76
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Kirsch S. 2011. Science, property, and kinship in repatriation debates. Mus. Anthropol. 34:291–96
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Koch T. 2012. Thieves of Virtue: When Bioethics Stole Medicine Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Kowal E. 2013. Orphan DNA: Indigenous samples, ethical biovalue and postcolonial science. Soc. Stud. Sci. 43:4577–97
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Kowal E, Radin J 2015. Indigenous biospecimens and the cryopolitics of frozen life. J. Sociol. 51:163–80
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Kowal E, Radin J, Reardon J 2013. Indigenous body parts, mutating temporalities, and the half-lives of postcolonial technoscience. Soc. Stud. Sci. 43:465–83
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Kuklick H 2008. A New History of Anthropology Malden, MA: Blackwell
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Landecker H. 2007. Culturing Life: How Cells Became Technologies Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Lederer SE. 2004. Research without borders: the origins of the Declaration of Helsinki. Twentieth Century Ethics of Human Subjects Research: Historical Perspectives on Values, Practices, and Regulations V Roelcke, G Maio 199–213 Stuttgart, Ger.: Franz Steiner
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Lederer SE, Moreno JD 1996. Revising the history of Cold War research ethics. Kennedy Inst. Ethics J. 6:3223–37
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Leonelli S. 2016. Data-Centric Biology: A Philosophical Study Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Liloqula R. 1996. Value of life: saving genes versus saving Indigenous peoples. Cult. Surviv. Q. 20:42–45
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Lindee MS, Santos RV 2012. The biological anthropology of living human populations: world histories, national styles, and international networks. Curr. Anthropol. 53:S3–16
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Lipphardt V. 2010. The Jewish community of Rome: an isolated population? Sampling procedures and bio-historical narratives in genetic analysis in the 1950s. BioSocieties 5:306–29
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Little MA. 2010. History of the study of human biology. See Muehlenbein 201029–47
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Little MA, Garruto RM 2009. Raymond Pearl and the shaping of human biology. Hum. Biol. 82:177–102
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Little MA, James GD 2005. A brief history of the Human Biology Association: 1974–2004. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 17:141–54
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Little MA, Kennedy KR 2010. Histories of American Physical Anthropology in the Twentieth Century New York: Lexington Books
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Lock MM. 1994. Interrogating the Human Genome Diversity Project. Soc. Sci. Med. 39:603–6
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Lock MM. 2001. The alienation of body tissue and the biopolitics of immortalized cell lines. Body Soc 7:63–91
    [Google Scholar]
  79. MacClancy J, Fuentes A 2013. Ethics in the Field: Contemporary Challenges New York: Berghahn Books
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Malhi RS. 2009. Implications of the genographic project for molecular anthropologists. Int. J. Cult. Property 16:2193–94
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Mahli RS, Bader A 2015. Engaging Native Americans in genomics research. Am. Anthropol. 117:4743–44
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Marks J. 1995. Human Biodiversity: Genes, Race, and History New York: Alaine de Gruyter
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Marks J. 2008. Race across the physical-cultural divide in American anthropology. See Kuklick 2008 242–58
  84. Martensen R. 2001. The history of bioethics: an essay review. J. Hist. Med. Allied Sci. 56:2168–75
    [Google Scholar]
  85. M'Charek A. 2005. The Human Genome Diversity Project: An Ethnography of Scientific Practice New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  86. McInnes RR. 2011. 2010 presidential address: culture: the silent language geneticists must learn—genetic research with Indigenous populations. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 88:3254–61
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Mello MM, Wolf LE 2010. The Havasupai Indian tribe case—lessons for research involving stored biological samples. New Engl. J. Med. 363:204–7
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Montagu A. 1951. Statement on Race: An Extended Discussion in Plain Language of the UNESCO Statement by Experts on Race Problems New York: Schuman
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Moore v. Regents of the University of California 793 P.2d 479 1990.
  90. Muehlenbein M 2010. Human Evolutionary Biology Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Neel JV. 1958. The study of natural selection in primitive and civilized human populations. Hum. Biol. 3:43–72
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Niezen R. 2003. The Origins of Indigenism Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Nordling L. 2017. San people of Africa draft code of ethics for researchers. Science March 17. http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/03/san-people-africa-draft-code-ethics-researchers
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Ong A, Chen NN 2010. Asian Biotech: Ethics and Communities of Fate Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Ortner SB. 1995. Resistance and the problem of ethnographic refusal. Comp. Stud. Soc. Hist. 37:1173–93
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Pearl R. 1924. Studies in Human Biology Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Petryna A. 2005. Ethical variability: drug development and globalizing clinical trials. Am. Ethnol. 32:183–97
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Radin J. 2013. Latent life: concepts and practices of human tissue preservation in the International Biological Program. Soc. Stud. Sci. 43:483–508
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Radin J. 2017a. “Digital natives”: how medical and Indigenous histories matter for big data. Osiris 32:143–64
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Radin J. 2017b. Life on Ice: A History of New Uses for Cold Blood Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Radin J, Kowal E 2015. Indigenous blood and ethical regimes in the United States and Australia since the 1960s. Am. Ethnol. 42:749–65
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Reardon J. 2001. The Human Genome Diversity Project: a case study in coproduction. Soc. Stud. Sci. 31:357–88
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Reardon J. 2005. Race to the Finish: Identity and Governance in an Age of Genomics Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Reardon J. 2017. The Postgenomic Condition: Ethics, Justice, and Knowledge After the Genome Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Reardon J, Tallbear K 2012. “Your DNA is our history”: genomics, anthropology, and the construction of whiteness as property. Curr. Anthropol. 53:S233–45
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Redfield P. 2005. Doctors, borders, and life in crisis. Cult. Anthropol. 20:3328–61
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Relethford JH. 2008. The Human Species: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology Boston: McGraw-Hill
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Reverby SM. 2000. Tuskegee's Truths: Rethinking the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Chapel Hill: Univ. N. C. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Rose J, Green TJ, Green VD 1996. NAGPRA is forever: osteology and the repatriation of skeletons. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 25:81–103
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Rothman DJ. 2003. Strangers at the Bedside: A History of How Law and Bioethics Transformed Medical Decision Making New York: Aldine de Gruyter
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Sahota PC. 2007. Research regulation in American Indian/Alaska Native communities: Policy and practice considerations Pap., Natl. Congr. Am. Indian Policy Res. Cent Washington, DC: http://www.ncai.org/policy-research-center/initiatives/Research_Regulation_in_AI_AN_Communities_-_Policy_and_Practice.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Salzano FM, Hurtado AM 2004. Lost Paradises and the Ethics of Research and Publication New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Santos R. 2002. Indigenous peoples, postcolonial contexts, and genomic research in the late 20th century: a view from Amazonia (1960–2000). Crit. Anthropol. 22:81–104
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Santos RV, Lindee MS, De Souza VS 2014. Varieties of the primitive: human biological diversity studies in Cold War Brazil (1962–1970). Am. Anthropol. 116:723–35
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Schell LM. 1995. Human biological adaptability with special emphasis on plasticity: history, development and problems for future research. Human Variability and Plasticity C Mascie-Taylor, B Bogin 213–38 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Schrag ZM. 2010. Ethical Imperialism: Institutional Review Boards and the Social Sciences, 1965–2009 Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Schroeder KB, Malhi RS, Smith DG 2006. Opinion: demystifying Native American genetic opposition to research. Evol. Anthropol. 15:388–92
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Segal DA, Yanagisako SJ 2005. Unwrapping the Sacred Bundle: Reflections on the Disciplining of Anthropology Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Selcer P. 2009. The view from everywhere: disciplining diversity in post-World War II international social science. J. Hist. Behav. Sci. 45:309–29
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Selcer P. 2012. Beyond the cephalic index: negotiating politics to produce UNESCO's scientific statements on race. Curr. Anthropol. 53:S173–84
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Simpson A. 2007. On ethnographic refusal: indigeneity, ‘voice’, and colonial citizenship. Junctures 9:67–80
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Simpson A. 2014. Mohawk Interruptus: Political Life Across the Borders of Settler States Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Simpson A. 2016. Consent's revenge. Cult. Anthropol. 31:3326–33
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Skloot R. 2010. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks New York: Random House
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Smith LT. 2012. 1999. Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous People London: Zed Books
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Smocovitis VB. 2012. Humanizing evolution: anthropology, the evolutionary synthesis, and the prehistory of biological anthropology, 1927–1962. Curr. Anthropol. 53:S5S108–25
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Sommer M. 2008. History in the gene: negotiations between molecular and organismal anthropology. J. Hist. Biol. 41:473–528
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Sommer M. 2016. History Within: The Science, Culture, and Politics of Bones, Organisms and Models Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Stark L. 2011. Behind Closed Doors: IRBs and the Making of Ethical Research Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Stark L, Campbell N 2014. Stowaways in the history of science: the case of simian virus 40 and research on federal prisoners at the U.S. National Institutes of Health, 1960. Stud. Hist. Philos. Biol. Biomed. Sci. 48:218–30
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Stephens CV, Herring DA 2011. Collecting, collections, and practice in the anthropologies of health and disease. Rev. Anthropol. 40:232–60
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Stevenson L. 2014. Life Beside Itself: Imagining Care in the Canadian Arctic Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Stinson S, Bogin B, O'Rourke DH 2012. Human Biology: An Evolutionary and Biocultural Perspective Hoboken, NJ: Wiley
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Stocking GW. 1966. Franz Boas and the culture concept in historical perspective. Am. Anthropol. 68:867–82
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Stocking GW Jr 1991. Colonial Situations: Essays on the Contextualization of Ethnographic Knowledge. Hist. Anthropol 7 Madison: Univ. Wisc. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Tallbear K. 2007. Narratives of race and indigeneity in the Genographic Project. J. Law Med. Ethics 35:412–24
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Tallbear K. 2013. Native American DNA: Tribal Belonging and the False Promise of Genomic Science Minneapolis: Univ. Minn. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Taniguchi NK, Taualii M, Maddock J 2012. A comparative analysis of indigenous research guidelines to inform genomic research in indigenous communities. Int. Indig. Policy J. 3:1 https://doi.org/10.18584/iipj.2012.3.1.6
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  139. Tierney P. 2000. Darkness in El Dorado: How Scientists and Journalists Devastated the Amazon New York: Norton
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Tsosie R. 2007. Cultural challenges to biotechnology: Native American genetic resources and the concept of cultural harm. J. Law Med. Ethics 35:396–411
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Tsosie R. 2012. Indigenous peoples and epistemic injustice: science, ethics, and human rights. Wash. L. Rev. 87:1133
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Tuck E, Yang KW 2012. Decolonization is not a metaphor. Decolonization: Indig. Educ. Soc. 1:11–40
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Turner TR 2005. Biological Anthropology and Ethics: From Repatriation to Genetic Identity Albany: State Univ. N. Y. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Turner TR. 2010. Ethical considerations for human biology research. See Muehlenbein 2010 144–49
  145. Turner TR. 2012. Ethical issues in human population biology. Curr. Anthropol. 53:222–32
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Ulijaszek S, Huss-Ashmore R 1997. Human Adaptability: Past, Present, and Future New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Vidal F, Dias N 2015. Endangerment, Biodiversity and Culture New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Wald P. 2005. What's in a cell? John Moore's spleen and the language of bioslavery. New Lit. Hist. 36:205–25
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Weir RF, Olick RS, Murray JC 2004. The Stored Tissue Issue: Biomedical Research, Ethics, and Law in the Era of Genomic Medicine Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Wolf ER. 1982. Europe and the People Without History Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Wolfe P. 1999. Settler Colonialism London: A&C Black
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Wu AO. 2000. Surpassing the material: the human rights implications of informed consent in bioprospecting cells derived from Indigenous people groups. Wash. Univ. Law Q. 78:979–1003
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-102317-045922
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error