1932

Abstract

Language endangerment by definition excludes children and childhood, as the most endangered languages are those which are no longer being used, spoken, or acquired by the youngest generations. By and large, research in this area reflects this exclusion by focusing primarily on the documentation of grammatical knowledge elicited from the oldest speakers for storage in archives (what Maliseet anthropologist Bernard Perley has termed “zombie linguistics”). However, when approached from a language socialization orientation, the seeming paradox of language endangerment in childhood dissolves. Investigations of endangered languages in childhood reveal surprisingly vibrant and complicated amalgams of linguistic practices, socializing discourses, and cultural ideologies. They underscore the need to apply mixed methods to understanding processes of language endangerment. They challenge the grammatical boundedness of languages as (transparently) discrete objects. They recognize the vitalities emergent from situations of aggressive contact. Thus, attention to children and childhood not only calls into question the privileged rhetoric of zombie linguistics but also accentuates and challenges the socially constructed dimensions of languages and linguistic boundaries.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-102317-050041
2019-10-21
2024-06-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/anthro/48/1/annurev-anthro-102317-050041.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-102317-050041&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Allen SEM. 1994. Acquisition of some mechanisms of transitivity alternation in Arctic Quebec Inuktitut PhD Thesis McGill Univ. Montreal, Can:.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Allen SEM, Crago MB. 1989. Acquisition of noun incorporation in Inuktitut. Pap. Rep. Child Lang. Dev. 28:49–56
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Allen SEM, Crago MB. 1996. Early passive acquisition in Inuktitut. J. Child Lang. 23:129–55
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Allen SEM, Dench C. 2015. Calculating mean length of utterance for eastern Canadian Inuktitut. First Lang. Spec. Issue 35:4/5377–406
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Angelo D, Hudson C. 2018. Dangerous conversations: teacher–student interactions with unidentified English language learners. See Wigglesworth et al. 2018 207–36
  6. Austin PK, Sallabank J 2014. Endangered Languages: Beliefs and Ideologies in Language Documentation and Revitalization Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Baldwin D, Baldwin K, Baldwin J, Baldwin J 2013. Myaamiaataweenki oowaaha: Miamia spoken here. Bringing Our Languages Home: Language Revitalization for Families L Hinton 3–18 Berkeley, CA: Heyday
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Barrett R. 2016. Mayan language revitalization, hip hop, and ethnic identity in Guatemala. Lang. Commun. 47:144–53
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bavin EL. 1995. Language acquisition in crosslinguistic perspective. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 24:373–96
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bielenberg BT. 2002. Who will sing the songs?Language renewal among Puebloan adolescents PhD Thesis Univ. Calif. Berkeley:
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bonner D. 2001. Garifuna children's language shame: ethnic stereotypes, national affiliation and transnational immigration as factors in language choice in Southern Belize. Lang. Soc. 30:81–96
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bouchard L. 2013. The Quichua system of beliefs about language acquisition and social use: cultural resilience in Quichua–Spanish contact. Anthropol. Linguist. 55:36–60
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Brown P. 1998. Conversational structure and language acquisition: the role of repetition in Tzeltal. J. Linguist. Anthropol. 8:197–221
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bunte P. 2009.. “ You keep not listening with your ears!” Language ideologies, language socialization, and Paiute identity. Native American Language Ideologies: Beliefs, Practices and Struggles in Indian Country PV Kroskrity, MC Field 172–89 Tucson: Univ. Ariz. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bunte P. 2012. You're talking English, Grandma: language ideologies, narratives, and Southern Paiute linguistic and cultural reproduction. Telling Stories in the Face of Danger: Native American Language Renewal PV Kroskrity 44–59 Norman: Univ. Okla. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Carr G, Meek BA. 2013. The poetics of language revitalization: text, performance and change. J. Folk. Res. 50:191–216
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Chandler MJ, Lalonde CE. 2008. Cultural continuity as a protective factor against suicide in First Nations youth. Horizons 10:68–72
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Cook ED. 1989. Is phonology going haywire in dying languages? Phonological variations in Chipewyan and Sarcee. Lang. Soc. 18:235–55
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Cook ED. 1991. Linguistic divergence in Fort Chipewyan. Lang. Soc. 20:423–40
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Coronel-Molina SM, McCarty TL 2016. Indigenous Language Revitalization in the Americas New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Costa J. 2015. Can schools dispense with standard languages? Some unintended consequences of introducing Scots in a Scottish primary school. J. Linguist. Anthropol. 25:25–42
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Costa Wilson J. 2014. Must we save the language? Children's discourse on language and community in Provençal and Scottish language revitalization. See Austin & Sallabank 2014 195–212
  23. Courtney E, Saville-Troike M. 2002. Learning to construct verbs in Navajo and Quechua. J. Child Lang. 29:623–54
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Crago MB. 1992. Communicative interaction and second language acquisition: an Inuit example. TESOL Q 26:487–505
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Crago MB, Annahatak B, Ningiuruvik L 1993. Changing patterns of language socialization in Inuit homes. Anthropol. Educ. Q. 24:205–23
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Dauenhauer NM, Dauenhauer R. 1998. Technical, emotional, and ideological issues in reversing language shift: examples from southeast Alaska. See Grenoble & Whaley 1998 57–98
  27. Davis JL. 2018. Talking Indian: Identity and Language Revitalization in the Chickasaw Renaissance Tucson: Univ. Ariz. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  28. de León L. 1998. The emergent participant: interactive patterns in the socialization of Tzotzil (Mayan) infants. J. Linguist. Anthropol. 8:131–61
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Demarrais KB, Nelson PA, Baker JH 1992. Meaning in mud: Yup'ik Eskimo girls at play. Anthropol. Educ. Q. 23:120–44
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Dementi-Leonard B, Gilmore P. 1999. Language revitalization and identity in social context: a community-based Athabascan language preservation project in western interior Alaska. Anthropol. Educ. Q. 30:37–55
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Disbray S. 2008. Storytelling styles: a study of adult–child interactions in narrations of a picture book in Tennant Creek. See Simpson & Wigglesworth 2008 56–78
  32. Disbray S, Martin B. 2018. Curriculum as knowledge system: the Warlpiri theme cycle. See Wigglesworth et al. 2018 23–48
  33. Dixon S. 2018. Alyawarr children's use of two closely related languages. See Wigglesworth et al. 2018 271–99
  34. Dobrin L, Schwartz S. 2016. Collaboration or participant observation? Rethinking models of ‘linguistic social work.’. Lang. Doc. Conserv. 10:253–77
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Dorian NC. 1977. The problem of the semi-speaker in language death. Int. J. Soc. Lang. 12:23–32
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Dorian NC. 1980. Language shift in community and individual: the phenomenon of the laggard semi-speaker. Int. J. Soc. Lang. 25:85–94
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Dorian NC. 1981. Language Death: The Life Cycle of a Scottish Gaelic Dialect Philadelphia: Univ. Pa. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Dorian NC 1989. Investigating Language Obsolescence: Studies in Language Contraction and Death Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Dorian NC. 1998. Western language ideologies and small-language prospects. See Grenoble & Whaley 1998 3–21
  40. Duff PA, May S 2017. Encyclopedia of Language and Education: Language Socialization Berlin: Springer. , 3rd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Duranti A, Ochs E, Schieffelin BBeds. 2011. The Handbook of Language Socialization Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Eickelkamp U. 2008. ‘I don't talk story like that’: on the social meaning of children's sand stories at Ernabella. See Simpson & Wigglesworth 2008 78–99
  43. Field MC. 2001. Triadic directives in Navajo language socialization. Lang. Soc. 30:249–63
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Field MC. 2009. Changing Navajo language ideologies and changing language use. Native American Language Ideologies: Beliefs, Practices and Struggles in Indian Country PV Kroskrity, MC Field 31–47 Tucson: Univ. Ariz. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Fitzgerald C. 2017. Understanding language vitality and reclamation as resilience: a framework for language endangerment and ‘loss’ (commentary on Mufwene). Language 93:e280–97
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Fogle LW, King KA. 2017. Bi- and multilingual family language socialization. See Duff & May 2017 79–95
  47. Fortescue M. 1984. Learning to speak Greenlandic: a case study of a two-year-old's morphology in a polysynthetic language. First Lang 5:101–14
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Fraser H, Mushin I, Meakins F, Gardner R 2018. Dis, that and da other: variation in Aboriginal children's article and demonstrative use in school. See Wigglesworth et al. 2018 237–70
  49. French B. 2010. Maya Ethnolinguistic Identity: Violence, Cultural Rights, and Modernity in Highland Maya Tucson: Univ. Ariz. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Ferguson J. 2019. Words Like Birds: Sakha Language Discourses and Practices in the City Lincoln: Univ. Neb. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Fishman J. 1991. Reversing Language Shift Philadelphia: Multiling. Matters
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Garrett PB. 2005. What a language is good for: language socialization, language shift, and the persistence of code-specific genres in St. Lucia. Lang. Soc. 34:327–61
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Garrett PB. 2006. Contact languages as “endangered” languages: What is there to lose. J. Pidgin Creole Lang. 21:175–90
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Garrett PB. 2011. Language socialization and language shift. See Duranti et al. 2011 515–35
  55. Genetti C, Siemens R. 2013. Training as empowering social action: an ethical response to language endangerment. Responses to Language Endangerment: In Honor of Mickey Noonan. New Directions in Language Documentation and Language Revitalization E Mihas, B Perley, G Rei-Doval, K Wheatley 59–77 Amsterdam: Benjamins
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Gould J. 2008. Language difference or language disorder: discourse sampling speech pathology assessment for Indigenous children. See Simpson & Wigglesworth 2008 194–215
  57. Green J, Turpin M. 2013. If you go down to the soak today: symbolism and structure in an Arandic children's story. Anthropol. Linguist. 55:358–94
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Grenoble L, Whaley LJ 1998. Endangered Languages: Language Loss and Community Response Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Grinevald C, Bert M. 2011. Speakers and communities. The Cambridge Handbook of Endangered Languages PV Austin, J Sallabank 45–66 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Hallett D, Chandler MJ, Lalonde CE 2007. Aboriginal language knowledge and youth suicide. Cogn. Dev. 22:392–99
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Hauck JD. 2015. Language mixing and metalinguistic awareness of Aché children. Tex. Linguist. Forum 48:40–49
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Hauck JD. 2016. Making language the ideological and interactional constitution of language in an indigenous Aché community in eastern Paraguay PhD Thesis Univ. Calif. Los Angel:.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Heaton R, Xoyón I. 2013. Assessment of linguistic development in a Kaqchikel immersion school. Lang. Doc. Conserv. 10:497–521
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Henne R. 2009. Verbal artistry: a case for education. Anthropol. Educ. Q. 40:331–49
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Henne‐Ochoa R, Bauman R. 2015. Who is responsible for saving the language? Performing generation in the face of language shift. J. Linguist. Anthropol. 25:128–49
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Hermes M, Haskins M. 2018. Unbecoming standards through Ojibwe immersion: The wolf meets Ma'iingan. See Wigglesworth et al. 2018 99–116
  67. Hill JH. 2002. “Expert rhetorics” in advocacy for endangered languages: Who is listening, and what do they hear?. J. Linguist. Anthropol. 12:119–33
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Hinton L. 2013. Bringing our Languages Home: Language Revitalization for Families Berkeley, CA: Heyday
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Hinton L, Meek BA. 2016. Language acquisition, shift and revitalization: United States and Canada. See Coronel-Molina & McCarty 2016 57–75
  70. Hirata-Edds T. 2011. Influence of second language Cherokee immersion on children's development of past tense in their first language, English. Lang. Learn. 61:700–33
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Hornberger NH, De Korne H 2018. Is revitalization through education possible?. The Routledge Handbook of Language Revitalization L Hinton, L Huss, G Roche 94–103 New York/London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Jaffe A. 1999. Ideologies in Action: Language Politics on Corsica Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter
    [Google Scholar]
  73. James A. 2007. Giving voice to children's voices: practices and problems, pitfalls and potentials. Am. Anthropol. 109:261–72
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Jones C, Campbell Nagari J 2008. Issues in the assessment of children's oral skills. See Simpson & Wigglesworth 2008 175–93
  75. Jung D, Klein M, Stoll S 2018. Language transition(s): school responses to recent changes in language choice in a Northern Dene community (Canada). See Wigglesworth et al. 2018 49–68
  76. Kelly BF, Forshaw W, Nordlinger R, Wigglesworth G 2015a. Linguistic diversity in first language acquisition research: moving beyond the challenges. First Lang. (Spec. Issue) 35:4/5286–304
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Kelly BF, Kidd E, Wigglesworth G 2015b. Indigenous children's language: acquisition, preservation, and evolution of language in minority contexts. First Lang. (Spec. Issue) 35:4/5279–85
    [Google Scholar]
  78. King KA, Schilling-Estes N, Fogle LW, Lou JJ, Soukup B 2008. Sustaining Linguistic Diversity: Endangered and Minority Languages and Language Varieties Washington, DC: Georgetown Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Krauss M. 1992. On endangered languages and the safeguarding of diversity. Language 68:1–42
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Kroskrity PV. 2012. Growing with stories: ideologies of storytelling and the narrative reproduction of Arizona Tewa identities. Telling Stories in the Face of Danger: Language Renewal in Native American Communities PV Kroskrity 151–84 Norman: Univ. Okla. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Kroskrity PV. 2016. Language ideologies. The Routledge Handbook of Linguistic Anthropology N Bonvillain 96–108 London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Kroskrity PV. 2018. On recognizing persistence in the indigenous language ideologies of multilingualism in two Native American communities. Lang. Commun. 62:133–44
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Kroskrity PV, Meek BA. 2017. Engaging Native American Publics: Linguistic Anthropology in a Collaborative Key London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Kulick D. 1992. Language Shift and Cultural Reproduction: Socialization, Self and Syncretism in a Papua New Guinean Village Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Kulick D, Schieffelin BB. 2004. Language socialization. A Companion to Linguistic Anthropology A Duranti 349–68 Malden, MA: Blackwell
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Lee TS. 2007. “If they want Navajo to be learned, then they should require it in all schools”: Navajo teenagers’ experiences, choices, and demands regarding Navajo language. Wicazo Sa Rev 22:7–33
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Leonard WY. 2011. Challenging ‘extinction’ through modern Miami language practices. Am. Indian Cult. Res. J. 35:135–60
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Leonard WY. 2017. Producing language reclamation by decolonizing ‘language.’. Lang. Doc. Descr. 14:15–36
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Leonard WY, Haynes E. 2010. Making ‘collaboration’ collaborative: an examination of perspectives that frame linguistic field research. Lang. Doc. Conserv. 4:268–93
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Levine RA. 2007. Ethnographic studies of childhood: a historical overview. Am. Anthropol. 109:247–60
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Lomawaima T, McCarty TL. 2006. To Remain an Indian: Lessons in Democracy from a Century of Native American Education New York: Teach. Coll. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Makihara M. 2005a. Rapa Nui ways of speaking Spanish: language shift and socialization on Easter Island. Lang. Soc. 34:727–62
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Makihara M. 2005b. Being Rapa Nui, speaking Spanish: children's voices on Easter Island. Anthropol. Theory 5:117–34
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Makihara M. 2013. Language, competence, use, ideology, and community on Rapa Nui. Lang. Commun. 33:439–49
    [Google Scholar]
  95. McCarty TL, Romero ME, Zepeda O 2006. Reclaiming the gift: indigenous youth counter-narratives on Native language loss and revitalization. Am. Indian Q. 30:28–48
    [Google Scholar]
  96. McConvell P. 2008. Language mixing and language shift. See Simpson & Wigglesworth 2008 237–60
  97. McLeod S, Verdon S, Kneebone LB 2014. Celebrating young indigenous Australian children's speech and competence. Early Child. Res. Q. 29:118–31
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Meakins F. 2008. Unravelling languages: multilingualism and language contact in Kalkaringi. See Simpson & Wigglesworth 2008 283–302
  99. Meakins F. 2010. The development of asymmetrical serial verb constructions in an Australian mixed language. Linguist. Typol. 14:1–38
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Meakins F. 2012. Which mix? Code-switching or a mixed language: Gurindji Kriol. J. Pidgin Creole Lang. 27:105–40
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Meakins F, Wigglesworth G. 2013. How much input is enough? Correlating comprehension and child language input in an endangered language. J. Multiling. Multicult. Dev. 34:171–88
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Meek BA. 2007. Respecting the language of elders: ideological shift and linguistic discontinuity in a Northern Athapascan community. J. Linguist. Anthropol. 17:23–43
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Meek BA. 2010. We Are Our Language: An Ethnography of Language Revitalization in a Northern Athabaskan Community Tucson: Univ. Ariz. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Meek BA. 2018. Learning a new routine: Kaska language development and the convergence of styles. See Wigglesworth et al. 2018 337–64
  105. Messing J. 2007. Multiple ideologies and competing discourses: language shift in Tlaxcala, Mexico. Lang. Soc. 36:555–77
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Messing J, Rosales Flores R 2013. Syncretic speech, linguistic ideology, and intertextuality: (re)presenting the Spanish translation of “Speaking Mexicano” in Tlaxcala, Mexico. The Persistence of Language: Constructing and Confronting the Past and Present in the Voices of Jane H. Hill ST Bischoff, D Cole, AV Fountain, M Miyashita 291–318 Philadelphia: Benjamins
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Minks A. 2002. From children's song to expressive practices: old and new directions in the ethnomusicological study of children. Ethnomusicology 46:379–408
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Minks A. 2008. Performing gender in song games among Nicaraguan Miskitu children. Lang. Commun. 28:36–56
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Minks A. 2010. Socializing heteroglossia among Miskitu children on the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua. Pragmatics 20:495–522
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Minks A. 2013. Voices of Play: Miskitu Children's Speech and Song on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua Tucson: Univ. Ariz. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Mithun M. 1989. The acquisition of polysynthesis. J. Child Lang. 16:285–312
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Moore R, Pietikäinen S, Blommaert J 2010. Counting the losses: numbers as the language of endangerment. Socioling. Stud. 4:1–26
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Morales G, Vaughan J, Ganambarr-Stubbs M 2018. From home to school in multilingual Arnhem land: the development of Yirrkala School's bilingual curriculum. See Wigglesworth et al. 2018 69–98
  114. Morcom LA, Roy S. 2019. Is early immersion effective for Aboriginal language acquisition? A case study from an Anishinaabemowin kindergarten. Int. J. Biling. Educ. Biling. 22:551–63
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Morris D, Jones K. 2008. Language socialization in the home and minority language revitalization in Europe. Encyclopedia of Language and Education: Language Socialization PA Duff, NH Hornberger 127–43 Berlin: Springer. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Moseley C. 2010. Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger Paris: UNESCO. , 3rd ed.. http://www.unesco.org/culture/en/endangeredlanguages/atlas
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Moses K, Wigglesworth G. 2008. The silence of the frogs: dysfunctional discourse in the “English-only” Aboriginal classroom. See Simpson & Wigglesworth 2008 129–53
  118. Nevins ME. 2004. Learning to listen: confronting two meanings of language loss in the contemporary White Mountain Apache speech community. J. Linguist. Anthropol. 14:269–88
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Nevins ME. 2013. Lessons from Fort Apache: Beyond Language Endangerment and Maintenance Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Nicholas SE. 2018. Practicing living and being Hopi: language and cultural practices of contemporary Hopi youth. See Wigglesworth et al. 2018 303–36
  121. Niezen R. 2016. Templates and exclusions: victim centrism in Canada's Truth and Reconciliation Commission on Indian residential schools. J. R. Anthropol. Inst. 22:920–38
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Nonaka AM. 2007. Emergence of an indigenous sign language and a speech/sign community in Ban Khor, Thailand PhD Thesis Univ. Calif. Los Angel:.
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Nonaka AM. 2009. Estimating size, scope, and membership of the speech/sign communities of undocumented indigenous/village sign languages: the Ban Khor case study. Lang. Commun. 29:210–29
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Nonaka AM. 2011. Language socialization and language endangerment. See Duranti et al. 2011 610–30
  125. Ochs E. 1988. Culture and Language Development: Language Acquisition and Language Socialization in a Samoan Village Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Ochs E, Schieffelin BB. 1995. The impact of language socialization on grammatical development. The Handbook on Child Language P Fletcher, B MacWhinney 73–94 Oxford, UK: Blackwell
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Ochs E, Schieffelin BB. 2011. The theory of language socialization. See Duranti et al. 2011 1–21
  128. Ochs E, Schieffelin BB. 2017. Language socialization: an historical overview. See Duff & May 2017 3–16
  129. O'Grady W. 2018. Assessing language revitalization: methods and priorities. Annu. Rev. Linguist. 4:317–36
    [Google Scholar]
  130. O'Shannessy C. 2008. Children's production of their heritage language and a new mixed language. See Simpson & Wigglesworth 2008 261–82
  131. O'Shannessy C. 2012. The role of code-switched input to children in the origin of a new mixed language. Linguistics 50:305–40
    [Google Scholar]
  132. O'Shannessy C. 2015. Multilingual children increase language differentiation by indexing communities of practice. First Lang. Spec. Issue 35:4/5305–26
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Palmer G. 2017. There's no easy way to talk about language change or language loss: the difficulties and rewards of linguistic collaboration. See Kroskrity & Meek 2017 38–62
  134. Paugh AL. 2005. Multilingual play: children's code-switching, role play, and agency in Dominica, West Indies. Lang. Soc. 34:63–86
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Paugh AL. 2012. Playing with Languages: Children and Change in a Caribbean Village New York/Oxford, UK: Berghahn
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Paugh AL. 2015. Language socialization. The Routledge Handbook of Linguistic Anthropology N Bonvillain 125–39 New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Paugh AL. 2019. Negotiating language ideologies through imaginary play: children's code choice and rescaling practices in Dominica, West Indies. J. Pragmat. 144:78–91
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Paugh AL, Riley KC. 2019. Poverty and children's language in anthropolitical perspective. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 48:297–315
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Pérez Báez G. 2013. Family language policy, transnationalism, and the diaspora community of San Luis Quiaviní of Oaxaca, Mexico. Lang. Policy 12:27–45
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Perley B. 2011. Defying Maliseet Language Death: Emergent Vitalities of Language, Culture, and Identity in Eastern Canada Lincoln: Univ. Neb. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Perley B. 2012. Zombie linguistics: experts, endangered languages and the curse of undead voices. Anthropol. Forum 22:133–49
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Perley B. 2013. Remembering ancestral voices: emergent vitalities and the future of indigenous languages. Responses to Language Endangerment: In Honor of Mickey Noonan. New Directions in Language Documentation and Language Revitalization E Mihas, B Perley, G Rei-Doval, K Wheatley 243–70 Amsterdam: Benjamins
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Pesco D, Crago M. 2017. Language socialization in Canadian indigenous communities. See Duff & May 2017 1–17
  144. Peter L. 2007. “Our beloved Cherokee”: a naturalistic study of Cherokee preschool language immersion. Anthropol. Educ. Q. 38:323–42
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Peter L, Hirata-Edds T, Montgomery-Anderson B 2008. Verb development by children in the Cherokee language immersion program, with implications for teaching. Int. J. Appl. Linguist. 18:166–87
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Pfeiler B. 2007a. Introduction: the view from Mesoamerica. See Pfeiler 2007c 1–13
  147. Pfeiler B. 2007b. “Lo oye, lo repite y lo piensa.” The contribution of prompting to the socialization and language acquisition of Yukatek Maya toddlers. See Pfeiler 2007c 183–202
  148. Pfeiler B 2007c. Learning Indigenous Languages: Child Language Acquisition in Mesoamerica Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Philips S. 1983. The Invisible Culture: Communication in Classroom and Community on the Warm Springs Indian Reservation Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Poetsch S. 2018. Languaging their learning: how children work their languages for classroom learning. See Wigglesworth et al. 2018 147–72
  151. Pye C. 1983. Mayan telegraphese: intonational determinants of inflectional development in Quiché Mayan. Language 59:583–604
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Pye C. 1992. Language loss among the Chilcotin. Int. J. Soc. Lang. 93:75–86
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Pye C, Pfeiler B. 2014. The comparative method of language acquisition research: a Mayan case study. J. Child Lang. 41:382–415
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Reese E, Keegan P, McNaughton S, Kingi TK, Carr PA et al. 2018. Te Reo Maori: indigenous language acquisition in the context of New Zealand English. J. Child Lang. 45:340–367
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Reynolds J. 2007. “Buenos días/((military salute))”: the natural history of a coined insult. Res. Lang. Soc. Interact. 40:437–65
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Reynolds J. 2008. Socializing Puros Pericos (little parrots): the negotiation of respect and responsibility in Antonero Mayan sibling and peer networks. J. Linguist. Anthropol. 18:82–107
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Reynolds J. 2009. Shaming the shift generation: intersecting ideologies of family and linguistic revitalization in Guatemala. Native American Language Ideologies: Beliefs, Practices and Struggles in Indian Country PV Kroskrity, MC Field 213–37 Tucson: Univ. Ariz. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  158. Rindstedt C, Aronsson K. 2002. Growing up monolingual in a bilingual community: the Quichua revitalization paradox. Lang. Soc. 31:721–42
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Rinehart M. 2011. The agency of language ideologies in Miami Indian recovery. Ethnographic Contributions to the Study of Endangered Languages T Granadillo, HA Orcutt-Gachiri 91–110 Tucson: Univ. Ariz. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  160. Rogoff B. 2014. Learning by observing and pitching in to family and community endeavors: an orientation. Hum. Dev. 57:69–81
    [Google Scholar]
  161. Romero-Little ME. 2003. Perpetuating the Cochiti way of life: a study of child socialization and language shift in a Pueblo community PhD Thesis Univ. Calif. Berkeley:
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Romero-Little ME. 2008. Language socialization of indigenous children. Encyclopedia of Bilingual Education JM González 493–97 Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Saville-Troike M. 1996. Development of the inflected verb in Navajo child language. Athabaskan Language Studies: Essays in Honor of Robert W. Young E Jelinek, S Midgette, K Rice, L Saxon 137–92 Albuquerque: Univ. N. M. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  164. Schieffelin BB. 1990. The Give and Take of Everyday Life: Language Socialization of Kaluli Children New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  165. Schieffelin BB, Ochs E 1986. Language Socialization Across Cultures Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  166. Schmidt A. 1985. Young People's Dyirbal: An Example of Language Death from Australia Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  167. Shulist S. 2013. Collaborating on language: contrasting the theory and practice of collaboration in linguistics and anthropology. Collab. Anthropol. 6:1–29
    [Google Scholar]
  168. Shulist S. 2018. Transforming Indigeneity: Urbanization and Language Revitalization in the Brazilian Amazon Toronto: Univ. Toronto Press
    [Google Scholar]
  169. Simpson JH, Wigglesworth G 2008. Children's Language and Multilingualism: Indigenous Language Use at Home and School New York: Continuum
    [Google Scholar]
  170. Skutnabb-Kangas T. 2000. Linguistic Genocide in Education—or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum
    [Google Scholar]
  171. Slobin DI. 1992. The Cross-Linguistic Study of Language Acquisition Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
    [Google Scholar]
  172. Smith-Christmas C. 2014. Being socialized into language shift: the impact of extended family members on family language policy. J. Multilingual Multicult. Dev. 35:511–26
    [Google Scholar]
  173. Smith-Christmas C. 2016. Family Language Policy: Maintaining an Endangered Language in the Home London: Palgrave Macmillan
    [Google Scholar]
  174. Smith-Christmas C. 2018. ‘One cas, two cas’: exploring the affective dimensions of family language policy. Multilingua 37:131–52
    [Google Scholar]
  175. Urla J. 2012. Reclaiming Basque: Language, Nation, and Cultural Activism Reno: Univ. Nev. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  176. Vizenor G. 2008. Survivance: Narratives of Native Presence Lincoln: Univ. Neb. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  177. Whalen DH. 2004. How the study of endangered languages will revolutionize linguistics. Linguistics Today: Facing Greater Challenges P van Sterkenburg 321–42 Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins
    [Google Scholar]
  178. Whalen DH, Moss M, Baldwin D 2016. Healing through language: positive physical health effects of indigenous language use. F1000Research 5:852
    [Google Scholar]
  179. Wigglesworth G, Simpson J. 2008. The language learning environment of preschool children in Indigenous communities. See Simpson & Wigglesworth 2008 13–29
  180. Wigglesworth G, Simpson J. 2018. Going to school in a different world. See Wigglesworth et al. 2018 1–20
  181. Wigglesworth G, Simpson J, Vaughan J 2018. Language Practices of Indigenous Children and Youth: The Transition from Home to School London: Palgrave Macmillan
    [Google Scholar]
  182. Will V. 2012. Why Kenny can't can: the language socialization experiences of Gaelic-medium educated children in Scotland PhD Thesis Univ. Mich. Ann Arbor:
    [Google Scholar]
  183. Wilson A, Hurst P, Wigglesworth G 2018. Code-switching or code-mixing? Tiwi children's use of language resources in a multilingual environment. See Wigglesworth et al. 2018 119–46
  184. Wyman LT. 2009. Youth, linguistic ecology, and language endangerment: a Yup'ik example. J. Lang. Identity Educ. 8:335–49
    [Google Scholar]
  185. Wyman LT. 2012. Youth Culture, Language Endangerment and Linguistic Survivance Bristol, UK: Multiling. Matters
    [Google Scholar]
  186. Wyman LT, McCarty TL, Nicholas SE 2014. Indigenous Youth and Multilingualism: Language Identity, Ideology, and Practice in Dynamic Cultural Worlds New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-102317-050041
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error