1932

Abstract

Multimodality offers anthropologists an inflection on the way we do research, produce scholarship, teach students, and relate to diverse publics. Advancing an expanding array of tools, practices, and concepts, multimodality signals a change in the way we pay attention and attend to the diverse possibilities for understanding the human experience. Multimodality recognizes the way smartphones, social media, and digital software transform research dynamics in unprecedented ways, while also drawing upon long-standing practices of recording and presenting research through images, sounds, objects, and text. Rather than flatten out ethnographic participant observation into logocentric practices of people-writing, multimodal ethnographies diversify their modes of inquiry to produce more-than-textual mediations of sensorial research experiences. By emphasizing kaleidoscopic qualities that give shape to an emergent, multidimensional, and diversifying anthropology, multimodality proposes alternatives to enduring and delimiting dichotomies, particularly text/image. These new configurations invite unrealized disciplinary constellations and research collaborations to emerge, but also require overhauling the infrastructures that support training, dissemination, and assessment.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-121319-071409
2022-10-24
2024-06-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/anthro/51/1/annurev-anthro-121319-071409.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-121319-071409&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Alvarez Astacio P, Dattatreyan EG, Shankar A 2021. Multimodal ambivalence: a manifesto for producing in s@!#t times. Am. Anthropol. 123:2420–27
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bakke G, Peterson M, eds. 2017. Between Matter and Method: Encounters in Anthropology and Art London/New York: Bloomsbury
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ballestero A, Winthereik BR, eds. 2021. Experimenting with Ethnography: A Companion to Analysis Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Banks M. 2001. Visual Methods in Social Research Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Banks M, Morphy H 1997. Introduction. Rethinking Visual Anthropology M Banks, H Morphy 1–35 New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Barry L. 2014. Syllabus: Notes from an Accidental Professor Montreal: Drawn & Quarterly
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bateson G, Mead M. 1942. Balinese Character: A Photographic Analysis New York: N. Y. Acad. Sci.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bateson G, Mead M, Brand S. 1977. Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson on the use of the camera in anthropology. Stud. Anthropol. Vis. Commun. 4:278–80
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Behar R, Gordon D 1996. Women Writing Culture. Berkeley: Univ Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Berg M, Seeber BK. 2016. The Slow Professor: Challenging the Culture of Speed in the Academy Toronto: Univ. Toronto Press
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bourgois P, Schonberg J. 2009. Righteous Dopefiend. Berkeley: Univ Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Boyer D, Faubion J, Howe C, LaFlamme M. 2016. Sound + vision: experimenting with the anthropological research article of the future. Cult. Anthropol. 31:4459–63
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Campbell C, Choi V, Douglas L, Shankar A, Westmoreland M. 2022. Writing with Light Magazine. Writ. Light 1:2
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Campt TM. 2017. Listening to Images Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Causey A. 2016. Drawn to See: Drawing as an Ethnographic Method Toronto: Univ. Toronto Press
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Chin E. 2017. On multimodal anthropologies from the space of design: toward participant making. Am. Anthropol. 119:3541–43
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Chin E. 2021. On the possibility of radical, rigorous generosity as an editorial ethos. Am. Anthropol. 123:15–8
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Chio J. 2017. Guiding lines. Fieldsights Blog May 2. https://culanth.org/fieldsights/guiding-lines
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Choi V, Westmoreland M, Shankar A, Campbell C, Douglas L. 2019. Writing with Light: editorial introduction. Fieldsights Blog Oct. 29. https://culanth.org/fieldsights/writing-with-light-editorial-introduction
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Clifford J, Marcus G. 1986. Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Collier J. 1967. Visual Anthropology: Photography as a Research Method New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Collier J, Collier M. 1986. Visual Anthropology: Photography as a Research Method Albuquerque: Univ. N. M. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Collins SG, Dumit J, Durington M, González-Tennant E, Harper K et al. 2017a. Gaming anthropology: a sourcebook from #AnthropologyCon Booklet, Am. Anthropol. Assoc. Arlington, VA: https://anthropologyconorg.files.wordpress.com/2017/12/gaming-anthropology.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Collins SG, Durington MS. 2014. Networked Anthropology: A Primer for Ethnographers London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Collins SG, Durington M, Gill H. 2017b. Multimodality: an invitation. Am. Anthropol. 119:1142–46
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Cox R, Carlyle A 2012. Air pressure. Compact Disc Gruenrekorder, Sulzbach, Ger:.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Cox R, Irving A, Wright C 2016. Introduction: the sense of the senses. Beyond Text? Critical Practices and Sensory Anthropology R Cox, A Irving, C Wright 1–19 Manchester, UK: Manchester Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Crary J. 1990. Techniques of the Observer: On Vision and Modernity in the 19th Century Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Criado T, Farías I, Schröder J. 2022. Multimodal values: how to evaluate and institutionalize more-than-textual ethnography. Entanglements 5:1/2 In press
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Dattatreyan EG, Marrero-Guillamón I. 2019. Introduction: multimodal anthropology and the politics of invention. Am. Anthropol. 121:1220–28
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Dattatreyan EG, Marrero-Guillamón I. 2021. Pedagogies of the senses: multimodal strategies for unsettling visual anthropology. Vis. Anthropol. Rev. 37:2267–89
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Davidov V. 2018. Theory isn't what it used to be. Fieldsights Blog Sept. 26. https://culanth.org/fieldsights/theory-isnt-what-it-used-to-be
    [Google Scholar]
  33. De Boeck F, Baloji S. 2016. Suturing the City: Living Together in Congo's Urban Worlds London: Autograph
    [Google Scholar]
  34. de Brigard E. 1995. The history of ethnographic film. See Hockings 1995 13–43
  35. De Leon J. 2019. Hostile terrain 94 Wall Installation Los Angeles: https://www.undocumentedmigrationproject.org/hostileterrain94
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Dicks B, Soyinka B, Coffey A. 2006. Multimodal ethnography. Qual. Res. 6:177–96
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Dikovitskaya M. 2005. Visual Culture: The Study of the Visual After the Cultural Turn Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Dilger H, Pels P, Sleeboom-Faulkner M. 2019. Guidelines for data management and scientific integrity in ethnography. Ethnography 20:13–7
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Du Bois WEB 2004. Souls of Black Folk London: Routledge:
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Durrani M, Gotkin K, Laughlin C. 2015. Serial, seriality, and the possibilities for the podcast format. Am. Anthropol. 117:31–4
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Edwards E 1992. Anthropology and Photography, 1860–1920 New Haven, CT/London: Yale Univ. Press/R. Anthropol. Inst.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Elhaik T. 2016. The Incurable Image: Curating Post-Mexican Film and Media Arts Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Elliott D. 2016. Writing. See Elliott & Culhane 2016 23–44
  44. Elliott D, Culhane D, eds. 2016. A Different Kind of Ethnography: Imaginative Practices and Creative Methodologies North York, Can: Univ. Toronto Press
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Erlmann V. 2004. Hearing Cultures: Essays on Sound, Listening, and Modernity Oxford, UK: Berg
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Evans M. 2020. Becoming sensor in the Planthroposcene: an interview with Natasha Myers. Fieldsights Blog July 9. https://culanth.org/fieldsights/becoming-sensor-an-interview-with-natasha-myers
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Fabian J. 2002. Time and the Other: How Anthropology Makes Its Object New York: Columbia Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Faudree P. 2012. Music, language, and texts: sound and semiotic ethnography. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 41:519–36
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Feld S. 1991. Voices of the rainforest Compact Disc, Rykodisc Salem, MA:
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Feld S 2003. Ciné-Ethnography: Jean Rouch Vis. Evid . Vol. 13 Minneapolis: Univ. Minn. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Feld S. 2015. Acoustemology. Keywords in Sound D Novak, M Sakakeeny 12–21 Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Feld S, Brenneis D. 2004. Doing anthropology in sound. Am. Ethnol. 31:4461–74
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Ferrarini L, Scaldaferri N. 2020. Sonic Ethnography: Identity, Heritage and Creative Research Practice in Basilicata, Southern Italy Manchester, UK: Manchester Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Foster H. 1995. The artist as ethnographer. The Traffic in Culture: Refiguring Art and Anthropology GE Marcus, FR Myers 302–9 Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Friedman PK. 2020. Defining ethnographic film. The Routledge International Handbook of Ethnographic Film and Video P Vannini 15–29 Abingdon, UK: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Gardner R. 2006. The Impulse to Preserve: Reflections of a Filmmaker New York: Other
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Gardner R. 2007. Making Dead Birds: Chronicle of a Film Cambridge, MA: Peabody Mus:.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Gardner R. 2010. Just Representations Cambridge, MA: Studio7Arts/Peabody Mus:.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Gardner R, Östör Á. 2001. Making Forest of Bliss: Intention, Circumstance, and Chance in Nonfiction Film. A Conversation Between Robert Gardner and Ákos Östör Cambridge, MA: Harvard Film Arch.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Geertz C. 1973. The Interpretation of Cultures New York: Basic
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Geismar H. 2018. Museum Object Lessons for the Digital Age London: Univ. Coll. Lond. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Gill H. 2021. Decolonizing visual anthropology: locating transnational diasporic queers-of-color voices in ethnographic cinema. Am. Anthropol. 123:136–49
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Ginsburg F. 1995. The parallax effect: the impact of Aboriginal media on ethnographic film. Vis. Anthropol. Rev. 11:264–76
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Ginsburg F. 1996. Two kinds of truth (film review essay). Am. Anthropol. 98:4832–36
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Ginsburg F. 1998. Institutionalizing the unruly: charting a future for visual anthropology. Ethnos 63:2173–201
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Ginsburg F. 2018. Decolonizing documentary on-screen and off: sensory ethnography and the aesthetics of accountability. Film Q 72:139–49
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Glass A, Hunt C. 2019. The Story Box: Franz Boas, George Hunt and the Making of Anthropology New York/Alert Bay, Can: Bard Grad. Cent. Gallery/U'mista Cult. Cent https://exhibitions.bgc.bard.edu/storybox/
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Golde P 1986. Women in the Field: Anthropological Experiences Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press Revis. ed .
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Grasseni C 2007. Introduction. Skilled Visions: Between Apprenticeship and Standards C Grasseni 1–19 New York: Berghahn
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Griffiths A. 2002. Wondrous Difference: Cinema, Anthropology and Turn-of-the-Century Visual Culture New York: Columbia Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Grimshaw A. 2001. The Ethnographer's Eye: Ways of Seeing in Anthropology Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Grimshaw A. 2007. The camera in the studio: Robert Gardner's Passenger. The Cinema of Robert Gardner I Barbash, L Taylor 121–36 Oxford, UK: Berg
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Grimshaw A, Owen E, Ravetz A. 2010. Making do: the materials of art and anthropology. Between Art and Anthropology: Contemporary Ethnographic Practice A Schneider, C Wright 147–62 Oxford, UK: Berg
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Grimshaw A, Ravetz A, eds. 2005. Visualizing Anthropology Bristol, UK: Intellect
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Grimshaw A, Ravetz A. 2009. Observational Cinema: Anthropology, Film, and the Exploration of Social Life Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Gross L, Ruby J, eds. 2013. The Complete Sol Worth Los Angeles: Univ. South. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Gunn W 2009. Fieldnotes and Sketchbooks: Challenging the Boundaries Between Descriptions and Processes of Describing New York: Lang
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Hamdy S, Nye C. 2016. Creative collaborations: the making of “Lissa (Still Time): A Graphic Medical Ethnography of Friendship, Loss, and Revolution.”. Somatosphere May 13. http://somatosphere.net/2016/creative-collaborations-the-making-of-lissa-still-time-a-graphic-medical-ethnography-of-friendship-loss-and-revolution.html/
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Hamdy S, Nye C. 2017. Lissa: A Story About Medical Promise, Friendship, and Revolution Toronto: Univ. Toronto Press
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Hamdy S, Nye C. 2018. Drawing culture, or ethnography as a graphic art: the making of Lissa. American Anthropologist Blog June 7. https://www.americananthropologist.org/online-content/2018/06/07/drawing-culture-or-ethnography-as-a-graphic-art-the-making-of-lissa
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Haraway D. 1988. Situated knowledges: the science question in feminism and the privilege of partial perspective. Fem. Stud. 14:3575–99
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Hegel C, Cantarella L, Marcus GE. 2019. Ethnography by Design: Scenographic Experiments in Fieldwork London: Bloomsbury:
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Heider K. 1971. Ethnographic Film Austin: Univ. Tex. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Hendrickson C. 2008. Visual field notes: drawing insights in the Yucatan. Vis. Anthropol. Rev. 24:2117–32
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Henley P. 2007. Seeing, hearing, feeling: sound and the despotism of the eye in ‘visual’ anthropology. Vis. Anthropol. Rev. 23:154–63
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Henley P. 2010. The Adventure of the Real: Jean Rouch and the Craft of Ethnographic Cinema Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Henley P. 2020. Beyond Observation: A History of Authorship in Ethnographic Film Manchester, UK: Manchester Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Hennessy K, Smith TL, Hogue T. 2018. ARCTICNOISE and broadcasting futures: Geronimo Inutiq remixes the Igloolik Isuma archive. Cult. Anthropol. 33:2213–23
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Herzfeld M. 2014. Serendipitous sculpture: Ethnography does as ethnography goes. Anthropol. Hum. 39:13–9
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Hine C. 2015. Ethnography for the Internet: Embedded, Embodied and Everyday London: Bloomsbury
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Hockings P 1995. Principles of Visual Anthropology Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Hoffman D. 2012. Corpus: mining the border. Fieldsights Blog Novemb. 12. https://culanth.org/fieldsights/corpus-mining-the-border
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Howes D 2005. Empire of the Senses: The Sensual Culture Reader Oxford, UK: Berg. Illus ed .
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Howes D 2009. Introduction: the revolving sensorium. The Sixth Sense Reader D Howes 1–52 Oxford, UK: Berg
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Howes D. 2015. Anthropology of the senses. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences JD Wright 615–20 Oxford, UK: Elsevier. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Howes D. 2019. Multisensory anthropology. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 48:17–28
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Hurdley R, Biddulph M, Backhaus V, Hipwood T, Hossain R. 2017. Drawing as radical multimodality: salvaging Patrick Geddes's material methodology. Am. Anthropol. 119:4748–53
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Ingold T. 2007. Lines: A Brief History London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Ingold T. 2013. Making: Anthropology, Archaeology, Art and Architecture London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Jackson JL. 2012. Ethnography is, ethnography ain't. Cult. Anthropol. 27:3480–97
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Jackson JL, Thomas DA, Wortham SEF. 2014. Editing the visual anthropology section of American Anthropologist: a brief statement from the incoming editors. Am. Anthropol. 116:3649
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Jain L. 2019. Things That Art: A Graphic Menagerie of Enchanting Curiosity Toronto: Univ. Toronto Press
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Jay M. 1994. Downcast Eyes: The Denigration of Vision in Twentieth-Century French Thought Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Jewitt C, Bezemer J, O'Halloran KL. 2016. Introducing Multimodality London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Jones CA. 2018. The mediated sensorium. Senses and Sensation: Critical and Primary Sources, Vol. 4: Art and Design D Howes 219–62 London: Bloomsbury
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Jørgensen AM. 2018. Introduction: curating film in ethnographic exhibitions. Anthrovision 6:1 https://doi.org/10.4000/anthrovision.3005
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  107. Kapchan D. 2017a. The splash of Icarus theorizing sound writing/writing sound theory. See Kapchan 2017b 1–22
  108. Kapchan D 2017b. Theorizing Sound Writing Middletown, CT: Wesleyan Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Karel E 2016. Notes on ‘Space of consciousness (Chidambaaram, early morning)’. Anthrovision 4:2 https://doi.org/10.4000/anthrovision.2383
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  110. Karel E, Kusumaryati V 2020. Expedition Content Synopsis, Cinema Guild http://ek.klingt.org/expeditioncontent.html
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Kohrs K. 2017. Learning from linguistics: rethinking multimodal enquiry. Int. J. Soc. Res. Methodol. 21:149–61
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Kress GR. 2010. Multimodality: A Social Semiotic Approach to Contemporary Communication London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Kress GR, van Leeuwen T. 2001. Multimodal Discourse: The Modes and Media of Contemporary Communication London: Bloomsbury
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Laplantine F. 2015. The Life of the Senses: Introduction to a Modal Anthropology London: Bloomsbury
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Lather P 2001. Postmodernism, post-structuralism and post(critical) ethnography: of ruins, aporias and angels. Handbook of Ethnography P Atkinson, A Coffey, S Delamont, J Lofland, L Lofland 477–92 London: SAGE
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Law J. 2004. After Method: Mess in Social Science Research New York: Psychology
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Lea T, Povinelli EA. 2018. Karrabing: an essay in keywords. Vis. Anthropol. Rev. 34:136–46
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Lee T. 2019. Beyond the ethico-aesthetic: toward a re-valuation of the sensory ethnography lab. Vis. Anthropol. Rev. 35:2138–47
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Littlejohn A 2021. Sonic ethnography. Audiovisual and Digital Ethnography: A Practical and Theoretical Guide C Grasseni, B Barendregt, E de Maaker, F de Musso, A Littlejohn et al.35–60 London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Loizos P. 1993. Innovation in Ethnographic Film: From Innocence to Self-Consciousness, 19551985 Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Loveless N 2019. Knowings and Knots: Methodologies and Ecologies in Research Creation Edmonton, Can: Univ. Alta. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Luvaas B 2016a. Street Style: An Ethnography of Fashion Blogging London: Bloomsbury
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Luvaas B. 2016b. Internet famous in real life: becoming a street style star at New York Fashion Week. Fieldsights Blog June 8. https://culanth.org/fieldsights/internet-famous-in-real-life-becoming-a-street-style-star-at-new-york-fashion-week
    [Google Scholar]
  124. MacDonald S. 2013. Conversations on the avant-doc: Scott MacDonald interviews. Framework 54:2259–330
    [Google Scholar]
  125. MacDougall D. 1998. Transcultural Cinema L Taylor Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  126. MacDougall D. 2005. The Corporeal Image: Film, Ethnography, and the Senses Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Marcus GE 1994. The modernist sensibility in recent ethnographic writing and the cinematic metaphore of montage. Visualizing Theory: Selected Essays from V.A.R., 19901994 L Taylor 37–53 London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Marcus GE. 2000. Para-Sites: A Casebook Against Cynical Reason Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Marion JS, Crowder JW. 2013. Visual Research: A Concise Introduction to Thinking Visually London: Bloomsbury
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Marks LU. 2000. The Skin of the Film: Intercultural Cinema, Embodiment, and the Senses Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Mattern S. 2016. Cloud and field. Places, June 9. https://doi.org/10.22269/160802
    [Crossref]
  132. Mazzarella W. 2004. Culture, globalization, mediation. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 33:345–67
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Mead M. 1995. Visual anthropology in a discipline of words. See Hockings 1995 3–10
  134. Middleton A. 2020. Sketching toward alternate openings in the field. Fieldsights Blog Febr. 13. https://culanth.org/fieldsights/sketching-toward-alternate-openings-in-the-field
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Mirzoeff N. 1999. An Introduction to Visual Culture London: Routledge:
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Mishler C. 1985. Narrativity and metaphor in ethnographic film: a critique of Robert Gardner's Dead Birds. Am. Anthropol. 87:668–72
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Mitchell WJT. 2005. There are no visual media. J. Vis. Cult. 4:2257–66
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Mithlo NM. 2004.. ‘ Red man's burden’: the politics of inclusion in museum settings. Am. Indian Q. 28:3743–63
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Miyarrka Media 2019. Phone and Spear: A Yuta Anthropology London: Goldsmiths
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Moraga C, Anzaldúa G, eds. 2015. This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color Albany: SUNY Press. , 4th ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Murphy KM. 2016. Design and anthropology. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 45:433–49
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Nagoski E, Nagoski A. 2020. Burnout: The Secret to Unlocking the Stress Cycle New York: Random House
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Narayan K. 2012. Alive in the Writing: Crafting Ethnography in the Company of Chekhov Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Nippert-Eng CE. 2015. Watching Closely: A Guide to Ethnographic Observation Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Nolas S-M, Varvantakis C 2018. Entanglements that matter. Entanglements 1:11–4
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Nolas S-M, Varvantakis C. 2019. Another review process is possible. Entanglements 2:11–5
    [Google Scholar]
  147. O'Neill KL, Fogarty-Valenzuela B. 2020. Art of Captivity/Arte del Cautiverio Toronto: Univ. Toronto Press
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Östör Á. 1990. Whither ethnographic film?. Am. Anthropol. 92:3715–22
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Pandian A. 2019. A Possible Anthropology: Methods for Uneasy Times Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Pandian A, McLean SJ, eds. 2017. Crumpled Paper Boat: Experiments in Ethnographic Writing Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press. Illus. ed.
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Panopoulos P, Scaldaferri N, Feld S. 2020. Resounding participatory ethnography: ethnographic dialogue in dialogue. Vis. Anthropol. Rev. 36:2426–41
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Parry JP. 1988. Comment on Robert Gardner's “Forest of Bliss.”. Sch. Vis. Arts Newsl Fall 4–7
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Pauwels L. 2015. Reframing Visual Social Science: Towards a More Visual Sociology and Anthropology Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Pels P. 2014. After objectivity: an historical approach to the intersubjective in ethnography. HAU J. Ethnogr. Theory 4:1211–36
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Pels P, Boog I, Florusbosch JH, Kripe Z, Minter T et al. 2018. Data management in anthropology: the next phase in ethics governance?. Soc. Anthropol. 26:3391–413
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Peterson LC. 2013. Reclaiming Diné film: visual sovereignty and the return of Navajo film themselves. Vis. Anthropol. Rev. 29:129–41
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Pia AE, Batterbury S, Joniak-Lüthi A, LaFlamme M, Wielander G et al. 2020. Labour of love: an open access manifesto for freedom, integrity, and creativity in the humanities and interpretive social sciences. Commonplace Blog July 16. https://doi.org/10.21428/6ffd8432.a7503356
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  158. Pink S. 2001. Doing Visual Ethnography: Images, Media and Representation in Research Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Pink S. 2006. The Future of Visual Anthropology: Engaging the Senses New York: Taylor & Francis
    [Google Scholar]
  160. Pink S. 2009. Doing Sensory Ethnography Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE
    [Google Scholar]
  161. Pink S, Akama Y, Sumartojo S. 2018. Uncertainty and Possibility: New Approaches to Future Making in Design Anthropology London: Bloomsbury
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Pinney C. 2011. Photography and Anthropology London: Reaktion
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Poole D. 1997. Vision, Race, and Modernity: A Visual Economy of the Andean World Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  164. Poole D. 2005. An excess of description: ethnography, race, and visual technologies. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 34:159–79
    [Google Scholar]
  165. Porcello T, Meintjes L, Ochoa AM, Samuels DW. 2010. The reorganization of the sensory world. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 39:51–66
    [Google Scholar]
  166. Postma M, Crawford PI 2006. Introduction: visual ethnography and anthropology. Reflecting Visual Ethnography—Using the Camera in Anthropological Research M Postma, PI Crawford 1–23 Leiden, Neth: Cent. Non-West. Stud.
    [Google Scholar]
  167. Povinelli EA. 2011. The woman on the other side of the wall: archiving the otherwise in postcolonial digital archives. Differences 22:1146–71
    [Google Scholar]
  168. Ramos MJ. 2015. Stop the academic world, I wanna get off in the Quai de Branly: of sketchbooks, museums and anthropology. Cad. Arte Antropol. 4:2141–78
    [Google Scholar]
  169. Rony FT. 1996. The Third Eye: Race, Cinema, and Ethnographic Spectacle Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  170. Rosaldo R. 2013. The Day of Shelly's Death: The Poetry and Ethnography of Grief Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  171. Rouch J. 1995. The camera and man. See Hockings 1995 79–98
  172. Ruby J. 1975. Is an ethnographic film a filmic ethnography?. Stud. Vis. Commun. 2:2104–11
    [Google Scholar]
  173. Ruby J. 1991. An anthropological critique of the films of Robert Gardner. J. Film Video 43:43–17
    [Google Scholar]
  174. Ruby J. 2000. Picturing Culture: Explorations of Film and Anthropology Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  175. Ruby J. 2002. The professionalization of visual anthropology in the United States: the 1960s and 1970s. Vis. Anthropol. Rev. 17:25–13
    [Google Scholar]
  176. Russell C. 1999. Experimental Ethnography: The Work of Film in the Age of Video Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  177. Sadre-Orafai S, McDonald FP. 2020. Reframe, redesign, realign. Vis. Anthropol. Rev. 36:13–7
    [Google Scholar]
  178. Samuels DW, Meintjes L, Ochoa AM, Porcello T. 2010. Soundscapes: toward a sounded anthropology. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 39:329–45
    [Google Scholar]
  179. Sanchez-Criado T, Estalella A, eds. 2018. Experimental Collaborations: Ethnography Through Fieldwork Devices New York: Berghahn
    [Google Scholar]
  180. Sansi R. 2015. Art, Anthropology and the Gift London: Bloomsbury
    [Google Scholar]
  181. Sansi R 2020. Introduction: anthropology and curation through the looking glass. The Anthropologist as Curator R Sansi 1–16 London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  182. Schafer RM. 1973. The Vancouver soundscape Compact Disc, Ensemble Vancouver, Can:.
    [Google Scholar]
  183. Schneider A, Wright C 2006. The challenge of practice. Contemporary Art and Anthropology A Schneider, C Wright 1–27 Oxford, UK: Berg
    [Google Scholar]
  184. Schneider A, Wright C 2010. Between art and anthropology. Between Art and Anthropology: Contemporary Ethnographic Practice A Schneider, C Wright 1–21 Oxford, UK: Berg
    [Google Scholar]
  185. Shankar AI. 2018. What do we want anthropology to resemble?. Anthropol. News 59:5e247–50
    [Google Scholar]
  186. Shankar AI. 2019. Listening to images, participatory pedagogy, and anthropological (re-)inventions. Am. Anthropol. 121:1229–42
    [Google Scholar]
  187. Smith SK, Mountain GA, Hawkins RJ. 2016. A scoping review to identify the techniques frequently used when analysing qualitative visual data. Int. J. Soc. Res. Methodol 19:6693–715
    [Google Scholar]
  188. Sousanis N. 2015. Unflattening Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  189. Spray S. 2020. Sonic archive fever: Ernst Karel and Veronika Kusumaryati's Expedition Content. Non-Fiction 1:46–51
    [Google Scholar]
  190. Stewart K. 2007. Ordinary Affects Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  191. Stewart K 2008. Cultural poesis: the generativity of emergent things. Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials NK Denzin, YS Lincoln 565–86 Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE
    [Google Scholar]
  192. Stocking GW. 1995. After Tylor: British Social Anthropology1888–1951 Madison: Univ. Wis. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  193. Stoller P. 1992. The Cinematic Griot Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  194. Stoller P. 1997. Sensuous Scholarship Philadelphia: Univ. Pa. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  195. Stout N. 2014. Bootlegged: unauthorized circulation and the dilemmas of collaboration in the digital age. Vis. Anthropol. Rev. 30:2177–87
    [Google Scholar]
  196. Suhr C, Willerslev R. 2012. Can film show the invisible? The work of montage in ethnographic filmmaking. Curr. Anthropol. 53:3282–301
    [Google Scholar]
  197. Suhr C, Willerslev R. 2013. Transcultural Montage New York: Berghahn
    [Google Scholar]
  198. Sutherland P. 2016. The photo essay. Vis. Anthropol. Rev. 32:2115–21
    [Google Scholar]
  199. Takaragawa S, Smith TL, Hennessy K, Alvarez Astacio P, Chio J et al. 2019. Bad habitus: anthropology in the age of the multimodal. Am. Anthropol. 121:2517–24
    [Google Scholar]
  200. Takaragawa S, Smith TL, McDonald FP, Hennessy K, Campbell C 2020. Ethnographic terminalia: co-curation and the role of the anecdote in practice. The Anthropologist as Curator R Sansi 97–113 London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  201. Taussig M. 2011. I Swear I Saw This: Drawings in Fieldwork Notebooks, Namely My Own Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  202. Taylor L. 1996. Iconophobia: how anthropology lost it at the movies. Transition 69:64–88
    [Google Scholar]
  203. Taylor L. 1998. Visual anthropology is dead, long live visual anthropology!. Am. Anthropol. 100:2534–37
    [Google Scholar]
  204. ten Brink J 2007. Building Bridges: The Cinema of Jean Rouch London: Wallflower
    [Google Scholar]
  205. Thomas DA. 2017. On the transition. Am. Anthropol. 119:19–11
    [Google Scholar]
  206. Trethewey N. 2007. Native Guard Boston: Ecco
    [Google Scholar]
  207. Trinh TM. 1991. When the Moon Waxes Red: Representation, Gender, and Cultural Politics London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  208. Tsing AL. 2015. The Mushroom at the End of the World Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  209. Tsing AL, Deger J, Saxena AK, Zhou F. 2020. Feral Atlas: The More-Than-Human Anthropocene Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  210. Vallejo A, Peirano MP. 2017. Film Festivals and Anthropology Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK: Cambridge Sch.
    [Google Scholar]
  211. van Dienderen A, Gielen N, Yaméogo E, Mbakam R 2019. Through prisms: practice-based research on the intentions of collaborative filmmaking. Anthrovision 7:2 https://doi.org/10.4000/anthrovision.5931
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  212. Vannini P 2020. Introduction. The Routledge International Handbook of Ethnographic Film and Video P Vannini 1–11 Abingdon, UK: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  213. Varvantakis C, Nolas S-M. 2018. Multimodal ethnographies between curation and experimentation. Entanglements 1:224–29
    [Google Scholar]
  214. Varvantakis C, Nolas S-M. 2019. Metaphors we experiment with in multimodal ethnography. Int. J. Soc. Res. Methodol. 22:4365–78
    [Google Scholar]
  215. Verstappen S. 2020. Ultrashort, low-resolution and anonymous: designing anthropological films for smartphone viewers. Entanglements 3:162–80
    [Google Scholar]
  216. Vium C. 2016. Christian Vium: HSBC Prize for Photography 2016 Arles, Fr: Actes Sud
    [Google Scholar]
  217. Wander M. 2018. ‘It's ok, we're safe here’: the Karrabing film collective and colonial histories in Australia. Commonw. Essays Stud. 41:153–62
    [Google Scholar]
  218. Weinberger E 1994. The camera people. Visualizing Theory: Selected Essays from V.A.R., 19901994 L Taylor 3–26 London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  219. Wesch M. 2008. An anthropological introduction to YouTube Talk presented at the Library of Congress Washington, DC: June 23. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TPAO-lZ4_hU&feature=youtube_gdata_player
    [Google Scholar]
  220. Westmoreland MR. 2013. Making sense: affective research in postwar Lebanese art. Crit. Arts 27:6717–36
    [Google Scholar]
  221. Westmoreland MR 2021. Graphic anthropology: a foundation for multimodality. Audiovisual and Digital Ethnography: A Practical and Theoretical Guide C Grasseni, B Barendregt, E de Maaker, F de Musso, A Littlejohn et al.61–88 London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  222. Westmoreland MR, Luning S. 2018. Footage of failure: multimodality in practice. Leiden Anthropology Blog March 22. https://www.leidenanthropologyblog.nl/articles/footage-of-failure-multimodality-in-practice
    [Google Scholar]
  223. Westmoreland MR, Luvaas B. 2015. Introduction: Leviathan and the entangled lives of species. Vis. Anthropol. Rev. 31:11–3
    [Google Scholar]
  224. Westmoreland MR, Pauwelussen A, van Diemen S. 2022. Kaleidoscopic vision: immersive experiments in maritime worlds. Entanglements. 51/2 In press
  225. Wettstein M. 2018. Ethnographic drawing. MarionWettstein.ch Blog http://www.marionwettstein.ch/ethnographic-drawing/
    [Google Scholar]
  226. Wilson SM, Peterson LC. 2002. The anthropology of online communities. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 31:449–67
    [Google Scholar]
  227. Worth S, Adair J 1997. Through Navajo Eyes: An Exploration in Film Communication and Anthropology Albuquerque: Univ. N. M. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  228. Wulff H 2016. Introducing the anthropologist as writer across and within genres. The Anthropologist as Writer: Genres and Contexts in the Twenty-First Century H Wulff 1–18 New York: Berghahn
    [Google Scholar]
  229. Yalori E. 2018. The return of the unreal. FIELD 11: http://field-journal.com/issue-11/the-return-of-the-unreal
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-121319-071409
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error