1932

Abstract

We describe ongoing searches for intermediate-mass black holes with ≈ 10–105 M. We review a range of search mechanisms, both dynamical and those that rely on accretion signatures. We find the following conclusions:

  • ▪   Dynamical and accretion signatures alike point to a high fraction of 109–1010 M galaxies hosting black holes with ∼ 105 M. In contrast, there are no solid detections of black holes in globular clusters.
  • ▪   There are few observational constraints on black holes in any environment with ≈ 100–104 M.
  • ▪   Considering low-mass galaxies with dynamical black hole masses and constraining limits, we find that the –σ relation continues unbroken to ∼105 M, albeit with large scatter. We believe the scatter is at least partially driven by a broad range in black hole masses, because the occupation fraction appears to be relatively high in these galaxies.
  • ▪   We fold the observed scaling relations with our empirical limits on occupation fraction and the galaxy mass function to put observational bounds on the black hole mass function in galaxy nuclei.
  • ▪   We are pessimistic that local demographic observations of galaxy nuclei alone could constrain seeding mechanisms, although either high-redshift luminosity functions or robust measurements of off-nuclear black holes could begin to discriminate models.

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2020-08-18
2024-04-24
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