Innate immune receptors respond to common structural patterns in microbial molecules and are called pattern recognition receptors. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play critical roles in the innate immune system by recognizing microbial lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and proteins. Precise definition of the ligand “pattern” of TLRs has been difficult to determine primarily owing to a lack of high-resolution structures. Recently, the structures of several TLR-ligand complexes and the intracellular signaling domains have been determined by X-ray crystallography. This new structural information, combined with extensive biochemical and immunological data accumulated over decades, sheds new light on ligand-recognition and -activation mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the TLR structures and discuss proposed ligand-recognition and -activation mechanisms.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error