1932

Abstract

Members of the mitochondrial carrier family [solute carrier family 25 (SLC25)] transport nucleotides, amino acids, carboxylic acids, fatty acids, inorganic ions, and vitamins across the mitochondrial inner membrane. They are important for many cellular processes, such as oxidative phosphorylation of lipids and sugars, amino acid metabolism, macromolecular synthesis, ion homeostasis, cellular regulation, and differentiation. Here, we describe the functional elements of the transport mechanism of mitochondrial carriers, consisting of one central substrate-binding site and two gates with salt-bridge networks on either side of the carrier. Binding of the substrate during import causes three gate elements to rotate inward, forming the cytoplasmic network and closing access to the substrate-binding site from the intermembrane space. Simultaneously, three core elements rock outward, disrupting the matrix network and opening the substrate-binding site to the matrix side of the membrane. During export, substrate binding triggers conformational changes involving the same elements but operating in reverse.

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2021-06-20
2024-06-12
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