1932

Abstract

Sulfonates include diverse natural products and anthropogenic chemicals and are widespread in the environment. Many bacteria can degrade sulfonates and obtain sulfur, carbon, and energy for growth, playing important roles in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle. Cleavage of the inert sulfonate C–S bond involves a variety of enzymes, cofactors, and oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent catalytic mechanisms. Sulfonate degradation by strictly anaerobic bacteria was recently found to involve C–S bond cleavage through O-sensitive free radical chemistry, catalyzed by glycyl radical enzymes (GREs). The associated discoveries of new enzymes and metabolic pathways for sulfonate metabolism in diverse anaerobic bacteria have enriched our understanding of sulfonate chemistry in the anaerobic biosphere. An anaerobic environment of particular interest is the human gut microbiome, where sulfonate degradation by sulfate- and sulfite-reducing bacteria (SSRB) produces HS, a process linked to certain chronic diseases and conditions.

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2021-06-20
2024-06-22
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/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-biochem-080120-024103
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