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Abstract

Forces acting on the body via various external surfaces during locomotion are needed to support the body under gravity, control posture, and overcome inertia. Examples include the forces acting on the body via the seating surfaces during wheelchair propulsion, the forces acting on the plantar foot tissues via the insole during gait, and the forces acting on the residual-limb tissues via the prosthetic socket during various movement activities. Excessive exposure to unwarranted stresses at the body-support interfaces could lead to tissue breakdowns commonly known as pressure ulcers, often presented as deep-tissue injuries around bony prominences or as surface damage on the skin. In this article, we review the literature that describes how the involved tissues respond to epidermal loading, taking into account both experimental and computational findings from in vivo and in vitro studies. In particular, we discuss related literature about internal tissue deformation and stresses, microcirculatory responses, and histological, cellular, and molecular observations.

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/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-070909-105223
2010-08-15
2024-06-22
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  • Article Type: Review Article
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