Multiscale modeling of muscular-skeletal systems—the materials and structures that help organisms support themselves and move—is a rapidly growing field of study that has contributed key elements to the understanding of these systems, especially from a multiscale perspective. The systems, including materials such as bone and muscle, have hierarchical structures ranging from the nano- to the macroscale, and it is difficult to understand their macroscopic behaviors, both physiological and pathological, without knowledge of their hierarchical structures and properties. In this review, we discuss the methods of multiscale modeling. Through a series of case studies about key materials in muscular-skeletal systems, we describe how different methods can bridge the gap between hierarchical structures and their roles in the systems’ mechanical properties. In particular, we emphasize the importance of the quality of minerals in bone. Finally, we discuss biomimetic material designs facilitated by additive manufacturing technology.


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