1932

Abstract

Over the last half century, the autofluorescence of the metabolic cofactors NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) has been quantified in a variety of cell types and disease states. With the spread of nonlinear optical microscopy techniques in biomedical research, NADH and FAD imaging has offered an attractive solution to noninvasively monitor cell and tissue status and elucidate dynamic changes in cell or tissue metabolism. Various tools and methods to measure the temporal, spectral, and spatial properties of NADH and FAD autofluorescence have been developed. Specifically, an optical redox ratio of cofactor fluorescence intensities and NADH fluorescence lifetime parameters have been used in numerous applications, but significant work remains to mature this technology for understanding dynamic changes in metabolism. This article describes the current understanding of our optical sensitivity to different metabolic pathways and highlights current challenges in the field. Recent progress in addressing these challenges and acquiring more quantitative information in faster and more metabolically relevant formats is also discussed.

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2023-06-08
2024-04-18
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