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Abstract

Mucosal surfaces are a major portal of entry for many human pathogens that are the cause of infectious diseases worldwide. Vaccines capable of eliciting mucosal immune responses can fortify defenses at mucosal front lines and protect against infection. However, most licensed vaccines are administered parenterally and fail to elicit protective mucosal immunity. Immunization by mucosal routes may be more effective at inducing protective immunity against mucosal pathogens at their sites of entry. Recent advances in our understanding of mucosal immunity and identification of correlates of protective immunity against specific mucosal pathogens have renewed interest in the development of mucosal vaccines. Efforts have focused on efficient delivery of vaccine antigens to mucosal sites that facilitate uptake by local antigen-presenting cells to generate protective mucosal immune responses. Discovery of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants are also being sought to enhance the magnitude and quality of the protective immune response.

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/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071811-150054
2012-08-15
2024-04-21
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  • Article Type: Review Article
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