Nature's reliance on proteins to carry out nearly all biological processes has led to the evolution of biomolecules that exhibit a seemingly endless range of functions. Much research has been devoted toward advancing this process in the laboratory in order to create new proteins with improved or unique capabilities. The protein-engineering field has rapidly evolved from pioneering studies in engineering protein stability and activity to an application-driven powerhouse on the forefront of emerging technologies in biomedical engineering and biotechnology. A classic protein-engineering technique in the medical field has focused on manipulating antibodies and antibody fragments for various applications. New classes of alternative scaffolds have recently challenged this paradigm, and these structures have been successfully engineered for applications including targeted cancer therapy, regulated drug delivery, in vivo imaging, and a host of others. This review aims to capture recent advances in the engineering of nonimmunoglobulin scaffolds as well as some of the applications for these molecular recognition elements in the biomedical field.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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