1932

Abstract

The obesity epidemic continues to escalate each year in the United States more than anywhere else in the world. The existing pharmaceutical and other nonsurgical treatments for morbid obesity produce suboptimal physiologic outcomes compared with those of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. RYGB has been the gold standard of bariatric surgery because the beneficial long-term outcomes, which include sustainable weight loss and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) resolution, are far superior to those obtained with other bariatric surgeries. However, the current understanding of RYGB's mechanisms of actions remains limited and incomplete. There is an urgent need to understand these mechanisms as gaining this knowledge may lead to the development of innovative and less invasive procedures and/or medical devices, which can mirror the favorable outcomes of RYGB surgery. In this review, we highlight current observations of the metabolic and physiologic events following RYGB, with a particular focus on the role of the anatomical reconfiguration of the gastrointestinal tract after RYGB.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071813-105140
2017-06-21
2024-06-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/bioeng/19/1/annurev-bioeng-071813-105140.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071813-105140&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. 1.  2014. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011–2012. JAMA 311:806–14 [Google Scholar]
  2. Skinner AC, Skelton JA. 2.  2014. Prevalence and trends in obesity and severe obesity among children in the United States, 1999–2012. JAMA Pediatr 168:561–66 [Google Scholar]
  3. Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, Thomson B, Graetz N. 3.  et al. 2014. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet 384:766–81 [Google Scholar]
  4. Kitahara CM, Flint AJ, Berrington de Gonzalez A, Bernstein L, Brotzman M. 4.  et al. 2014. Association between class III obesity (BMI of 40–59 kg/m2) and mortality: a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies. PLOS Med 11:e1001673 [Google Scholar]
  5. Williams G, Harrold JA, Cutler DJ. 5.  2000. The hypothalamus and the regulation of energy homeostasis: lifting the lid on a black box. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 59:385–96 [Google Scholar]
  6. Schauer PR, Bhatt DL, Kirwan JP, Wolski K, Brethauer SA. 6.  et al. 2014. Bariatric surgery versus intensive medical therapy for diabetes—3-year outcomes. N. Engl. J. Med. 370:2002–13 [Google Scholar]
  7. Mingrone G, Panunzi S, De Gaetano A, Guidone C, Iaconelli A. 7.  et al. 2015. Bariatric–metabolic surgery versus conventional medical treatment in obese patients with type 2 diabetes: 5 year follow-up of an open-label, single-centre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 386:964–73 [Google Scholar]
  8. Elrazek AE, Elbanna AE, Bilasy SE. 8.  2014. Medical management of patients after bariatric surgery: principles and guidelines. World J. Gastrointest. Surg. 6:220–28 [Google Scholar]
  9. Nielsen JB, Pedersen AM, Gribsholt SB, Svensson E, Richelsen B. 9.  2016. Prevalence, severity, and predictors of symptoms of dumping and hypoglycemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Surg. Obes. Relat. Dis. 12:1562–68 [Google Scholar]
  10. Werling M, Fändriks L, Olbers T, Bueter M, Sjöström L. 10.  et al. 2015. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery increases respiratory quotient and energy expenditure during food intake. PLOS ONE 10:e0129784 [Google Scholar]
  11. Saeidi N, Nestoridi E, Kucharczyk J, Uygun MK, Yarmush ML, Stylopoulos N. 11.  2012. Sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass exhibit differential effects on food preferences, nutrient absorption and energy expenditure in obese rats. Int. J. Obes. 36:1396–402 [Google Scholar]
  12. Primeaux SD, de Silva T, Tzeng TH, Chiang MC, Hsia DS. 12.  2016. Recent advances in the modification of taste and food preferences following bariatric surgery. Rev. Endocr. Metab. Disord. 17:195–207 [Google Scholar]
  13. Liou AP, Paziuk M, Luevano JM Jr., Machineni S, Turnbaugh PJ, Kaplan LM. 13.  2013. Conserved shifts in the gut microbiota due to gastric bypass reduce host weight and adiposity. Sci. Transl. Med. 5:178ra41 [Google Scholar]
  14. Seeley RJ, Chambers AP, Sandoval DA. 14.  2015. The role of gut adaptation in the potent effects of multiple bariatric surgeries on obesity and diabetes. Cell Metab 21:369–78 [Google Scholar]
  15. Miras AD, le Roux CW. 15.  2013. Mechanisms underlying weight loss after bariatric surgery. Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 10:575–84 [Google Scholar]
  16. Saeidi N, Meoli L, Nestoridi E, Gupta NK, Kvas S. 16.  et al. 2013. Reprogramming of intestinal glucose metabolism and glycemic control in rats after gastric bypass. Science 341:406–10 [Google Scholar]
  17. Mason EE. 17.  2005. History of obesity surgery. Surg. Obes. Relat. Dis. 1:123–25 [Google Scholar]
  18. Caiazzo R, Lassailly G, Leteurtre E, Baud G, Verkindt H. 18.  et al. 2014. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass versus adjustable gastric banding to reduce nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a 5-year controlled longitudinal study. Ann. Surg. 260:893–99 [Google Scholar]
  19. Maciejewski ML, Arterburn DE, Van Scoyoc L, Smith VA, Yancy WS Jr.. 19.  et al. 2016. Bariatric surgery and long-term durability of weight loss. JAMA Surg 151:1046–55 [Google Scholar]
  20. Noria SF, Grantcharov T. 20.  2013. Biological effects of bariatric surgery on obesity-related comorbidities. Can. J. Surg. 56:47–57 [Google Scholar]
  21. Bruinsma BG, Uygun K, Yarmush ML, Saeidi N. 21.  2015. Surgical models of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy in rats and mice. Nat. Protoc. 10:495–507 [Google Scholar]
  22. Mumphrey MB, Patterson LM, Zheng H, Berthoud HR. 22.  2013. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery increases number but not density of CCK-, GLP-1-, 5-HT-, and neurotensin-expressing enteroendocrine cells in rats. Neurogastroenterol. Motil. 25:e70–79 [Google Scholar]
  23. Park CW, Torquati A. 23.  2011. Physiology of weight loss surgery. Surg. Clin. N. Am. 91:1149–61 [Google Scholar]
  24. Rubino F, Forgione A, Cummings DE, Vix M, Gnuli D. 24.  et al. 2006. The mechanism of diabetes control after gastrointestinal bypass surgery reveals a role of the proximal small intestine in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Ann. Surg. 244:741–49 [Google Scholar]
  25. Laferrère B. 25.  2009. Effect of gastric bypass surgery on the incretins. Diabetes Metab 35:513–17 [Google Scholar]
  26. Nauck M, Stockmann F, Ebert R, Creutzfeldt W. 26.  1986. Reduced incretin effect in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. Diabetologia 29:46–52 [Google Scholar]
  27. le Roux CW, Welbourn R, Werling M, Osborne A, Kokkinos A. 27.  et al. 2007. Gut hormones as mediators of appetite and weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Ann. Surg. 246:780–85 [Google Scholar]
  28. Dar MS, 3rd Chapman WH, Pender JR, 3rd Drake AJ, O'Brien K. 28.  et al. 2012. GLP-1 response to a mixed meal: What happens 10 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)?. Obes. Surg. 22:1077–83 [Google Scholar]
  29. Stefater MA, Wilson-Perez HE, Chambers AP, Sandoval DA, Seeley RJ. 29.  2012. All bariatric surgeries are not created equal: insights from mechanistic comparisons. Endocr. Rev. 33:595–622 [Google Scholar]
  30. Laferrère B. 30.  2011. Do we really know why diabetes remits after gastric bypass surgery?. Endocrine 40:162–67 [Google Scholar]
  31. Rhee NA, Wahlgren CD, Pedersen J, Mortensen B, Langholz E. 31.  et al. 2015. Effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on the distribution and hormone expression of small-intestinal enteroendocrine cells in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 58:2254–58 [Google Scholar]
  32. Meguid MM, Glade MJ, Middleton FA. 32.  2008. Weight regain after Roux-en-Y: a significant 20% complication related to PYY. Nutrition 24:832–42 [Google Scholar]
  33. Dirksen C, Jørgensen NB, Bojsen-Møller KN, Kielgast U, Jacobsen SH. 33.  et al. 2013. Gut hormones, early dumping and resting energy expenditure in patients with good and poor weight loss response after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Int. J. Obes. 37:1452–59 [Google Scholar]
  34. Clements RH, Gonzalez QH, Long CI, Wittert G, Laws HL. 34.  2004. Hormonal changes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity and the control of type-II diabetes mellitus. Am. Surg. 70:1–5 [Google Scholar]
  35. Reinehr T, Roth CL, Schernthaner GH, Kopp HP, Kriwanek S, Schernthaner G. 35.  2007. Peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 in morbidly obese patients before and after surgically induced weight loss. Obes. Surg. 17:1571–77 [Google Scholar]
  36. Jiménez A, Casamitjana R, Viaplana-Masclans J, Lacy A, Vidal J. 36.  2013. GLP-1 action and glucose tolerance in subjects with remission of type 2 diabetes after gastric bypass surgery. Diabetes Care 36:2062–69 [Google Scholar]
  37. Ye J, Hao Z, Mumphrey MB, Townsend RL, Patterson LM. 37.  et al. 2014. GLP-1 receptor signaling is not required for reduced body weight after RYGB in rodents. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 306:R352–62 [Google Scholar]
  38. Van der Schueren BJ, Homel P, Alam M, Agenor K, Wang G. 38.  et al. 2012. Magnitude and variability of the glucagon-like peptide-1 response in patients with type 2 diabetes up to 2 years following gastric bypass surgery. Diabetes Care 35:42–46 [Google Scholar]
  39. Stearns AT, Balakrishnan A, Tavakkolizadeh A. 39.  2009. Impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on rat intestinal glucose transport. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 297:G950–57 [Google Scholar]
  40. Taqi E, Wallace LE, de Heuvel E, Chelikani PK, Zheng H. 40.  et al. 2010. The influence of nutrients, biliary-pancreatic secretions, and systemic trophic hormones on intestinal adaptation in a Roux-en-Y bypass model. J. Pediatr. Surg. 45:987–95 [Google Scholar]
  41. le Roux CW, Borg C, Wallis K, Vincent RP, Bueter M. 41.  et al. 2010. Gut hypertrophy after gastric bypass is associated with increased glucagon-like peptide 2 and intestinal crypt cell proliferation. Ann. Surg. 252:50–56 [Google Scholar]
  42. Spak E, Björklund P, Helander HF, Vieth M, Olbers T. 42.  et al. 2010. Changes in the mucosa of the Roux-limb after gastric bypass surgery. Histopathology 57:680–88 [Google Scholar]
  43. Cavin JB, Couvelard A, Lebtahi R, Ducroc R, Arapis K. 42a.  et al. 2016. Differences in alimentary glucose absorption and intestinal disposal of blood glucose after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass vs. sleeve gastrectomy. Gastroenterology 150:454–64 [Google Scholar]
  44. Ku CR, Lee N, Hong JW, Kwon IG, Hyng WJ. 42b.  et al. 2017. Intestinal glycolysis visualized by FDG PET/CT correlates with glucose decrement after gastrectomy. Diabetes 66:385–91 [Google Scholar]
  45. Aronoff SL, Berkowitz K, Shreiner B, Want L. 43.  2004. Glucose metabolism and regulation: beyond insulin and glucagon. Diabetes Spectr 17:183–90 [Google Scholar]
  46. Saltiel AR, Kahn C. 44.  2001. Insulin signaling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Nature 414:799–806 [Google Scholar]
  47. de Lima–Júnior JC, Velloso LA, Geloneze B. 45.  2015. The obese brain—effects of bariatric surgery on energy balance neurocircuitry. Curr. Atheroscler. Rep. 17:57 [Google Scholar]
  48. Whitson BA, Leslie DB, Kellogg TA, Maddaus MA, Buchwald H. 46.  et al. 2007. Adipokine response in diabetics and nondiabetics following the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a preliminary study. J. Surg. Res. 142:295–300 [Google Scholar]
  49. Bojsen-Møller KN, Dirksen C, Jørgensen NB, Jacobsen SH, Serup AK. 47.  et al. 2014. Early enhancements of hepatic and later of peripheral insulin sensitivity combined with increased postprandial insulin secretion contribute to improved glycemic control after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Diabetes 63:1725–37 [Google Scholar]
  50. Nannipieri M, Mari A, Anselmino M, Baldi S, Barsotti E. 48.  et al. 2011. The role of β-cell function and insulin sensitivity in the remission of type 2 diabetes after gastric bypass surgery. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 96:E1372–79 [Google Scholar]
  51. He B, Chen L, Yu C, Piao D, Wang Y, Han P. 49.  2014. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass increases hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Surg. Obes. Relat. Dis. 10:485–93 [Google Scholar]
  52. Bonhomme S, Guijarro A, Keslacy S, Goncalves CG, Suzuki S. 50.  et al. 2011. Gastric bypass up-regulates insulin signaling pathway. Nutrition 27:73–80 [Google Scholar]
  53. Cummings DE, Purnell JQ, Frayo RS, Schmidova K, Wisse BE, Weigle DS. 51.  2001. A preprandial rise in plasma ghrelin levels suggests a role in meal initiation in humans. Diabetes 50:1714–19 [Google Scholar]
  54. Ferrini F, Salio C, Lossi L, Merighi A. 52.  2009. Ghrelin in central neurons. Curr. Neuropharmacol. 7:37–49 [Google Scholar]
  55. Tortorella C, Macchi C, Spinazzi R, Malendowicz LK, Trejter M, Nussdorfer GG. 53.  2003. Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone–secretagogue receptor, is expressed in the human adrenal cortex. Int. J. Mol. Med. 12:213–17 [Google Scholar]
  56. Ueno H, Yamaguchi H, Kangawa K, Nakazato M. 54.  2005. Ghrelin: a gastric peptide that regulates food intake and energy homeostasis. Regul. Pept. 126:11–19 [Google Scholar]
  57. Cowley MA, Smith RG, Diano S, Tschöp M, Pronchuk N. 55.  et al. 2003. The distribution and mechanism of action of ghrelin in the CNS demonstrates a novel hypothalamic circuit regulating energy homeostasis. Neuron 37:649–61 [Google Scholar]
  58. Nakazato M, Murakami N, Date Y, Kojima M, Matsuo H. 56.  et al. 2001. A role for ghrelin in the central regulation of feeding. Nature 409:194–98 [Google Scholar]
  59. Morton GJ, Cummings DE, Baskin DG, Barsh GS, Schwartz MW. 57.  2006. Central nervous system control of food intake and body weight. Nature 443:289–95 [Google Scholar]
  60. Romanova IV, Ramos EJ, Xu Y, Quinn R, Chen C. 58.  et al. 2004. Neurobiologic changes in the hypothalamus associated with weight loss after gastric bypass. J. Am. Coll. Surg. 199:887–95 [Google Scholar]
  61. Barkholt P, Pedersen PJ, Hay-Schmidt A, Jelsing J, Hansen HH, Vrang N. 59.  2016. Alterations in hypothalamic gene expression following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Mol. Metab. 5:296–304 [Google Scholar]
  62. Stylopoulos N, Davis P, Pettit JD, Rattner DW, Kaplan LM. 60.  2005. Changes in serum ghrelin predict weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in rats. Surg. Endosc. 19:942–46 [Google Scholar]
  63. Cummings DE, Weigle DS, Frayo RS, Breen PA, Ma MK. 61.  et al. 2002. Plasma ghrelin levels after diet-induced weight loss or gastric bypass surgery. N. Engl. J. Med. 346:1623–30 [Google Scholar]
  64. Geloneze B, Tambascia MA, Pilla VF, Geloneze SR, Repetto EM, Pareja JC. 62.  2003. Ghrelin: a gut–brain hormone: effect of gastric bypass surgery. Obes. Surg. 13:17–22 [Google Scholar]
  65. Faraj M, Havel PJ, Phélis S, Blank D, Sniderman AD, Cianflone K. 63.  2003. Plasma acylation-stimulating protein, adiponectin, leptin, and ghrelin before and after weight loss induced by gastric bypass surgery in morbidly obese subjects. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88:1594–602 [Google Scholar]
  66. Stoeckli R, Chanda R, Langer I, Keller U. 64.  2004. Changes of body weight and plasma ghrelin levels after gastric banding and gastric bypass. Obes. Res. 12:346–50 [Google Scholar]
  67. Korner J, Bessler M, Cirilo LJ, Conwell IM, Daud A. 65.  et al. 2005. Effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on fasting and postprandial concentrations of plasma ghrelin, peptide YY, and insulin. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 90:359–65 [Google Scholar]
  68. Holdstock C, Engström BE, Ohrvall M, Lind L, Sundbom M, Karlsson FA. 66.  2003. Ghrelin and adipose tissue regulatory peptides: effect of gastric bypass surgery in obese humans. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88:3177–83 [Google Scholar]
  69. Ybarra J, Bobbioni-Harsch E, Chassot G, Huber O, Morel P. 67.  et al. 2009. Persistent correlation of ghrelin plasma levels with body mass index both in stable weight conditions and during gastric-bypass-induced weight loss. Obes. Surg. 19:327–31 [Google Scholar]
  70. Sundbom M, Holdstock C, Engström BE, Karlsson FA. 68.  2007. Early changes in ghrelin following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: influence of vagal nerve functionality?. Obes. Surg. 17:304–10 [Google Scholar]
  71. Garcia-Fuentes E, Garrido-Sanchez L, Garcia-Almeida JM, Garcia-Arnes J, Gallego-Perales JL. 69.  et al. 2008. Different effect of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and open biliopancreatic diversion of Scopinaro on serum PYY and ghrelin levels. Obes. Surg. 18:1424–29 [Google Scholar]
  72. McLaughlin T, Abbasi F, Lamendola C, Frayo RS, Cummings DE. 70.  2004. Plasma ghrelin concentrations are decreased in insulin-resistant obese adults relative to equally obese insulin-sensitive controls. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 89:1630–35 [Google Scholar]
  73. Lin E, Gletsu N, Fugate K, McClusky D, Gu LH. 71.  et al. 2004. The effects of gastric surgery on systemic ghrelin levels in the morbidly obese. Arch. Surg. 139:780–84 [Google Scholar]
  74. Pories WJ. 72.  2008. Ghrelin? Yes, it is spelled correctly. Ann. Surg. 247:408–10 [Google Scholar]
  75. le Roux CW, Neary NM, Halsey TJ, Small CJ, Martinez-Isla AM. 73.  et al. 2005. Ghrelin does not stimulate food intake in patients with surgical procedures involving vagotomy. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 90:4521–24 [Google Scholar]
  76. Considine RV, Sinha MK, Heiman ML, Kriauciunas A, Stephens TW. 74.  et al. 1996. Serum immunoreactive-leptin concentrations in normal-weight and obese humans. N. Engl. J. Med. 334:292–95 [Google Scholar]
  77. Friedman JM. 75.  2010. A tale of two hormones. Nat. Med. 16:1100–6 [Google Scholar]
  78. Elias CF, Aschkenasi C, Lee C, Kelly J, Ahima RS. 76.  et al. 1999. Leptin differentially regulates NPY and POMC neurons projecting to the lateral hypothalamic area. Neuron 23:775–86 [Google Scholar]
  79. Hoggard N, Rayner DV, Johnston SL, Speakman JR. 77.  2004. Peripherally administered [Nle4,d-Phe7]-α-melanocyte stimulating hormone increases resting metabolic rate, while peripheral agouti-related protein has no effect, in wild type C57BL/6 and ob/ob mice. J. Mol. Endocrinol. 33:693–703 [Google Scholar]
  80. Hatoum IJ, Stylopoulos N, Vanhoose AM, Boyd KL, Yin DP. 78.  et al. 2012. Melanocortin-4 receptor signaling is required for weight loss after gastric bypass surgery. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 97:E1023–31 [Google Scholar]
  81. Magro DO, Geloneze B, Delfini R, Pareja BC, Callejas F, Pareja JC. 79.  2008. Long-term weight regain after gastric bypass: a 5-year prospective study. Obes. Surg. 18:648–51 [Google Scholar]
  82. Woelnerhanssen B, Peterli R, Steinert RE, Peters T, Borbély Y, Beglinger C. 80.  2011. Effects of postbariatric surgery weight loss on adipokines and metabolic parameters: comparison of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy—a prospective randomized trial. Surg. Obes. Relat. Dis. 7:561–68 [Google Scholar]
  83. Lima MM, Pareja JC, Alegre SM, Geloneze SR, Kahn SE. 81.  et al. 2013. Visceral fat resection in humans: effect on insulin sensitivity, β-cell function, adipokines, and inflammatory markers. Obesity 21:E182–89 [Google Scholar]
  84. Schultes B, Ernst B, Wilms B, Thurnheer M, Hallschmid M. 82.  2010. Hedonic hunger is increased in severely obese patients and is reduced after gastric bypass surgery. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 92:277–83 [Google Scholar]
  85. Hao Z, Münzberg H, Rezai-Zadeh K, Keenan M, Coulon D. 83.  et al. 2015. Leptin deficient ob/ob mice and diet-induced obese mice responded differently to Roux-en-Y bypass surgery. Int. J. Obes. 39:798–805 [Google Scholar]
  86. Berridge KC, Ho CY, Richard JM, DiFeliceantonio AG. 84.  2010. The tempted brain eats: pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders. Brain Res 1350:43–64 [Google Scholar]
  87. Berthoud HR, Lenard NR, Shin AC. 85.  2011. Food reward, hyperphagia, and obesity. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 300:R1266–77 [Google Scholar]
  88. Liu D, Archer N, Duesing K, Hannan G, Keast R. 86.  2016. Mechanism of fat taste perception: association with diet and obesity. Prog. Lipid Res. 63:41–49 [Google Scholar]
  89. Berthoud HR. 87.  2004. Neural control of appetite: cross-talk between homeostatic and non-homeostatic systems. Appetite 43:315–17 [Google Scholar]
  90. Breslin PA, Spector AC. 88.  2008. Mammalian taste perception. Curr. Biol. 18:R148–55 [Google Scholar]
  91. Münzberg H, Laque A, Yu S, Rezai-Zadeh K, Berthoud HR. 89.  2015. Appetite and body weight regulation after bariatric surgery. Obes. Rev. 16:Suppl. 177–90 [Google Scholar]
  92. Mathes CM, Bohnenkamp RA, Blonde GD, Letourneau C, Corteville C. 90.  et al. 2015. Gastric bypass in rats does not decrease appetitive behavior towards sweet or fatty fluids despite blunting preferential intake of sugar and fat. Physiol. Behav. 142:179–88 [Google Scholar]
  93. Tracy AL, Schurdak JD, Chambers JB, Benoit SC. 91.  2016. Aversion learning can reduce meal size without taste avoidance in rats. Obesity 24:606–14 [Google Scholar]
  94. Halmi KA, Mason E, Falk JR, Stunkard A. 92.  1981. Appetitive behavior after gastric bypass for obesity. Int. J. Obes. 5:457–64 [Google Scholar]
  95. Pepino MY, Bradley D, Eagon JC, Sullivan S, Abumrad NA, Klein S. 93.  2014. Changes in taste perception and eating behavior after bariatric surgery–induced weight loss in women. Obesity 22:E13–20 [Google Scholar]
  96. Bueter M, Miras AD, Chichger H, Fenske W, Ghatei MA. 94.  et al. 2011. Alterations of sucrose preference after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Physiol. Behav. 104:709–21 [Google Scholar]
  97. Laurenius A, Larsson I, Melanson KJ, Lindroos AK, Lönroth H. 95.  et al. 2013. Decreased energy density and changes in food selection following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 67:168–73 [Google Scholar]
  98. Graham L, Murty G, Bowrey DJ. 96.  2014. Taste, smell and appetite change after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Obes. Surg. 24:1463–68 [Google Scholar]
  99. Olbers T, Björkman S, Lindroos A, Maleckas A, Lönn L. 97.  et al. 2006. Body composition, dietary intake, and energy expenditure after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic vertical banded gastroplasty: a randomized clinical trial. Ann. Surg. 244:715–22 [Google Scholar]
  100. Behary P, Miras AD. 98.  2015. Food preferences and underlying mechanisms after bariatric surgery. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 74:419–25 [Google Scholar]
  101. Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Telang F. 99.  2008. Overlapping neuronal circuits in addiction and obesity: evidence of systems pathology. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 363:3191–200 [Google Scholar]
  102. Ochner CN, Kwok Y, Conceição E, Pantazatos SP, Puma LM. 100.  et al. 2011. Selective reduction in neural responses to high calorie foods following gastric bypass surgery. Ann. Surg. 253:502–7 [Google Scholar]
  103. Miras AD, Jackson RN, Jackson SN, Goldstone AP, Olbers T. 101.  et al. 2012. Gastric bypass surgery for obesity decreases the reward value of a sweet–fat stimulus as assessed in a progressive ratio task. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 96:467–73 [Google Scholar]
  104. Frank S, Wilms B, Veit R, Ernst B, Thurnheer M. 102.  et al. 2014. Altered brain activity in severely obese women may recover after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Int. J. Obes. 38:341–48 [Google Scholar]
  105. Zheng H, Shin AC, Lenard NR, Townsend RL, Patterson LM. 103.  et al. 2009. Meal patterns, satiety, and food choice in a rat model of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 297:R1273–82 [Google Scholar]
  106. le Roux CW, Bueter M, Theis N, Werling M, Ashrafian H. 104.  et al. 2011. Gastric bypass reduces fat intake and preference. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 301:R1057–66 [Google Scholar]
  107. Wilson-Pérez HE, Chambers AP, Sandoval DA, Stefater MA, Woods SC. 105.  et al. 2013. The effect of vertical sleeve gastrectomy on food choice in rats. Int. J. Obes. 37:288–95 [Google Scholar]
  108. Stylopoulos N, Hoppin AG, Kaplan LM. 106.  2009. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass enhances energy expenditure and extends lifespan in diet-induced obese rats. Obesity 17:1839–47 [Google Scholar]
  109. Carey DG, Pliego GJ, Raymond RL. 107.  2006. Body composition and metabolic changes following bariatric surgery: effects on fat mass, lean mass and basal metabolic rate: six months to one-year follow-up. Obes. Surg. 16:1602–8 [Google Scholar]
  110. Das SK, Roberts SB, McCrory MA, Hsu LK, Shikora SA. 108.  et al. 2003. Long-term changes in energy expenditure and body composition after massive weight loss induced by gastric bypass surgery. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 78:22–30 [Google Scholar]
  111. Faria SL, Faria OP, Buffington C, de Almeida Cardeal M, Rodrigues de Gouvêa H. 109.  2012. Energy expenditure before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Obes. Surg. 22:1450–55 [Google Scholar]
  112. Thivel D, Brakonieki K, Duche P, Morio B, Boirie Y, Laferrère B. 110.  2013. Surgical weight loss: impact on energy expenditure. Obes. Surg. 23:255–66 [Google Scholar]
  113. Flancbaum L, Choban PS, Bradley LR, Burge JC. 111.  1997. Changes in measured resting energy expenditure after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for clinically severe obesity. Surgery 122:943–49 [Google Scholar]
  114. Carrasco F, Papapietro K, Csendes A, Salazar G, Echenique C. 112.  et al. 2007. Changes in resting energy expenditure and body composition after weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Obes. Surg. 17:608–16 [Google Scholar]
  115. Pihlajamäki J, Grönlund S, Simonen M, Käkelä P, Moilanen L. 113.  et al. 2010. Cholesterol absorption decreases after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass but not after gastric banding. Metabolism 59:866–72 [Google Scholar]
  116. Insull W Jr. 114.  2006. Clinical utility of bile acid sequestrants in the treatment of dyslipidemia: a scientific review. S. Med. J 99257–73 [Google Scholar]
  117. Staels B, Fonseca VA. 115.  2009. Bile acids and metabolic regulation: mechanisms and clinical responses to bile acid sequestration. Diabetes Care 32:Suppl. 2S237–45 [Google Scholar]
  118. Thomas C, Gioiello A, Noriega L, Strehle A, Oury J. 116.  et al. 2009. TGR5-mediated bile acid sensing controls glucose homeostasis. Cell Metab 10:167–77 [Google Scholar]
  119. Cipriani S, Mencarelli A, Palladino G, Fiorucci S. 117.  2010. FXR activation reverses insulin resistance and lipid abnormalities and protects against liver steatosis in Zucker (fa/fa) obese rats. J. Lipid Res. 51:771–84 [Google Scholar]
  120. Kliewer SA, Mangelsdorf DJ. 118.  2015. Bile acids as hormones: the FXR-FGF15/19 pathway. Dig. Dis. 33:327–31 [Google Scholar]
  121. Ahmad NN, Pfalzer A, Kaplan LM. 119.  2013. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass normalizes the blunted postprandial bile acid excursion associated with obesity. Int. J. Obes. 37:1553–39 [Google Scholar]
  122. Steinert RE, Peterli R, Keller S, Meyer-Gerspach AC, Drewe J. 120.  et al. 2013. Bile acids and gut peptide secretion after bariatric surgery: a 1-year prospective randomized pilot trial. Obesity 21:E660–68 [Google Scholar]
  123. Simonen M, Dali-Youcef N, Kaminska D, Venesmaa S, Käkelä P. 121.  et al. 2012. Conjugated bile acids associate with altered rates of glucose and lipid oxidation after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Obes. Surg. 22:1473–80 [Google Scholar]
  124. Albaugh VL, Flynn CR, Cai S, Xiao Y, Tamboli RA, Abumrad NN. 122.  2015. Early increases in bile acids post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass are driven by insulin-sensitizing, secondary bile acids. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 100:E1225–33 [Google Scholar]
  125. Pournaras DJ, Glicksman C, Vincent RP, Kuganolipava S, Alaghband-Zadeh J. 123.  et al. 2012. The role of bile after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in promoting weight loss and improving glycaemic control. Endocrinology 153:3613–19 [Google Scholar]
  126. Fu L, John LM, Adams SH, Yu XX, Tomlinson E. 124.  et al. 2004. Fibroblast growth factor 19 increases metabolic rate and reverses dietary and leptin-deficient diabetes. Endocrinology 145:2594–603 [Google Scholar]
  127. Tremaroli V, Karlsson F, Werling M, Ståhlman M, Kovatcheva-Datchary P. 125.  et al. 2015. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and vertical banded gastroplasty induce long-term changes on the human gut microbiome contributing to fat mass regulation. Cell Metab 22:228–38 [Google Scholar]
  128. Sachdev S, Wang Q, Billington C, Connett J, Ahmed L. 126.  et al. 2016. FGF 19 and bile acids increase following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass but not after medical management in patients with type 2 diabetes. Obes. Surg. 26:957–65 [Google Scholar]
  129. Kohli R, Bradley D, Setchell KD, Eagon JC, Abumrad N, Klein S. 127.  2013. Weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass but not laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding increases circulating bile acids. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 98:E708–12 [Google Scholar]
  130. Penney NC, Kinross J, Newton RC, Purkayastha S. 128.  2015. The role of bile acids in reducing the metabolic complications of obesity after bariatric surgery: a systematic review. Int. J. Obes. 39:1565–74 [Google Scholar]
  131. DiBaise JK, Frank DN, Mathur R. 129.  2012. Impact of the gut microbiota on the development of obesity: current concepts. Am. J. Gastroenterol. Suppl. 1:22–27 [Google Scholar]
  132. Eckburg PB, Bik EM, Bernstein CN, Purdom E, Dethlefsen L. 130.  et al. 2005. Diversity of the human intestinal microbial flora. Science 308:1635–38 [Google Scholar]
  133. Turnbaugh PJ, Ley RE, Mahowald MA, Magrini V, Mardis ER, Gordon JI. 131.  2006. An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest. Nature 444:1027–31 [Google Scholar]
  134. Backhed F, Ding H, Wang T, Hooper LV, Koh GY. 132.  et al. 2004. The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage. PNAS 101:15718–23 [Google Scholar]
  135. Ionut V, Bergman RN. 133.  2011. Mechanisms responsible for excess weight loss after bariatric surgery. J. Diabetes Sci. Technol. 5:1263–82 [Google Scholar]
  136. Li JV, Ashrafian H, Bueter M, Kinross J, Sands C. 134.  et al. 2011. Metabolic surgery profoundly influences gut microbial–host metabolic cross-talk. Gut 60:1214–23 [Google Scholar]
  137. Zhang H, DiBaise JK, Zuccolo A, Kudrna D, Braidotti M. 135.  et al. 2009. Human gut microbiota in obesity and after gastric bypass. PNAS 106:2365–70 [Google Scholar]
  138. Furet JP, Kong LC, Tap J, Poitou C, Basdevant A. 136.  et al. 2010. Differential adaptation of human gut microbiota to bariatric surgery–induced weight loss: links with metabolic and low-grade inflammation markers. Diabetes 59:3049–57 [Google Scholar]
  139. Graessler J, Qin Y, Zhong H, Zhang J, Licinio J. 137.  et al. 2013. Metagenomic sequencing of the human gut microbiome before and after bariatric surgery in obese patients with type 2 diabetes: correlation with inflammatory and metabolic parameters. Pharmacogenomics J 13:514–22 [Google Scholar]
  140. Kasubuchi M, Hasegawa S, Hiramatsu T, Ichimura A, Kimura I. 138.  2015. Dietary gut microbial metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, and host metabolic regulation. Nutrients 7:2839–49 [Google Scholar]
  141. Ridaura VK, Faith JJ, Rey FE, Cheng J, Duncan AE. 139.  et al. 2013. Gut microbiota from twins discordant for obesity modulate metabolism in mice. Science 341:1241214 [Google Scholar]
  142. Näslund E, Bogefors J, Skogar S, Grybäck P, Jacobsson H. 140.  et al. 1999. GLP-1 slows solid gastric emptying and inhibits insulin, glucagon, and PYY release in humans. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Comp. Integr. Physiol. 277:R910–16 [Google Scholar]
  143. Chan JL, Mun EC, Stoyneva V, Mantzoros CS, Goldfine AB. 141.  2006. Peptide YY levels are elevated after gastric bypass surgery. Obesity 14:194–98 [Google Scholar]
  144. Peterli R, Wolnerhanssen B, Peters T, Devaux N, Kern B. 142.  et al. 2009. Improvement in glucose metabolism after bariatric surgery: comparison of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: a prospective randomized trial. Ann. Surg. 250:234–41 [Google Scholar]
  145. Ramracheya RD, McCulloch LJ, Clark A, Wiggins D, Johannessen H. 143.  et al. 2016. PYY-dependent restoration of impaired insulin and glucagon secretion in type 2 diabetes following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Cell Rep 15:944–50 [Google Scholar]
  146. Beckman LM, Beckman TR, Earthman CP. 144.  2010. Changes in gastrointestinal hormones and leptin after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure: a review. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 110:571–84 [Google Scholar]
  147. Pocai A. 145.  2012. Unraveling oxyntomodulin, GLP1’s enigmatic brother. J. Endocrinol. 215:335–46 [Google Scholar]
  148. Laferrère B, Swerdlow N, Bawa B, Arias S, Bose M. 146.  et al. 2010. Rise of oxyntomodulin in response to oral glucose after gastric bypass surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 95:4072–76 [Google Scholar]
  149. Falkén Y, Hellström PM, Holst JJ, Näslund E. 147.  2011. Changes in glucose homeostasis after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for obesity at day three, two months, and one year after surgery: role of gut peptides. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 96:2227–35 [Google Scholar]
  150. Romero F, Nicolau J, Flores L, Casamitjana R, Ibarzabal A. 148.  et al. 2012. Comparable early changes in gastrointestinal hormones after sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for morbidly obese type 2 diabetic subjects. Surg. Endosc. 26:2231–39 [Google Scholar]
  151. Butte NF, Brandt ML, Wong WW, Liu Y, Mehta NR. 149.  et al. 2015. Energetic adaptations persist after bariatric surgery in severely obese adolescents. Obesity 23:591–601 [Google Scholar]
  152. Suzuki S, Ramos EJ, Goncalves CG, Chen C, Meguid MM. 150.  2005. Changes in GI hormones and their effect on gastric emptying and transit times after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in rat model. Surgery 138:283–90 [Google Scholar]
  153. Ramón JM, Salvans S, Crous X, Puig S, Goday A. 151.  et al. 2012. Effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass versus sleeve gastrectomy on glucose and gut hormones: a prospective randomised trial. J. Gastrointest. Surg. 16:1116–22 [Google Scholar]
  154. Swarbrick MM, Stanhope KL, Austrheim-Smith IT, Van Loan MD, Ali MR. 152.  et al. 2008. Longitudinal changes in pancreatic and adipocyte hormones following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Diabetologia 51:1901–11 [Google Scholar]
  155. Schrumpf E, Linnestad P, Nygaard K, Giercksky KE, Fausa O. 153.  1981. Pancreatic polypeptide secretion before and after gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 16:1009–14 [Google Scholar]
  156. Jacobsen SH, Olesen SC, Dirksen C, Jørgensen NB, Bojsen-Møller KN. 154.  et al. 2012. Changes in gastrointestinal hormone responses, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell function within 2 weeks after gastric bypass in non-diabetic subjects. Obes. Surg. 22:1084–96 [Google Scholar]
  157. Stenstrom B, Zhao CM, Tømmeras K, Arum CJ, Chen D. 155.  2006. Is gastrin partially responsible for body weight reduction after gastric bypass?. Eur. Surg. Res. 38:94–101 [Google Scholar]
  158. Patel SR, Mason J, Hakim N. 156.  2012. The duodenal–jejunal bypass sleeve (EndoBarrier Gastrointestinal Liner) for weight loss and treatment of type II diabetes. Indian J. Surg. 74:275–77 [Google Scholar]
  159. Cazzo E, Gestic MA, Utrini MP, Machado RR, Geloneze B. 157.  et al. 2014. Impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance parameters. Diabetes Technol. Ther. 16:262–65 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071813-105140
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071813-105140
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error