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Abstract

Additive manufacturing's attributes include print customization, low per-unit cost for small- to mid-batch production, seamless interfacing with mainstream medical 3D imaging techniques, and feasibility to create free-form objects in materials that are biocompatible and biodegradable. Consequently, additive manufacturing is apposite for a wide range of biomedical applications including custom biocompatible implants that mimic the mechanical response of bone, biodegradable scaffolds with engineered degradation rate, medical surgical tools, and biomedical instrumentation. This review surveys the materials, 3D printing methods and technologies, and biomedical applications of metal 3D printing, providing a historical perspective while focusing on the state of the art. It then identifies a number of exciting directions of future growth: () the improvement of mainstream additive manufacturing methods and associated feedstock; () the exploration of mature, less utilized metal 3D printing techniques; () the optimization of additively manufactured load-bearing structures via artificial intelligence; and () the creation of monolithic, multimaterial, finely featured, multifunctional implants.

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2021-07-13
2024-06-15
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