This review delves into the rapidly evolving landscape of liquid biopsy technologies based on cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and cell-free RNA (cfRNA) and their increasingly prominent role in precision medicine. With the advent of high-throughput DNA sequencing, the use of cfDNA and cfRNA has revolutionized noninvasive clinical testing. Here, we explore the physical characteristics of cfDNA and cfRNA, present an overview of the essential engineering tools used by the field, and highlight clinical applications, including noninvasive prenatal testing, cancer testing, organ transplantation surveillance, and infectious disease testing. Finally, we discuss emerging technologies and the broadening scope of liquid biopsies to new areas of diagnostic medicine.

Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 26 is May 2024. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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