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Abstract

Although less studied than their closed-shell counterparts, materials containing stable open-shell chemistries have played a key role in many energy storage and energy conversion devices. In particular, the oxidation-reduction (redox) properties of these stable radicals have made them a substantial contributor to the progress of organic batteries. Moreover, the use of radical-based materials in photovoltaic devices and thermoelectric systems has allowed for these emerging molecules to have impacts in the energy conversion realm. Additionally, the unique doublet states of radical-based materials provide access to otherwise inaccessible spin states in optoelectronic devices, offering many new opportunities for efficient usage of energy in light-emitting devices. Here, we review the current state of the art regarding the molecular design, synthesis, and application of stable radicals in these energy-related applications. Finally, we point to fundamental and applied arenas of future promise for these designer open-shell molecules, which have only just begun to be evaluated in full.

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2018-06-07
2024-04-17
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