The ability of antibodies to bind to target molecules with high affinity and specificity has led to their widespread use in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Nevertheless, a limitation of antibodies is their propensity to self-associate and aggregate at high concentrations and elevated temperatures. The large size and multidomain architecture of full-length monoclonal antibodies have frustrated systematic analysis of how antibody sequence and structure regulate antibody solubility. In contrast, analysis of single and multidomain antibody fragments that retain the binding activity of mono-clonal antibodies has provided valuable insights into the determinants of antibody aggregation. Here we review advances in engineering antibody frameworks, domain interfaces, and antigen-binding loops to prevent aggregation of natively and nonnatively folded antibody fragments. We also highlight advances and unmet challenges in developing robust strategies for engineering large, multidomain antibodies to resist aggregation.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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