Antibody-based therapeutics constitute a rapidly growing class of pharmaceutical compounds. However, monoclonal antibodies, which specifically engage only one target, often lack the mechanistic intricacy to treat complex diseases. To expand the utility of antibody therapies, significant efforts have been invested in designing multispecific antibodies, which engage multiple targets using a single molecule. These efforts have culminated in remarkable translational progress, including nine US Food and Drug Administration–approved multispecific antibodies, with countless others in various stages of preclinical or clinical development. In this review, we discuss several categories of multispecific antibodies that have achieved clinical approval or shown promise in earlier stages of development. We focus on the molecular mechanisms used by multispecific antibodies and how these mechanisms inform their customized design and formulation. In particular, we discuss multispecific antibodies that target multiple disease markers, multiparatopic antibodies, and immune-interfacing antibodies. Overall, these innovative multispecific antibody designs are fueling exciting advances across the immunotherapeutic landscape.

Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 15 is June 2024. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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