In the era of precision medicine, multivalent and multispecific therapeutics present a promising approach for targeted disease intervention. These therapeutics are designed to interact with multiple targets simultaneously, promising enhanced efficacy, reduced side effects, and resilience against drug resistance. We dissect the principles guiding the design of multivalent biologics, highlighting challenges and strategies that must be considered to maximize therapeutic effect. Engineerable elements in multivalent and multispecific biologic design—domain affinities, valency, and spatial presentation—must be considered in the context of the molecular targets as well as the balance of important properties such as target avidity and specificity. We illuminate recent applications of these principles in designing protein and cell therapies and identify exciting future directions in this field, underscored by advances in biomolecular and cellular engineering and computational approaches.

Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 15 is June 2024. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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