1932

Abstract

Schools have long been the primary setting for children's mental health services but have neither the resources nor the expertise to manage these services independently. The critical importance of school success for children's adjustment provides a strong rationale for schooling as an essential component of children's mental health services. In this article, we review evidence for how schooling and mental health coalesce, suggesting an alignment of school and community mental health resources that prioritizes successful schooling as a key mental health outcome. We describe collaborative principles and ecological practices that advance a public health focus on children's mental health while also reducing the burden on schools to maintain mental health services. We close with a model of mental health services illustrating these principles and practices in high-poverty urban schools and propose future directions for research and practice to promote positive mental health for all children and youth.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032816-045234
2017-05-08
2024-05-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/clinpsy/13/1/annurev-clinpsy-032816-045234.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032816-045234&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Aarons GA, Hurlburt M, Horwitz SM. 2011. Advancing a conceptual model of evidence-based practice implementation in public service sectors. Adm. Policy Mental Health 38:14–23 [Google Scholar]
  2. Adelman HS, Taylor L. 1993. School-based mental health: toward a comprehensive approach. J. Mental Health Adm. 20:132–45 [Google Scholar]
  3. Anderson AR, Christenson SL, Sinclair MF, Lehr CA. 2004. Check & Connect: the importance of relationships for promoting engagement with school. J. School Psychol. 42:295–113 [Google Scholar]
  4. Anderson VL, Levinson EM, Barker W, Kiewra KR. 1999. The effects of meditation on teacher perceived occupational stress, state and trait anxiety, and burnout. School Psychol. Q. 14:13–25 [Google Scholar]
  5. Atkins MS. 2013. Ecological principles for interconnecting school mental health and PBIS: focusing on what matters most. Advancing Education Effectiveness: Interconnecting School Mental Health and School-Wide Positive Behavior Support S Barrett, L Eber, MD Weist 123–27 Washington, DC: US Dep. Educ https://www.pbis.org/common/cms/files/Current%20Topics/Final-Monograph.pdf [Google Scholar]
  6. Atkins MS, Frazier SL. 2011. Expanding the toolkit or changing the paradigm: Are we ready for a public health approach to mental health?. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 6:5483–87 [Google Scholar]
  7. Atkins MS, Frazier SL, Birman D, Adil JA, Jackson M. et al. 2006. School-based mental health services for children living in high poverty urban communities. Adm. Policy Mental Health 33:2146–59 [Google Scholar]
  8. Atkins MS, Frazier SL, Leathers SJ, Graczyk PA, Talbott E. et al. 2008. Teacher key opinion leaders and mental health consultation in low-income urban schools. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 76:5905–8 [Google Scholar]
  9. Atkins MS, Graczyk PA, Frazier SL, Abdul-Adil J. 2003. Toward a new model for promoting urban children's mental health: accessible, effective, and sustainable school-based mental health services. School Psychol. Rev. 32:4503–14 [Google Scholar]
  10. Atkins MS, Hoagwood KE, Kutash K, Seidman E. 2010. Toward the integration of education and mental health in schools. Adm. Policy Mental Health 37:1–240–47 [Google Scholar]
  11. Atkins MS, McKay MM, Arvanitis P, London L, Madison S. et al. 1998. An ecological model for school-based mental health services for urban low-income aggressive children. J. Behav. Health Serv. Res. 25:164–75 [Google Scholar]
  12. Atkins MS, Rusch D, Mehta TG, Lakind D. 2016. Future directions for dissemination and implementation science: aligning ecological theory and public health to close the research to practice gap. J. Clin. Child Adolesc. Psychol. 45:2215–26 [Google Scholar]
  13. Atkins MS, Shernoff ES, Frazier SL, Schoenwald SK, Cappella E. et al. 2015. Redesigning community mental health services for urban children: supporting schooling to promote mental health. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 83:5839–52 [Google Scholar]
  14. Batsche G, Elliott J, Graden JL, Grimes J, Kovaleski JF. 2005. Response to Intervention: Policy Considerations and Implementation Alexandria, VA: Natl. Assoc. State Dir. Spec. Educ.
  15. Beets MW, Flay BR, Vuchinich S, Acock AC, Li K-K, Allred C. 2008. School climate and teachers’ beliefs and attitudes associated with implementation of the positive action program: a diffusion of innovations model. Prev. Sci. 9:4264–75 [Google Scholar]
  16. Beidas RS, Kendall PC. 2010. Training therapists in evidence‐based practice: a critical review of studies from a systems‐contextual perspective. Clin. Psychol. 17:11–30 [Google Scholar]
  17. Bierman KL, Coie JD, Dodge KA, Greenberg MT, Lochman JE. et al. 2010. The effects of a multiyear universal social–emotional learning program: the role of student and school characteristics. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 78:2156–68 [Google Scholar]
  18. Blume BD, Ford JK, Baldwin TT, Huang JL. 2010. Transfer of training: a meta-analytic review. J. Manag. 36:41065–105 [Google Scholar]
  19. Bradley RH, Corwyn RF. 2002. Socioeconomic status and child development. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 53:371–99 [Google Scholar]
  20. Bradshaw CP, Koth CW, Thornton LA, Leaf PJ. 2008. Altering school climate through school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports: findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prev. Sci. 10:2100–15 [Google Scholar]
  21. Bradshaw CP, Mitchell MM, Leaf PJ. 2010. Examining the effects of schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports on student outcomes: results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. J. Posit. Behav. Interv. 12:3133–48 [Google Scholar]
  22. Braveman P, Egerter S, Williams DR. 2011. The social determinants of health: coming of age. Annu. Rev. Public Health 32:381–98 [Google Scholar]
  23. Bringewatt EH, Gershoff ET. 2010. Falling through the cracks: gaps and barriers in the mental health system for America's disadvantaged children. Children Youth Serv. Rev. 32:101291–99 [Google Scholar]
  24. Bryk AS, Schneider BL. 2002. Trust in Schools: A Core Resource for Improvement New York: Russell Sage Found.
  25. Burns BJ, Costello EJ, Angold A, Tweed D, Stangl D. et al. 1995. Children's mental health service use across service sectors. Health Aff 14:3147–59 [Google Scholar]
  26. Burns MK, Egan AM, Kunkel AK, McComas J, Peterson MM. et al. 2013. Training for generalization and maintenance in RtI implementation: front‐loading for sustainability. Learn. Disabil. 28:281–88 [Google Scholar]
  27. Burt RS. 1999. The social capital of opinion leaders. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 566:137–54 [Google Scholar]
  28. Campbell F, Conti G, Heckman JJ, Moon SH, Pinto R. et al. 2014. Early childhood investments substantially boost adult health. Science 343:61781478–85 [Google Scholar]
  29. Cappella E, Aber JL, Kim HK. 2016a. Teaching beyond achievement tests: perspectives from developmental and education science. Handbook of Research on Teaching DH Gitomer, CA Bell 249–347 Washington, DC: Am. Educ. Res. Assoc, 5th ed.. [Google Scholar]
  30. Cappella E, Frazier SL, Atkins MS, Schoenwald SK, Glisson C. 2008. Enhancing schools’ capacity to support children in poverty: an ecological model of school-based mental health services. Adm. Policy Mental Health 35:5395–409 [Google Scholar]
  31. Cappella E, Hamre BK, Kim HY, Henry DB, Frazier SL. et al. 2012. Teacher consultation and coaching within mental health practice: classroom and child effects in urban elementary schools. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 80:4597–610 [Google Scholar]
  32. Cappella E, Jackson DR, Kim HY, Bilal C, Holland S, Atkins MS. 2016b. Implementation of teacher consultation and coaching in urban schools: a mixed method study. School Mental Health 8:2222–37 [Google Scholar]
  33. Carr EG, Dunlap G, Horner RH, Koegel RL. 2002. Positive behavior support evolution of an applied science. J. Posit. Behav. Interv. 4:14–16 [Google Scholar]
  34. Coffey JH, Horner RH. 2012. The sustainability of schoolwide positive behavior interventions and supports. Except. Children 78:4407–22 [Google Scholar]
  35. Connell JP, Spencer MB, Aber JL. 1994. Educational risk and resilience in African‐American youth: context, self, action, and outcomes in school. Child Dev 65:2493–506 [Google Scholar]
  36. Cook BG, Buysse V, Klingner J, Landrum TJ, McWilliam RA. et al. 2014. CEC's standards for classifying the evidence base of practices in special education. Remedial Special Educ 36:4220–34 [Google Scholar]
  37. Cook CR, Frye M, Slemrod T, Lyon AR, Renshaw TL, Zhang Y. 2015. An integrated approach to universal prevention: independent and combined effects of PBIS and SEL on youths’ mental health. School Psychol. Q. 30:2166–83 [Google Scholar]
  38. Crockett JB. 1999. The least restrictive environment and the 1997 IDEA amendments and federal regulations. J. Law Educ. 28:4543 [Google Scholar]
  39. Domitrovich CE, Bradshaw CP, Poduska JM, Hoagwood KE, Buckley JA. et al. 2008. Maximizing the implementation quality of evidence-based preventive interventions in schools: a conceptual framework. Adv. School Mental Health Promot. 1:36–28 [Google Scholar]
  40. Domitrovich CE, Pas ET, Bradshaw CP, Becker KD, Keperling JP. et al. 2015. Individual and school organizational factors that influence implementation of the PAX Good Behavior Game intervention. Prev. Sci. 16:81064–74 [Google Scholar]
  41. Drzal EV, Miller P. 2015. Poverty, urbanicity, and children's development of early academic skills. Child Dev. Perspect. 10:13–9 [Google Scholar]
  42. Durlak JA, Weissberg RP, Dymnicki AB, Taylor RD, Schellinger KB. 2011. The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: a meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Dev 82:1405–32 [Google Scholar]
  43. Embry DD. 2002. The Good Behavior Game: a best practice candidate as a universal behavioral vaccine. Clin. Child Fam. Psychol. Rev. 5:4273–97 [Google Scholar]
  44. Embry DD, Biglan A. 2008. Evidence-based kernels: fundamental units of behavioral influence. Clin. Child Fam. Psychol. Rev. 11:375–113 [Google Scholar]
  45. Epstein M, Atkins MS, Cullinan D, Kutash K, Weaver R. 2008. Reducing Behavior Problems in the Elementary School Classroom Washington, DC: US Dep. Educ.
  46. Evans SW, Axelrod JL, Sapia JL. 2000. Effective school‐based mental health interventions: advancing the social skills training paradigm. J. School Health 70:5191–94 [Google Scholar]
  47. Fan X, Chen M. 2001. Parental involvement and students' academic achievement: a meta-analysis. Educ. Psychol. Rev. 13:11–22 [Google Scholar]
  48. Farahmand FK, Grant KE, Polo AJ, Duffy SN, DuBois DL. 2011. School-based mental health and behavioral programs for low-income, urban youth: a systematic and meta-analytic review. Clin. Psychol. 18:4372–90 [Google Scholar]
  49. Farmer EMZ, Compton SN, Burns BJ, Robertson E. 2002. Review of the evidence base for treatment of childhood psychopathology: externalizing disorders. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 70:61267–302 [Google Scholar]
  50. Flaherty LT, Osher D. 2003. History of school-based mental health services in the United States. Handbook of School Mental Health: Advancing Practice and Research MD Weist, SW Evans, NA Lever 11–22 Boston, MA: Springer [Google Scholar]
  51. Flaherty LT, Weist MD, Warner BS. 1996. School-based mental health services in the United States: history, current models and needs. Community Mental Health J 32:4341–52 [Google Scholar]
  52. Forness SR. 2005. The pursuit of evidence-based practice in special education for children with emotional or behavioral disorders. Behav. Disord. 30:4311–30 [Google Scholar]
  53. Foster S, Rollefson M, Doksum T, Noonan D, Robinson G, Teich J. 2005. School Mental Health Services in the United States 2002–2003 Washington, DC: US Dep. Health Hum. Serv.
  54. Frazier SL, Abdul-Adil J, Atkins MS, Gathright T, Jackson M. 2007. Can't have one without the other: mental health providers and community parents reducing barriers to services for families in urban poverty. J. Community Psychol. 35:4435–46 [Google Scholar]
  55. Fusarelli LD. 2004. The potential impact of the No Child Left Behind Act on equity and diversity in American education. Educ. Policy 18:171–94 [Google Scholar]
  56. Garland AF, Brookman-Frazee L, Hurlburt MS, Accurso EC, Zoffness RJ. et al. 2010. Mental health care for children with disruptive behavior problems: a view inside therapists’ offices. Psychiatr. Serv. 61:8788–95 [Google Scholar]
  57. George M, Taylor L, Schmidt SC. 2013. A review of school mental health programs in SAMHSA's national registry of evidence-based programs and practices. Psychiatr. Serv. 64:5483–86 [Google Scholar]
  58. Ginsburg-Block MD, Rohrbeck CA, Fantuzzo JW. 2006. A meta-analytic review of social, self-concept, and behavioral outcomes of peer-assisted learning. J. Educ. Psychol. 98:4732–49 [Google Scholar]
  59. Greenberg MT, Weissberg RP, O'Brien MU, Zins JE, Fredericks L. et al. 2003. Enhancing school-based prevention and youth development through coordinated social, emotional, and academic learning. Am. Psychol. 58:6–7466–74 [Google Scholar]
  60. Gregory A, Allen JP, Mikami AY, Hafen CA, Pianta RC. 2014. Effects of a professional development program on behavioral engagement of students in middle and high school. Psychol. Sch. 51:2143–63 [Google Scholar]
  61. Griswold KS, Homish GG, Pastore PA, Leonard KE. 2010. A randomized trial: Are care navigators effective in connecting patients to primary care after psychiatric crisis?. Community Mental Health J 46:4398–402 [Google Scholar]
  62. Grolnick WS, Slowiaczek ML. 1994. Parents involvement in children's schooling: a multidimensional conceptualization and motivational model. Child Dev 65:1237–52 [Google Scholar]
  63. Halfon N, Wise PH, Forrest CB. 2014. The changing nature of children's health development: new challenges require major policy solutions. Health Aff 33:122116–24 [Google Scholar]
  64. Hamm JV, Farmer TW, Dadisman K, Gravelle M, Murray AR. 2011. Teachers’ attunement to students’ peer group affiliations as a source of improved student experiences of the school social–affective context following the middle school transition. J. Appl. Dev. Psychol. 32:5267–77 [Google Scholar]
  65. Hamre BK, Pianta RC. 2001. Early teacher–child relationships and the trajectory of children's school outcomes through eighth grade. Child Dev 72:2625–38 [Google Scholar]
  66. Hamre BK, Pianta RC. 2005. Can instructional and emotional support in the first‐grade classroom make a difference for children at risk of school failure?. Child Dev 76:5949–67 [Google Scholar]
  67. Hamre BK, Pianta RC, Downer JT, DeCoster J, Mashburn AJ. et al. 2013. Teaching through interactions. Elementary School J 113:4461–87 [Google Scholar]
  68. Haynes NM, Comer JP. 1996. Integrating schools, families, and communities through successful school reform: the school development program. School Psychol. Rev. 25:4501–6 [Google Scholar]
  69. Heflinger CA, Hinshaw SP. 2010. Stigma in child and adolescent mental health services research: understanding professional and institutional stigmatization of youth with mental health problems and their families. Adm. Policy Mental Health 37:161–70 [Google Scholar]
  70. Hoagwood KE, Atkins MS, Ialongo NS. 2013. Unpacking the black box of implementation: the next generation for policy, research and practice. Adm. Policy Mental Health 40:6451–55 [Google Scholar]
  71. Hoagwood KE, Olin SS, Kerker BD, Kratochwill TR, Crowe M, Saka N. 2007. Empirically based school interventions targeted at academic and mental health functioning. J. Emot. Behav. Disord. 15:266–92 [Google Scholar]
  72. Ingersoll RM, Smith TM. 2003. The wrong solution to the teacher shortage. Educ. Leadersh. 60:830–33 [Google Scholar]
  73. Islam N, Nadkarni SK, Zahn D, Skillman M, Kwon SC, Trinh-Shevrin C. 2015. Integrating community health workers within patient protection and Affordable Care Act implementation. J. Public Health Manag. Pract. 21:142–50 [Google Scholar]
  74. Jeynes W. 2012. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of different types of parental involvement programs for urban students. Urban Educ 47:4706–42 [Google Scholar]
  75. Johnson VL, Holt LJ, Bry BH, Powell SR. 2008. Effects of an integrated prevention program on urban youth transitioning into high school. J. Appl. School Psychol. 24:2225–46 [Google Scholar]
  76. Johnston JM, Foxx RM, Jacobson JW, Green G. 2006. Positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. Behav. Anal. 29:151–74 [Google Scholar]
  77. Jones DE, Greenberg MT, Crowley M. 2015. Early social–emotional functioning and public health: the relationship between kindergarten social competence and future wellness. Am. J. Public Health 105:112283–90 [Google Scholar]
  78. Jones SM, Bouffard SM. 2012. Social and emotional learning in schools: from programs to strategies. Soc. Policy Rep. 26:41–22 [Google Scholar]
  79. Kim HY, Cappella E. 2016. Mapping the social world of classrooms: a multi‐level, multi‐reporter approach to social processes and behavioral engagement. Am. J. Community Psychol. 57:1–220–35 [Google Scholar]
  80. Klusmann U, Kunter M, Trautwein U, Lüdtke O, Baumert J. 2008. Teachers’ occupational well-being and quality of instruction: the important role of self-regulatory patterns. J. Educ. Psychol. 100:3702–15 [Google Scholar]
  81. Klusmann U, Richter D, Lüdtke O. 2016. Teachers’ emotional exhaustion is negatively related to students’ achievement: evidence from a large-scale assessment study. J. Educ. Psychol. 108:81193–203 [Google Scholar]
  82. Knitzer J, Olson L. 1982. Unclaimed Children: The Failure of Public Responsibility to Children and Adolescents in Need of Mental Health Services Washington, DC: Child. Def. Fund
  83. Koh HK, Sebelius KG. 2010. Promoting prevention through the Affordable Care Act. N. Engl. J. Med. 363:141296–99 [Google Scholar]
  84. Kyriacou C. 2010. Teacher stress: directions for future research. Educ. Rev. 53:127–35 [Google Scholar]
  85. Ladd GW. 1999. Peer relationships and social competence during early and middle childhood. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 50:333–59 [Google Scholar]
  86. Latham G. 1988. The birth and death cycles of educational innovations. Principal 68:41–43 [Google Scholar]
  87. Leachman M, Albares N, Masterson K, Wallace M. 2016. Most States Have Cut School Funding, and Some Continue Cutting Washington, DC: Center Budget Policy Priorities http://www.cbpp.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/12-10-15sfp.pdf
  88. Leaf PJ, Alegria M, Cohen P, Goodman SH, Horwitz SM. et al. 1996. Mental health service use in the community and schools: results from the four-community MECA study. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 35:7889–97 [Google Scholar]
  89. Lochman JE, Powell NP, Boxmeyer CL, Qu L, Sallee M. et al. 2015. Counselor-level predictors of sustained use of an indicated preventive intervention for aggressive children. Prev. Sci. 16:1075–85 [Google Scholar]
  90. Low MD, Low BJ, Baumler ER, Huynh PT. 2005. Can education policy be health policy? Implications of research on the social determinants of health. J. Health Politics Policy Law 30:61131–62 [Google Scholar]
  91. Lyon AR, Frazier SL, Mehta TG, Atkins MS, Weisbach J. 2011. Easier said than done: intervention sustainability in an urban after-school program. Adm. Policy Mental Health 38:6504–17 [Google Scholar]
  92. Manz PH, Fantuzzo JW, Power TJ. 2004. Multidimensional assessment of family involvement among urban elementary students. J. School Psychol. 42:6461–75 [Google Scholar]
  93. Mathews S, McIntosh K, Frank JL, May SL. 2013. Critical features predicting sustained implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. J. Posit. Behav. Interv. 16:3168–78 [Google Scholar]
  94. McCormick MP, Cappella E, O'Connor EE, McClowry SG. 2015. Context matters for social–emotional learning: examining variation in program impact by dimensions of school climate. Am. J. Community Psychol. 56:1101–19 [Google Scholar]
  95. McGuinn P. 2011. Stimulating reform: Race to the Top, competitive grants and the Obama education agenda. Educ. Policy 26:1136–59 [Google Scholar]
  96. McIntosh K, Massar MM, Algozzine RF, George HP, Horner RH. et al. 2017. Technical adequacy of the SWPBIS tiered fidelity inventory. J. Posit. Behav. Interv. 19:13–13 [Google Scholar]
  97. McIntosh K, Mercer SH, Hume AE, Frank JL. 2013. Factors related to sustained implementation of schoolwide positive behavior support. Except. Children 79:3293–311 [Google Scholar]
  98. McKay MM, Atkins MS, Hawkins T, Brown C, Lynn CJ. 2003. Inner-city African American parental involvement in children's schooling: racial socialization and social support from the parent community. Am. J. Community Psychol. 32:1–2107–14 [Google Scholar]
  99. McKay MM, Hibbert R, Hoagwood KE, Rodriguez J, Murray L. et al. 2004. Integrating evidence-based engagement interventions into “real world” child mental health settings. Brief Treat. Crisis Interv. 4:2177–86 [Google Scholar]
  100. Mechanic D. 2012. Seizing opportunities under the Affordable Care Act for transforming the mental and behavioral health system. Health Aff 31:2376–82 [Google Scholar]
  101. Mikami AY, Griggs MS, Lerner MD, Emeh CC, Reuland MM. et al. 2013. A randomized trial of a classroom intervention to increase peers' social inclusion of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 81:1100–12 [Google Scholar]
  102. Neal JW, Neal ZP, Atkins MS, Henry DB, Frazier SL. 2011. Channels of change: contrasting network mechanisms in the use of interventions. Am. J. Community Psychol. 47:3–4277–86 [Google Scholar]
  103. Noam GG, Hermann CA. 2002. Where education and mental health meet: developmental prevention and early intervention in schools. Dev. Psychopathol. 14:4861–75 [Google Scholar]
  104. O'Connell ME, Boat TF, Warner KE. 2009. Preventing Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Disorders Among Young People: Progress and Possibilities Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
  105. Olin SS, Hoagwood KE, Rodriguez J, Ramos B, Burton G. et al. 2010. The application of behavior change theory to family-based services: improving parent empowerment in children's mental health. J. Child Fam. Stud. 19:4462–70 [Google Scholar]
  106. Owens JS, Richerson L, Beilstein EA, Crane A, Murphy CE, Vancouver JB. 2005. School-based mental health programming for children with inattentive and disruptive behavior problems: first-year treatment outcome. J. Atten. Disord. 9:1261–74 [Google Scholar]
  107. Ozer EJ, Weinstein RS. 2010. Urban adolescents' exposure to community violence: the role of support, school safety, and social constraints in a school-based sample of boys and girls. J. Clin. Child Adolesc. Psychol. 33:3463–76 [Google Scholar]
  108. Pas ET, Waasdorp TE, Bradshaw CP. 2015. Examining contextual influences on classroom-based implementation of positive behavior support strategies: findings from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial. Prev. Sci. 16:81096–106 [Google Scholar]
  109. Payton JW, Wardlaw DM, Graczyk PA, Bloodworth MR, Tompsett CJ, Weissberg RP. 2000. Social and emotional learning: a framework for promoting mental health and reducing risk behavior in children and youth. J. School Health 70:5179–85 [Google Scholar]
  110. Pellegrino JW, Hilton ML. 2012. Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press
  111. Perren S, von Wyl A, Stadelmann S, Burgin D, von Klitzing K. 2006. Associations between behavioral/emotional difficulties in kindergarten children and the quality of their peer relationships. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 45:7867–76 [Google Scholar]
  112. Pescosolido BA, Jensen PS, Martin JK, Perry BL, Olafsdottir S, Fettes D. 2008. Public knowledge and assessment of child mental health problems: findings from the National Stigma Study-Children. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 47:3339–49 [Google Scholar]
  113. Pianta RC, Belsky J, Houts R, Morrison F. 2007. Opportunities to learn in America's elementary classrooms. Science 315:58201795–96 [Google Scholar]
  114. Pianta RC, Hamre BK, Allen JP. 2012. Teacher–student relationships and engagement: conceptualizing, measuring, and improving the capacity of classroom interactions. Handbook of Research on Student Engagement SL Christenson, AL Reschly, C Wylie 365–86 Boston, MA: Springer [Google Scholar]
  115. Reinke WM, Stormont M, Herman KC, Puri R, Goel N. 2011. Supporting children's mental health in schools: teacher perceptions of needs, roles, and barriers. School Psychol. Q. 26:11–13 [Google Scholar]
  116. Reyes MR, Brackett MA, Rivers SE, White M, Salovey P. 2012. Classroom emotional climate, student engagement, and academic achievement. J. Educ. Psychol. 104:3700–12 [Google Scholar]
  117. Ringeisen H, Henderson K, Hoagwood KE. 2003. Context matters: schools and the “research to practice gap” in children's mental health. School Psychol. Rev. 32:2153–69 [Google Scholar]
  118. Robinson LR, Leeb RT, Merrick MT, Forbes LW. 2015. Conceptualizing and measuring safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments in educational settings. J. Child Fam. Stud. 25:51488–504 [Google Scholar]
  119. Rogers EM. 1995. Diffusion of Innovations New York: Free Press, 3rd ed..
  120. Rohrbeck CA, Ginsburg-Block MD, Fantuzzo JW, Miller TR. 2003. Peer-assisted learning interventions with elementary school students: a meta-analytic review. J. Educ. Psychol. 95:2240–57 [Google Scholar]
  121. Rones M, Hoagwood KE. 2000. School-based mental health services: a research review. Clin. Child Fam. Psychol. Rev. 3:4223–41 [Google Scholar]
  122. Roorda DL, Koomen HMY, Spilt JL, Oort FJ. 2011. The influence of affective teacher–student relationships on students’ school engagement and achievement: a meta-analytic approach. Rev. Educ. Res. 81:4493–529 [Google Scholar]
  123. Rose RJ, Viken RJ, Dick DM, Bates JE, Pulkkinen L, Kaprio J. 2003. It does take a village: nonfamilial environments and children's behavior. Psychol. Sci. 14:3273–77 [Google Scholar]
  124. Saks AM. 2002. So what is a good transfer of training estimate? A reply to Fitzpatrick. Ind. Organ. Psychol. 39:329–30 [Google Scholar]
  125. Salas E, Tannenbaum SI, Kraiger K, Smith-Jentsch KA. 2012. The science of training and development in organizations: what matters in practice. Psychol. Sci. Public Interest 13:274–101 [Google Scholar]
  126. Sarason SB. 2003. American psychology and schools: a critique. Am. J. Community Psychol. 32:1–299–106 [Google Scholar]
  127. Schoenwald SK, McHugh RK, Barlow DH. 2012. The science of dissemination and implementation. Dissemination and Implementation of Evidence-Based Psychological Interventions RK McHugh, DH Barlow 16–42 New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  128. Sheridan SM, Kratochwill TR. 2007. Conjoint Behavioral Consultation: Promoting Family–School Connections and Interventions New York: Springer. , 2nd ed..
  129. Shernoff ES, Bearman SK, Kratochwill TR. 2017. Training the next generation of school psychologists to deliver evidence-based mental health practices: current challenges and future directions. School Psychol. Rev.
  130. Shernoff ES, Frazier SL, Jakobsons L. 2014. Coaching early career teachers in urban elementary schools: a mixed-method study. School Mental Health 7:16–20 [Google Scholar]
  131. Shernoff ES, Mehta TG, Atkins MS, Torf R, Spencer J. 2011. A qualitative study of the sources and impact of stress among urban teachers. School Mental Health 3:259–69 [Google Scholar]
  132. Simon AE, Pastor PN, Reuben CA, Huang LN, Goldstrom ID. 2015. Use of mental health services by children ages six to 11 with emotional or behavioral difficulties. Psychiatr. Serv. 66:9930–37 [Google Scholar]
  133. Slade EP. 2003. The relationship between school characteristics and the availability of mental health and related health services in middle and high schools in the United States. J. Behav. Health Serv. Res. 30:4382–92 [Google Scholar]
  134. Slominski L, Sameroff A, Rosenblum K, Kasser T. 2011. Longitudinal predictors of adult socioeconomic attainment: the roles of socioeconomic status, academic competence, and mental health. Dev. Psychopathol. 23:1315–24 [Google Scholar]
  135. Stanton-Salazar RD. 2004. Social capital among working-class minority students. School Connections: U.S. Mexican Youth, Peers, and School Achievement MA Gibson, P Gandara, JP Koyama 18–38 New York: Teach. Coll. Press [Google Scholar]
  136. Stephan SH, Weist M, Kataoka S, Adelsheim S, Mills C. 2007. Transformation of children's mental health services: the role of school mental health. Psychiatr. Serv. 58:101330–38 [Google Scholar]
  137. Stiffman AR, Stelk W, Horwitz SM, Evans ME, Outlaw FH, Atkins MS. 2010. A public health approach to children's mental health services: possible solutions to current service inadequacies. Adm. Policy Mental Health 37:1–2120–24 [Google Scholar]
  138. Stirman SW, Kimberly J, Cook N, Calloway A, Castro F, Charns M. 2012. The sustainability of new programs and innovations: a review of the empirical literature and recommendations for future research. Implement. Sci. 7:11–19 [Google Scholar]
  139. Sugai G, Simonsen B. 2012. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: History, Defining Features, and Misconceptions Center for PBIS and Center for Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT. http://www.pbis.org/common/cms/files/pbisresources/PBIS_revisited_June19r_2012.pdf-
  140. Topitzes J, Godes O, Mersky JP, Ceglarek S, Reynolds AJ. 2009. Educational success and adult health: findings from the Chicago longitudinal study. Prev. Sci. 10:2175–95 [Google Scholar]
  141. VanDerHeyden AM, Witt JC, Gilbertson D. 2007. A multi-year evaluation of the effects of a Response to Intervention (RTI) model on identification of children for special education. J. School Psychol. 45:2225–56 [Google Scholar]
  142. Vannest KJ, Davis JL, Davis CR. 2010. Effective intervention for behavior with a daily behavior report card: a meta-analysis. School Psychol. Rev. 39:4654–72 [Google Scholar]
  143. Vescio V, Ross D, Adams A. 2008. A review of research on the impact of professional learning communities on teaching practice and student learning. Teach. Teach. Educ. Int. J. Res. Stud. 24:180–91 [Google Scholar]
  144. Wehlage CG, Rutter RA, Smith GA, Lesko N, Fernandez RR. 1989. Dropping Out: Can Schools Be Expected to Prevent It? Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis [Google Scholar]
  145. Weist MD, Goldstein J, Evans SW, Lever NA. 2003. Funding a full continuum of mental health promotion and intervention programs in the schools. J. Adolesc. Health 32:670–78 [Google Scholar]
  146. Weist MD, Sander MA, Walrath C, Link B, Nabors L. et al. 2005. Developing principles for best practice in expanded school mental health. J. Youth Adolesc. 34:17–13 [Google Scholar]
  147. Weisz JR, Krumholz LS, Santucci L, Thomassin K, Ng MY. 2015. Shrinking the gap between research and practice: tailoring and testing youth psychotherapies in clinical care contexts. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 11:139–63 [Google Scholar]
  148. Wenger E. 1998. Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
  149. Wentzel KR, Barry CM, Caldwell KA. 2004. Friendships in middle school: influences on motivation and school adjustment. J. Educ. Psychol. 96:2195–203 [Google Scholar]
  150. Wentzel KR, Caldwell K. 1997. Friendships, peer acceptance, and group membership: relations to academic achievement in middle school. Child Dev 68:61198–209 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032816-045234
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032816-045234
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error