Although antisocial personality disorder (APD) is one of the most researched personality disorders, it is still surprisingly resistant to treatment. This lack of clinical progress may be partly due to the failure to view APD as a neurodevelopmental disorder and to consider early interventions. After first defining what constitutes a neurodevelopmental disorder, this review evaluates the extent to which APD meets neurodevelopmental criteria, covering structural and functional brain imaging, neurocognition, genetics and epigenetics, neurochemistry, and early health risk factors. Prevention and intervention strategies for APD are then outlined, focusing on addressing early biological and health systems, followed by forensic and clinical implications. It is argued both that APD meets criteria for consideration as a neurodevelopmental disorder and that consideration should be given both to the possibility that early onset conduct disorder is neurodevelopmental in nature, and also to the inclusion of psychopathy as a specifier in future revisions of APD.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Am. Psychiatr. Assoc 2013. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Washington, DC: Am. Psychiatr. Assoc, 5th ed. [Google Scholar]
  2. Archer J, Graham-Kevan N, Davies M. 2005. Testosterone and aggression: a reanalysis of Book, Starzyk, and Quinsey's (2001) study. Aggress. Violent Behav. 10:2241–61 [Google Scholar]
  3. Astill RG, Van der Heijden KB, Van IJzendoorn MH, Van Someren EJW. 2012. Sleep, cognition, and behavioral problems in school-age children: a century of research meta-analyzed. Psychol. Bull. 138:61109–38 [Google Scholar]
  4. Barkataki I, Kumari V, Das M, Taylor P, Sharma T. 2006. Volumetric structural brain abnormalities in men with schizophrenia or antisocial personality disorder. Behav. Brain Res. 169:2239–47 [Google Scholar]
  5. Beach SRH, Brody GH, Todorov AA, Gunter TD, Philibert RA. 2011. Methylation at 5HTT mediates the impact of child sex abuse on women's antisocial behavior: an examination of the Iowa adoptee sample. Psychosom. Med. 73:183–87 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bechara A, Damasio H, Tranel D, Damasio AR. 1997. Deciding advantageously before knowing the advantageous strategy. Science 275:53041293–94 [Google Scholar]
  7. Berryessa CM, Milner LC, Garrison NA, Cho MK. 2015. Impact of psychiatric information on potential jurors in evaluating high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (hfASD). J. Ment. Health Res. Intellect. Disabil. 8:3–4140–67 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bishop D, Rutter M. 2008. Neurodevelopmental disorders: conceptual issues. Rutter's Child and Adolescent Psychiatry M Rutter, DVM Bishop, DS Pine, S Scott, J Stevenson, E Taylor, A Thapar 32–41 Oxford, UK: Blackwell [Google Scholar]
  9. Blair RJR. 2008. The amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex: functional contributions and dysfunction in psychopathy. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Biol. Sci. 363:15032557–65 [Google Scholar]
  10. Blair RJR. 2013. The neurobiology of psychopathic traits in youths. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 14:11786–99Review and synthesis of neurobiological research on conduct disorder, emphasizing the amygdala, striatum, and prefrontal cortex. [Google Scholar]
  11. Boivin MJ, Kakooza AM, Warf BC, Davidson LL, Grigorenko EL. 2015. Reducing neurodevelopmental disorders and disability through research and interventions. Nature 527:7578S155–60 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bos PA, Hofman D, Hermans EJ, Montoya ER, Baron-Cohen S, van Honk J. 2016. Testosterone reduces functional connectivity during the “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” test. Psychoneuroendocrinology 68:194–201 [Google Scholar]
  13. Brook M, Kosson DS. 2013. Impaired cognitive empathy in criminal psychopathy: evidence from a laboratory measure of empathic accuracy. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 122:1156–66 [Google Scholar]
  14. Bublitz MH, Stroud LR. 2012. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring brain structure and function: review and agenda for future research. Nicotine Tob. Res. 14:4388–97 [Google Scholar]
  15. Buckholtz JW, Treadway MT, Cowan RL, Woodward ND, Benning SD. et al. 2010. Mesolimbic dopamine reward system hypersensitivity in individuals with psychopathic traits. Nat. Neurosci. 13:4419–21 [Google Scholar]
  16. Casement MD, Guyer AE, Hipwell AE, McAloon RL, Hoffmann AM. et al. 2014. Girls' challenging social experiences in early adolescence predict neural response to rewards and depressive symptoms. Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 8:18–27 [Google Scholar]
  17. Caspi A, Moffitt TE. 2006. Opinion—gene-environment interactions in psychiatry: joining forces with neuroscience. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 7:7583–90 [Google Scholar]
  18. Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Newman DL, Silva PA. 1996. Behavioral observations at age 3 years predict adult psychiatric disorders. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 53:1033–39Seminal findings on early disinhibition as a risk factor for APD. [Google Scholar]
  19. Cecil KM, Brubaker CJ, Adler CM, Dietrich KN, Altaye M. et al. 2008. Decreased brain volume in adults with childhood lead exposure. PLOS Med 5:5741–50 [Google Scholar]
  20. Checknita D, Maussion G, Labonte B, Comai S, Tremblay RE. et al. 2015. Monoamine oxidase A gene promoter methylation and transcriptional downregulation in an offender population with antisocial personality disorder. Br. J. Psychiatry 206:3216–22 [Google Scholar]
  21. Choy O, Raine A, Hamilton RH. 2016. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex modulates criminal intent: preliminary evidence from a randomized controlled trial Presented at Stockholm Criminol. Symp Stockholm: [Google Scholar]
  22. Dadds MR, Moul C, Cauchi A, Dobson-Stone C, Hawes DJ. et al. 2014. Methylation of the oxytocin receptor gene and oxytocin blood levels in the development of psychopathy. Dev. Psychopathol. 26:133–40 [Google Scholar]
  23. Damasio A. 1994. Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain New York: GP Putnam's Sons [Google Scholar]
  24. Decety J, Chen LR, Harenski C, Kiehl KA. 2013. An fMRI study of affective perspective taking in individuals with psychopathy: Imagining another in pain does not evoke empathy. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 7:489 [Google Scholar]
  25. Ducharme S, Hudziak JJ, Botteron KN, Ganjavi H, Lepage C. et al. 2011. Right anterior cingulate cortical thickness and bilateral striatal volume correlate with Child Behavior Checklist aggressive behavior scores in healthy children. Biol. Psychiatry 70:3283–90 [Google Scholar]
  26. Duke AA, Begue L, Bell R, Eisenlohr-Moul T. 2013. Revisiting the serotonin-aggression relation in humans: a meta-analysis. Psychol. Bull. 139:51148–72 [Google Scholar]
  27. Esbensen AJ, Schwichtenberg AJ. 2016. Sleep in neurodevelopmental disorders. Int. Rev. Res. Dev. Disabil. 51:153–91 [Google Scholar]
  28. Fairchild G, Passamonti L, Hurford G, Hagan CC, von dem Hagen EAH. et al. 2011. Brain structure abnormalities in early-onset and adolescent-onset conduct disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry 168:6624–33 [Google Scholar]
  29. Fazel S, Lichtenstein P, Grann M, Langstrom N. 2011. Risk of violent crime in individuals with epilepsy and traumatic brain injury: a 35-year Swedish population study. PLOS Med 8:12e1001150 [Google Scholar]
  30. Frick PJ, Cornell AH, Bodin SD, Dane HE, Barry CT, Loney BR. 2003. Callous-unemotional traits and developmental pathways to severe conduct problems. Dev. Psychol. 39:2246–60 [Google Scholar]
  31. Gajos JM, Beaver KM. 2016. The effect of omega-3 fatty acids on aggression: a meta-analysis. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 69:147–58 [Google Scholar]
  32. Gao Y, Glenn AL, Schug RA, Yang YL, Raine A. 2009. The neurobiology of psychopathy: a neurodevelopmental perspective. Can. J. Psychiatry 54:12813–23 [Google Scholar]
  33. Gao Y, Raine A, Venables PH, Dawson ME, Mednick SA. 2010. Association of poor childhood fear conditioning and adult crime. Am. J. Psychiatry 167:156–60 [Google Scholar]
  34. Genkinger JM, Stigter L, Jedrychowski W, Huang TJ, Wang S. et al. 2015. Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure, antioxidant levels and behavioral development of children ages 6–9. Environ. Res. 140:136–44 [Google Scholar]
  35. Gibbon S, Duggan C, Stoffers J, Huband N, Vollm BA. et al. 2010. Psychological interventions for antisocial personality disorder. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 6:CD007558 [Google Scholar]
  36. Glenn AL, Raine A. 2014. Neurocriminology: implications for the punishment, prediction and prevention of criminal behaviour. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 15:154–63Highlights early risk factors for crime, with ethical and legal implications. [Google Scholar]
  37. Glenn AL, Raine A, Yaralian PS, Yang YL. 2010. Increased volume of the striatum in psychopathic individuals. Biol. Psychiatry 67:152–58 [Google Scholar]
  38. Goldstein AN, Walker MP. 2014. The role of sleep in emotional brain function. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 10:679–708 [Google Scholar]
  39. Grafman J, Schwab K, Warden D, Pridgen A, Brown HR, Salazar AM. 1996. Frontal lobe injuries, violence, and aggression: a report of the Vietnam Head Injury Study. Neurology 46:1231–38 [Google Scholar]
  40. Gregory S, ffytche D, Simmons A, Kumari V, Howard M. et al. 2012. The antisocial brain: Psychopathy matters. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 69:9962–72 [Google Scholar]
  41. Guillemin C, Provencal N, Suderman M, Cote SM, Vitaro F. et al. 2014. DNA methylation signature of childhood chronic physical aggression in T cells of both men and women. PLOS ONE 9:1e86822 [Google Scholar]
  42. Haghighi A, Schwartz DH, Abrahamowicz M, Leonard GT, Perron M. et al. 2013. Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking, amygdala volume, and fat intake in adolescence. JAMA Psychiatry 70:198–105 [Google Scholar]
  43. Hanson JL, Nacewicz BM, Sutterer MJ, Cayo AA, Schaefer SM. et al. 2015. Behavioral problems after early life stress: contributions of the hippocampus and amygdala. Biol. Psychiatry 77:314–23 [Google Scholar]
  44. Herpers PCM, Scheepers FE, Bons DMA, Buitelaar JK, Rommelse NNJ. 2014. The cognitive and neural correlates of psychopathy and especially callous-unemotional traits in youths: a systematic review of the evidence. Dev. Psychopathol. 26:1245–73 [Google Scholar]
  45. Hofvander B, Delorme R, Chaste P, Nyden A, Wentz E. et al. 2009. Psychiatric and psychosocial problems in adults with normal-intelligence autism spectrum disorders. BMC Psychiatry 9:35 [Google Scholar]
  46. Holzel BK, Carmody J, Vangel M, Congleton C, Yerramsetti SM. et al. 2011. Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Res. Neuroimaging 191:136–43 [Google Scholar]
  47. Hyde LW, Byrd AL, Votruba-Drzal E, Hariri AR, Manuck SB. 2014. Amygdala reactivity and negative emotionality: divergent correlates of antisocial personality and psychopathy traits in a community sample. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 123:1214–24Highlights important differences between APD and psychopathy in relation to negative emotionality and amygdala reactivity. [Google Scholar]
  48. Jiang WX, Li G, Liu HS, Shi F, Wang T. et al. 2016. Reduced cortical thickness and increased surface area in antisocial personality disorder. Neuroscience 337:143–52 [Google Scholar]
  49. Jiang WX, Shi F, Liu HS, Li G, Ding ZX. et al. 2017. Reduced white matter integrity in antisocial personality disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Sci. Rep. 7:43002 [Google Scholar]
  50. Joseph J, Warton C, Jacobson SW, Jacobson JL, Molteno CD. et al. 2014. Three-dimensional surface deformation-based shape analysis of hippocampus and caudate nucleus in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Hum. Brain Mapp. 35:2659–72 [Google Scholar]
  51. Khalifa N, Duggan C, Stoffers J, Huband N, Vollm BA. et al. 2010. Pharmacological interventions for antisocial personality disorder. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 8:CD007667 [Google Scholar]
  52. Kiehl KA. 2006. A cognitive neuroscience perspective on psychopathy: evidence for paralimbic system dysfunction. Psychiatry Res 142:2–3107–28 [Google Scholar]
  53. Kirk U, Brown KW, Downar J. 2015. Adaptive neural reward processing during anticipation and receipt of monetary rewards in mindfulness meditators. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 10:5752–59 [Google Scholar]
  54. Klein RG, Mannuzza S, Olazagasti MAR, Roizen E, Hutchison JA. et al. 2012. Clinical and functional outcome of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 33 years later. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 69:121295–303 [Google Scholar]
  55. Koenigs M, Baskin-Sommers A, Zeier J, Newman JP. 2011. Investigating the neural correlates of psychopathy: a critical review. Mol. Psychiatry 16:8792–99 [Google Scholar]
  56. Kolla NJ, Matthews B, Wilson AA, Houle S, Bagby RM. et al. 2015. Lower monoamine oxidase-A total distribution volume in impulsive and violent male offenders with antisocial personality disorder and high psychopathic traits: an [(11)C] harmine positron emission tomography study. Neuropsychopharmacology 40:112596–603 [Google Scholar]
  57. Kopsida E, Berrebi J, Petrovic P, Ingvar M. 2016. Testosterone administration related differences in brain activation during the ultimatum game. Front. Neurosci. 10:66 [Google Scholar]
  58. Krueger RF, Hicks BM, Patrick CJ, Carlson SR, Iacono WG, McGue M. 2002. Etiologic connections among substance dependence, antisocial behavior, and personality: modeling the externalizing spectrum. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 111:3411–24 [Google Scholar]
  59. Kumari V, Das M, Taylor PJ, Barkataki I, Andrew C. et al. 2009. Neural and behavioural responses to threat in men with a history of serious violence and schizophrenia or antisocial personality disorder. Schizophr. Res. 110:1–347–58 [Google Scholar]
  60. Kumari V, Uddin S, Premkumar P, Young S, Gudjonsson GH. et al. 2014. Lower anterior cingulate volume in seriously violent men with antisocial personality disorder or schizophrenia and a history of childhood abuse. Aust. N. Z. J. Psychiatry 48:2153–61 [Google Scholar]
  61. Larkby CA, Goldschmidt L, Hanusa BH, Day NL. 2011. Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with conduct disorder in adolescence: findings from a birth cohort. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 50:3262–71 [Google Scholar]
  62. Li XR, Lu ZL, D'Argembeau A, Ng M, Bechara A. 2010. The Iowa gambling task in fMRI images. Hum. Brain Mapp. 31:3410–23 [Google Scholar]
  63. Liljegren M, Naasan G, Temlett J, Perry DC, Rankin KP. et al. 2015. Criminal behavior in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease. JAMA Neurol 72:3295–300 [Google Scholar]
  64. Liu JH. 2011. Early health risk factors for violence: conceptualization, evidence, and implications. Aggress. Violent Behav. 16:163–73Argues that crime and violence are a public health problem, focusing on very early health risk factors. [Google Scholar]
  65. Liu JH, Hanlon A, Ma CJ, Zhao SR, Cao SY, Compher C. 2014. Low blood zinc, iron, and other socio-demographic factors associated with behavior problems in preschoolers. Nutrients 6:2530–45 [Google Scholar]
  66. Liu JH, Raine A, Venables PH, Dalais C, Mednick SA. 2004. Malnutrition at age 3 years and externalizing behavior problems at ages 8, 11 and 17 years. Am. J. Psychiatry 161:2005–13 [Google Scholar]
  67. Liu JH, Raine A, Wuerker A, Venables PH, Mednick S. 2009. The association of birth complications and externalizing behavior in early adolescents: direct and mediating effects. J. Res. Adolesc. 19:193–111 [Google Scholar]
  68. Liu JH, Zhao SR, Reyes T. 2015. Neurological and epigenetic implications of nutritional deficiencies on psychopathology: conceptualization and review of evidence. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 16:818129–48 [Google Scholar]
  69. Loeber R, Drinkwater M, Yin YM, Anderson SJ, Schmidt LC, Crawford A. 2000. Stability of family interaction from ages 6 to 18. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 28:353–69 [Google Scholar]
  70. Marsh AA, Blair RJR. 2008. Deficits in facial affect recognition among antisocial populations: a meta-analysis. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 32:3454–65 [Google Scholar]
  71. Marsh AA, Finger EC, Fowler KA, Jurkowitz IT, Schechter JC. et al. 2011. Reduced amygdala-orbitofrontal connectivity during moral judgments in youths with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits. Psychiatry Res. Neuroimaging 194:3279–86 [Google Scholar]
  72. Matthys W, Vanderschuren LJMJ, Schutter DJLG, Lochman JE. 2012. Impaired neurocognitive functions affect social learning processes in oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: implications for interventions. Clin. Child Fam. Psychol. Rev. 15:3234–46 [Google Scholar]
  73. McNamara RK, Able J, Jandacek R, Rider T, Tso P. et al. 2010. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation increases prefrontal cortex activation during sustained attention in healthy boys: a placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 91:41060–67 [Google Scholar]
  74. Meyer-Lindenberg A, Buckholtz JW, Kolachana B, Hariri AR, Pezawas L. et al. 2006. Neural mechanisms of genetic risk for impulsivity and violence in humans. PNAS 103:166269–74 [Google Scholar]
  75. Millan MJ. 2013. An epigenetic framework for neurodevelopmental disorders: from pathogenesis to potential therapy. Neuropharmacology 68:2–82 [Google Scholar]
  76. Moffitt TE. 1993. Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: a developmental taxonomy. Psychol. Rev. 100:4674–701 [Google Scholar]
  77. Moffitt TE, Beckley A. 2015. Abandon twin research? Embrace epigenetic research? Premature advice for criminologists. Criminology 53:1121–26 [Google Scholar]
  78. Moffitt TE, Caspi A, Rutter M, Silva PA. 2001. Sex Differences in Antisocial Behaviour: Conduct Disorder, Delinquency, and Violence in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  79. Moffitt TE, Houts R, Asherson P, Belsky DW, Corcoran DL. et al. 2015. Is adult ADHD a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder? Evidence from a four-decade longitudinal cohort study. Am. J. Psychiatry 172:10967–77Important challenge to the notion of continuity in ADHD from childhood to adulthood. [Google Scholar]
  80. Montoya ER, Terburg D, Bos PA, Will GJ, Buskens V. et al. 2013. Testosterone administration modulates moral judgments depending on second-to-fourth digit ratio. Psychoneuroendocrinology 38:81362–69 [Google Scholar]
  81. Morales S, Perez-Edgar K, Buss K. 2016. Longitudinal relations among exuberance, externalizing behaviors, and attentional bias to reward: the mediating role of effortful control. Dev. Sci. 19:5853–62 [Google Scholar]
  82. Narayan VM, Narr KL, Kumari V, Woods RP, Thompson PM. et al. 2007. Regional cortical thinning in subjects with violent antisocial personality disorder or schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 164:91418–27 [Google Scholar]
  83. Neugebauer R, Hoek HW, Susser E. 1999. Prenatal exposure to wartime famine and development of antisocial personality disorder in early adulthood. JAMA 282:5455–62 [Google Scholar]
  84. O'Brien BS, Frick PJ. 1996. Reward dominance: associations with anxiety, conduct problems, and psychopathy in children. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 24:2223–40 [Google Scholar]
  85. O'Brien TC, Mustanski BS, Skol A, Cook EH, Wakschlag LS. 2013. Do dopamine gene variants and prenatal smoking interactively predict youth externalizing behavior. ? Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 40:67–73 [Google Scholar]
  86. Ogilvie JM, Stewart AL, Chan RCK, Shum DHK. 2011. Neuropsychological measures of executive function and antisocial behavior: a meta-analysis. Criminology 49:41063–107 [Google Scholar]
  87. Olds D, Henderson CRJ, Cole R, Eckenrode J, Kitzman H. et al. 1998. Long-term effects of nurse home visitation on children's criminal and antisocial behavior: 15-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 280:141238–44 [Google Scholar]
  88. Olfson M, King M, Schoenbaum M. 2015. Treatment of young people with antipsychotic medications in the United States. JAMA Psychiatry 72:9867–74 [Google Scholar]
  89. Orff HJ, Ayalon L, Drummond SPA. 2009. Traumatic brain injury and sleep disturbance: a review of current research. J. Head Trauma Rehabil. 24:3155–65 [Google Scholar]
  90. Pansky B, Allen DJ, Budd GC. 1988. Review of Neuroscience New York: Macmillan [Google Scholar]
  91. Pappadopulos E, Woolston S, Chait A, Perkins M, Conor DF, Jensen PS. 2006. Pharmacotherapy of aggression in children and adolescents: efficacy and effect size. J. Can. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 15:27–39 [Google Scholar]
  92. Pardini DA, Raine A, Erickson K, Loeber R. 2014. Lower amygdala volume in men is associated with childhood aggression, early psychopathic traits, and future violence. Biol. Psychiatry 75:173–80 [Google Scholar]
  93. Patrick CJ. 2007. Antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. Handbook of Personality Disorders W O'Donohue, KA Fowler, SO Lilienfeld 109–66 New York: SageHighlights important similarities and differences between APD and psychopathy. [Google Scholar]
  94. Peterson BS, Rauh VA, Bansal R, Hao XJ, Toth Z. et al. 2015. Effects of prenatal exposure to air pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) on the development of brain white matter, cognition, and behavior in later childhood. JAMA Psychiatry 72:6531–40 [Google Scholar]
  95. Pratt TC, Turanovic JJ, Cullen FT. 2016. Revisiting the criminological consequences of exposure to fetal testosterone: a meta-analysis of the 2D:4D digit ratio. Criminology 54:4587–620 [Google Scholar]
  96. Provencal N, Suderman MJ, Guillemin C, Vitaro F, Cote SM. et al. 2014. Association of childhood chronic physical aggression with a DNA methylation signature in adult human T cells. PLOS ONE 9:4e89839 [Google Scholar]
  97. Pujara M, Motzkin JC, Newman JP, Kiehl KA, Koenigs M. 2014. Neural correlates of reward and loss sensitivity in psychopathy. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 9:6794–801 [Google Scholar]
  98. Raine A. 2002. Biosocial studies of antisocial and violent behavior in children and adults: a review. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 30:4311–26 [Google Scholar]
  99. Raine A. 2006. Schizotypal personality: neurodevelopmental and psychosocial trajectories. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 2:291–326 [Google Scholar]
  100. Raine A. 2013. The Anatomy of Violence: The Biological Roots of Crime New York: Pantheon BooksOverarching review of biological research on antisocial and violent behavior, with a discussion of clinical, ethical, and forensic implications. [Google Scholar]
  101. Raine A, Lee L, Yang YL, Colleti P. 2010. Neurodevelopmental marker for limbic maldevelopment in antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. Br. J. Psychiatry 197:3186–92 [Google Scholar]
  102. Raine A, Mellingen K, Liu JH, Venables P, Mednick SA. 2003. Effects of environmental enrichment at ages 3–5 years on schizotypal personality and antisocial behavior at ages 17 and 23 years. Am. J. Psychiatry 160:91627–35 [Google Scholar]
  103. Raine A, Portnoy J, Liu JH, Mahoomed T, Hibbeln JR. 2015. Reduction in behavior problems with omega-3 supplementation in children aged 8–16 years: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, stratified, parallel-group trial. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 56:5509–20 [Google Scholar]
  104. Raine A, Venables PH. 2017. Adolescent daytime sleepiness as a risk factor for adult crime. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 58:6728–35 [Google Scholar]
  105. Raine A, Venables PH, Dalais C, Mellingen K, Reynolds C, Mednick SA. 2001. Early educational and health enrichment at age 3–5 years is associated with increased autonomic and central nervous system arousal and orienting at age 11 years: evidence from the Mauritius Child Health Project. Psychophysiology 38:2254–66 [Google Scholar]
  106. Raine A, Yang Y. 2006. Neural foundations to moral reasoning and antisocial behavior. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 1:203–13 [Google Scholar]
  107. Raine A, Yang Y, Narr KL, Toga AW. 2011. Sex differences in orbitofrontal gray as a partial explanation for sex differences in antisocial personality. Mol. Psychiatry 16:2227–36 [Google Scholar]
  108. Raine A, Yaralian PS, Reynolds C, Venables PH, Mednick SA. 2002. Spatial but not verbal cognitive deficits at age 3 years in persistently antisocial individuals. Dev. Psychopathol. 14:25–44 [Google Scholar]
  109. Rautiainen MR, Paunio T, Repo-Tiihonen E, Virkkunen M, Ollila HM. et al. 2016. Genome-wide association study of antisocial personality disorder. Transl. Psychiatry 6:e883 [Google Scholar]
  110. Rosenstrom T, Ystrom E, Torvik FA, Czajkowski NO, Gillespie NA. et al. 2017. Genetic and environmental structure of DSM-IV criteria for antisocial personality disorder: a twin study. Behav. Genet. 47:3265–77 [Google Scholar]
  111. Sadeh A, De Marcas G, Guri Y, Berger A, Tikotzky L, Bar-Haim Y. 2015. Infant sleep predicts attention regulation and behavior problems at 3–4 years of age. Dev. Neuropsychol. 40:3122–37 [Google Scholar]
  112. Samuelson M, Carmody J, Kabat-Zinn J, Bratt MA. 2007. Mindfulness-based stress reduction in Massachusetts correctional facilities. Prison J 87:2254–68 [Google Scholar]
  113. Sarkar S, Dell'Acqua F, Walsh SF, Blackwood N, Scott S. et al. 2016. A whole-brain investigation of white matter microstructure in adolescents with conduct disorder. PLOS ONE 11:6e0155475 [Google Scholar]
  114. Sarwar M. 1989. The septum pellucidum: normal and abnormal. Am. J. Neuroradiol. 10:989–1005 [Google Scholar]
  115. Semiz UB, Algul A, Basoglu C, Ates MA, Ebrinc S. et al. 2008. The relationship between subjective sleep quality and aggression in male subjects with antisocial personality disorder. Turk. J. Psychiatry 19:4373–81 [Google Scholar]
  116. Shao YC, Lei Y, Wang LB, Zhai TY, Jin X. et al. 2014. Altered resting-state amygdala functional connectivity after 36 hours of total sleep deprivation. PLOS ONE 9:11e112222 [Google Scholar]
  117. Storebo OJ, Simonsen E. 2016. The association between ADHD and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD): a review. J. Atten. Disord. 20:10815–24 [Google Scholar]
  118. Swayze VW, Johnson VP, Hanson JW, Piven J, Sato Y. et al. 2006. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain anomalies in fetal alcohol syndrome. Pediatrics 99:232–40 [Google Scholar]
  119. Timonen M, Miettunen J, Hakko H, Zitting P, Veijola J. et al. 2002. The association of preceding traumatic brain injury with mental disorders, alcoholism and criminality: the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study. Psychiatry Res 113:3217–26 [Google Scholar]
  120. Toro R, Leonard G, Lerner JV, Lerner RM, Perron M. et al. 2008. Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and the adolescent cerebral cortex. Neuropsychopharmacology 33:51019–27 [Google Scholar]
  121. Tottenham N, Galvan A. 2016. Stress and the adolescent brain: amygdala-prefrontal cortex circuitry and ventral striatum as developmental targets. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 70:217–27 [Google Scholar]
  122. Treit S, Lebel C, Baugh L, Rasmussen C, Andrew G, Beaulieu C. 2013. Longitudinal MRI reveals altered trajectory of brain development during childhood and adolescence in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. J. Neurosci. 33:2410098–109 [Google Scholar]
  123. Tremblay RE. 2010. Developmental origins of disruptive behaviour problems: the “original sin” hypothesis, epigenetics and their consequences for prevention. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 51:4341–67Highlights the importance of early epigenetic research for understanding conduct disorder. [Google Scholar]
  124. Tuvblad C, Bezdjian S, Raine A, Baker LA. 2014. The heritability of psychopathic personality in 14- to 15-year-old twins: a multirater, multimeasure approach. Psychol. Assess. 26:3704–16 [Google Scholar]
  125. Vassos E, Collier DA, Fazel S. 2014. Systematic meta-analyses and field synopsis of genetic association studies of violence and aggression. Mol. Psychiatry 19:4471–77 [Google Scholar]
  126. Viding E, Blair RJR, Moffitt TE, Plomin R. 2005. Evidence for substantial genetic risk for psychopathy in 7-year-olds. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 46:6592–97 [Google Scholar]
  127. Wakschlag L, Perlman S, Blair J, Leibenluft E, Briggs-Gowan M, Pine D. 2017. The neurodevelopmental basis of early childhood disruptive behavior: irritable and callous phenotypes as exemplars. Am. J. Psychiatry. In pressArgues that early disruptive behavior should be reclassified as a neurodevelopmental disorder. [Google Scholar]
  128. Wang DS, Szyf M, Benkelfat C, Provencal N, Turecki G. et al. 2012. Peripheral SLC6A4 DNA methylation is associated with in vivo measures of human brain serotonin synthesis and childhood physical aggression. PLOS ONE 7:6e39501 [Google Scholar]
  129. White SF, Brislin S, Sinclair S, Fowler KA, Pope K, Blair R. 2013. The relationship between large cavum septum pellucidum and antisocial behavior, callous-unemotional traits and psychopathy in adolescents. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 54:5575–81 [Google Scholar]
  130. Widiger TA. 2006. Psychopathy and DSM-IV psychopathology. Handbook of Psychopathy CJ Patrick 156–71 New York: GuilfordPerspective of co-occurrence of APD with psychopathy and their similarity in DSM. [Google Scholar]
  131. Wilson HA. 2014. Can antisocial personality disorder be treated? A meta-analysis examining the effectiveness of treatment in reducing recidivism for individuals diagnosed with ASPD. Int. J. Forensic Ment. Health 13:136–46 [Google Scholar]
  132. Yang YL, Joshi AA, Joshi SH, Baker LA, Narr KL. et al. 2012. Genetic and environmental influences on cortical thickness among 14-year-old twins. Neuroreport 23:12702–6 [Google Scholar]
  133. Yang YL, Narr KL, Baker LA, Joshi SH, Jahanshad N. et al. 2015. Frontal and striatal alterations associated with psychopathic traits in adolescents. Psychiatry Res. Neuroimaging 231:3333–40 [Google Scholar]
  134. Yang YL, Raine A. 2009. Prefrontal structural and functional brain imaging findings in antisocial, violent, and psychopathic individuals: a meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res. Neuroimaging 174:281–88 [Google Scholar]
  135. Yang YL, Raine A, Narr KL, Colletti P, Toga AW. 2009. Localization of deformations within the amygdala in individuals with psychopathy. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 66:9986–94 [Google Scholar]
  136. Yoo SS, Gujar N, Hu P, Jolesz FA, Walker MP. 2007. The human emotional brain without sleep: a prefrontal amygdala disconnect. Curr. Biol. 17:20R877–78 [Google Scholar]
  137. Yorifuji T, Kashima S, Diez MH, Kado Y, Sanada S, Doi H. 2017. Prenatal exposure to outdoor air pollution and child behavioral problems at school age in Japan. Environ. Int. 99:192–98 [Google Scholar]
  138. Zhang HM, Yolton K, Webster GM, Sjodin A, Calafat AM. et al. 2017. Prenatal PBDE and PCB exposures and reading, cognition, and externalizing behavior in children. Environ. Health Perspect. 125:4746–52 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error