1932

Abstract

Terrestrial plants have transformed Earth's surface environments by altering water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. Studying vegetation-climate interaction in deep time has necessarily relied on modern-plant analogs to represent paleo-ecosystems—as methods for reconstructing paleo- and, in particular, extinct-plant function were lacking. This approach is potentially compromised given that plant physiology has evolved through time, and some paleo-plants have no clear modern analog. Advancements in the quantitative reconstruction of whole-plant function provide new opportunities to replace modern-plant analogs and capture age-specific vegetation-climate interactions. Here, we review recent investigations of paleo-plant performance through the integration of fossil and geologic data with process-based ecosystem- to Earth system–scale models to explore how early vascular plants responded to and influenced climate. First, we present an argument for characterizing extinct plants in terms of ecological and evolutionary theory to provide a framework for advancing reconstructed vegetation-climate interactions in deep time. We discuss the novel mechanistic understanding provided by applying these approaches to plants of the late Paleozoic ever-wet tropics and at higher latitudes. Finally, we discuss preliminary applications to paleo-plants in a state-of-the-art Earth system model to highlight the potential implications of different plant functional strategies on our understanding of vegetation-climate interactions in deep time.

  • ▪  For hundreds of millions of years, plants have been a keystone in maintaining the status of Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and climate.
  • ▪  Extinct plants have functioned differently across time, limiting our understanding of how processes on Earth interact to produce climate.
  • ▪  New methods, reviewed here, allow quantitative reconstruction of extinct-plant function based on the fossil record.
  • ▪  Integrating extinct plants into ecosystem and climate models will expand our understanding of vegetation's role in past environmental change.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-earth-080222-082017
2023-05-31
2024-06-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/earth/51/1/annurev-earth-080222-082017.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-earth-080222-082017&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Adams JM. 2010. Vegetation-Climate Interaction: How Plants Make the Global Environment New York: Springer. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Agustsdottir AM, Barron EJ, Bice KL, Colarusso LA, Cookman JL et al. 1999. Storm activity in ancient climates: 1. Sensitivity of severe storms to climate forcing factors on geologic timescales. J. Geophys. Res. 104:D2227277–93
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Algeo TJ, Scheckler SE. 1998. Terrestrial-marine teleconnections in the Devonian: links between the evolution of land plants, weathering processes, and marine anoxic events. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 353:1365113–30
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Algeo TJ, Scheckler SE, Maynard JB. 2001. Effects of the Middle to Late Devonian spread of vascular land plants on weathering regimes, marine biotas, and global climate. Plants Invade the Land, ed. PG Gensel, D Edwards 213–36. New York: Columbia Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Avila RT, Guan X, Kane CN, Cardoso AA, Batz TA et al. 2022. Xylem embolism spread is largely prevented by interconduit pit membranes until the majority of conduits are gas-filled. Plant Cell Environ. 45:41204–15
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Baker SJ, Dewhirst RA, McElwain JC, Haworth M, Belcher CM. 2022. CO2-induced biochemical changes in leaf volatiles decreased fire-intensity in the run-up to the Triassic–Jurassic boundary. New Phytol. 235:41442–54
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bateman RM, Crane PR, DiMichele WA, Kenrick PR, Rowe NP et al. 1998. Early evolution of land plants: phylogeny, physiology, and ecology of the primary terrestrial radiation. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 29:263–92
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Beerling DJ, Berner RA. 2000. Impact of a Permo-Carboniferous high O2 event on the terrestrial carbon cycle. PNAS 97:2312428–32
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Beerling DJ, Woodward FI, Lomas MR, Wills MA, Quick WP, Valdes PJ. 1998. The influence of Carboniferous palaeoatmospheres on plant function: an experimental and modelling assessment. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 353:1365131–40
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Behrensmeyer AK, Kidwell SM, Gastaldo RA. 2000. Taphonomy and paleobiology. Paleobiology 26:S4103–47
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Belcher CM, Mills BJW, Vitali R, Baker SJ, Lenton TM, Watson AJ. 2021. The rise of angiosperms strengthened fire feedbacks and improved the regulation of atmospheric oxygen. Nat. Commun. 12:1503
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bjorkman AD, Myers-Smith IH, Elmendorf SC, Normand S, Rüger N et al. 2018. Plant functional trait change across a warming tundra biome. Nature 562:772557–62
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Blonder B, Royer DL, Johnson KR, Miller I, Enquist BJ. 2014. Plant ecological strategies shift across the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. PLOS Biol. 12:9e1001949
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bonan GB, Lawrence PJ, Oleson KW, Levis S, Jung M et al. 2011. Improving canopy processes in the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) using global flux fields empirically inferred from FLUXNET data. J. Geophys. Res. 116:G2G02014
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bouda M, Hugget BA, Prats KA, Wason JW, Wilson JP, Brodersen CR. 2022. Hydraulic failure as a primary driver of xylem network evolution in early vascular plants. Science 378:6620642–46
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Boyce CK, Brodribb TJ, Feild TS, Zwieniecki MA. 2009. Angiosperm leaf vein evolution was physiologically and environmentally transformative. Proc. R. Soc. B 276:16631771–76
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Boyce CK, Lee J-E, Feild TS, Brodribb TJ, Zwieniecki MA. 2010. Angiosperms helped put the rain in the rainforests: the impact of plant physiological evolution on tropical biodiversity. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 97:4527–40
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Boyce CK, Zwieniecki MA. 2019. The prospects for constraining productivity through time with the whole-plant physiology of fossils. New Phytol. 223:140–49
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Brodribb TJ, Feild TS, Jordan GJ. 2007. Leaf maximum photosynthetic rate and venation are linked by hydraulics. Plant Physiol. 144:41890–98
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Brodribb TJ, McAdam SAM. 2011. Passive origins of stomatal control in vascular plants. Science 331:582–85
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Buckley TN. 2017. Modeling stomatal conductance. Plant Physiol. 174:2572–82
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Butrim MJ, Royer DL, Miller IM, Dechesne M, Neu-Yagle N et al. 2022. No consistent shift in leaf dry mass per area across the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. Front. Plant Sci. 13:894690
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Campbell GS, Norman JM. 1998. An Introduction to Environmental Biophysics New York: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Carvalho MR, Jaramillo C, de la Parra F, Caballero-Rodríguez D, Herrera F et al. 2021. Extinction at the end-Cretaceous and the origin of modern Neotropical rainforests. Science 372:653763–68
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Cheesman AW, Duff H, Hill K, Cernusak LA, McInerney FA. 2020. Isotopic and morphologic proxies for reconstructing light environment and leaf function of fossil leaves: a modern calibration in the Daintree Rainforest, Australia. Am. J. Bot. 107:81165–76
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Chen B, Chen J, Qie W, Huang P, He T et al. 2021. Was climatic cooling during the earliest Carboniferous driven by expansion of seed plants?. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 565:116953
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Cichan MA. 1986. Conductance in the wood of selected Carboniferous plants. Paleobiology 12:3302–10
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Cleal CJ, Thomas BA. 2005. Palaeozoic tropical rainforests and their effect on global climates: Is the past the key to the present?. Geobiology 3:113–31
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Coiro M, Barone Lumaga MR, Rudall PJ. 2021. Stomatal development in the cycad family Zamiaceae. Ann. Bot. 128:5577–88
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Collatz GJ, Ball JT, Grivet C, Berry JA. 1991. Physiological and environmental regulation of stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and transpiration: a model that includes a laminar boundary layer. Agric. Forest Meteorol. 54:2–4107–36
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Craine JM. 2005. Reconciling plant strategy theories of Grime and Tilman: reconciling plant strategy theories. J. Ecol. 93:61041–52
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Crane PR. 1985. Phylogenetic relationships in seed plants. Cladistics 1:4329–48
    [Google Scholar]
  33. D'Antonio MP, Ibarra DE, Boyce CK 2020. Land plant evolution decreased, rather than increased, weathering rates. Geology 48:129–33
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Davies NS, Gibling MR. 2011. Evolution of fixed-channel alluvial plains in response to Carboniferous vegetation. Nat. Geosci. 4:9629–33
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Decombeix A-L, Meyer-Berthaud B, Galtier J. 2011. Transitional changes in arborescent lignophytes at the Devonian–Carboniferous boundary. J. Geol. Soc. 168:2547–57
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Díaz S, Cabido M. 1997. Plant functional types and ecosystem function in relation to global change. J. Veg. Sci. 8:4463–74
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Díaz S, Kattge J, Cornelissen JHC, Wright IJ, Lavorel S et al. 2016. The global spectrum of plant form and function. Nature 529:7585167–71
    [Google Scholar]
  38. DiMichele WA. 2014. Wetland-dryland vegetational dynamics in the Pennsylvanian ice age tropics. Int. J. Plant Sci. 175:2123–64
    [Google Scholar]
  39. DiMichele WA, Gastaldo RA, Pfefferkorn HW. 2005. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 56:Suppl. I32–49
    [Google Scholar]
  40. DiMichele WA, Montañez IP, Poulsen CJ, Tabor NJ. 2009. Climate and vegetational regime shifts in the late Paleozoic ice age earth. Geobiology 7:2200–26
    [Google Scholar]
  41. DiMichele WA, Phillips TL. 1996. Climate change, plant extinctions and vegetational recovery during the Middle-Late Pennsylvanian transition: the case of tropical peat-forming environments in North America. Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Publ. 102:1201–21
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Donovan LA, Maherali H, Caruso CM, Huber H, de Kroon H. 2011. The evolution of the worldwide leaf economics spectrum. Trends Ecol. Evol. 26:288–95
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Doyle JA. 2006. Seed ferns and the origin of angiosperms. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 133:1169–209
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Doyle JA. 2008. Integrating molecular phylogenetic and paleobotanical evidence on origin of the flower. Int. J. Plant Sci. 169:7816–43
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Dunn RE, Stromberg CAE, Madden RH, Kohn MJ, Carlini AA. 2015. Linked canopy, climate, and faunal change in the Cenozoic of Patagonia. Science 347:6219258–61
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Edwards D, Li C-S, Raven JA. 2006. Tracheids in an early vascular plant: a tale of two branches. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 150:1115–30
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Falcon-Lang HJ, DiMichele WA 2010. What happened to the coal forests during Pennsylvanian glacial phases?. PALAIOS 25:9611–17
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Falcon-Lang HJ, Nelson WJ, Elrick S, Looy CV, Ames PR, DiMichele WA. 2009. Incised channel fills containing conifers indicate that seasonally dry vegetation dominated Pennsylvanian tropical lowlands. Geology 37:10923–26
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Falcon-Lang HJ, Scott AC. 2000. Upland ecology of some Late Carboniferous cordaitalean trees from Nova Scotia and England. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 156:3–4225–42
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Feild TS, Brodribb TJ, Iglesias A, Chatelet DS, Baresch A et al. 2011. Fossil evidence for Cretaceous escalation in angiosperm leaf vein evolution. PNAS 108:208363–66
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Franks PJ, Beerling DJ. 2009a. CO2-forced evolution of plant gas exchange capacity and water-use efficiency over the Phanerozoic. Geobiology 7:2227–36
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Franks PJ, Beerling DJ. 2009b. Maximum leaf conductance driven by CO2 effects on stomatal size and density over geologic time. PNAS 106:2510343–47
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Franks PJ, Farquhar GD. 2001. The effect of exogenous abscisic acid on stomatal development, stomatal mechanics, and leaf gas exchange in Tradescantia virginiana. Plant Physiol. 125:2935–42
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Friedman WE, Cook ME. 2000. The origin and early evolution of tracheids in vascular plants: integration of palaeobotanical and neobotanical data. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 355:1398857–68
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Galtier J, Meyer-Berthaud B. 2006. The diversification of early arborescent seed ferns. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 133:17–19
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Gerrienne P, Servais T, Vecoli M. 2016. Plant evolution and terrestrialization during Palaeozoic times—the phylogenetic context. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 227:4–18
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Gibbs MT, Rees PM, Kutzbach JE, Ziegler AM, Behling PJ, Rowley DB. 2002. Simulations of Permian climate and comparisons with climate-sensitive sediments. J. Geol. 110:133–55
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Gibling MR, Davies NS. 2012. Palaeozoic landscapes shaped by plant evolution. Nat. Geosci. 5:299–105
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Gibling MR, Davies NS, Falcon-Lang HJ, Bashforth AR, DiMichele WA et al. 2014. Palaeozoic co-evolution of rivers and vegetation: a synthesis of current knowledge. Proc. Geol. Assoc. 125:5–6524–33
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Goddéris Y, Donnadieu Y, Carretier S, Aretz M, Dera G et al. 2017. Onset and ending of the late Palaeozoic ice age triggered by tectonically paced rock weathering. Nat. Geosci. 10:5382–86
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Goddéris Y, Donnadieu Y, Mills BJW. 2023. What models tell us about the evolution of carbon sources and sinks over the Phanerozoic. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci 51:471–92
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Grier CG, Running SW. 1977. Leaf area of mature northwestern coniferous forests: relation to site water balance. Ecology 58:4893–99
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Grime JP. 1977. Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory. Am. Nat. 111:9821169–94
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Gurung K, Field KJ, Batterman SA, Goddéris Y, Donnadieu Y et al. 2022. Climate windows of opportunity for plant expansion during the Phanerozoic. Nat. Commun. 13:14530
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Haworth M, Gallagher A, Sum E, Hill-Donnelly M, Steinthorsdottir M, McElwain J. 2014. On the reconstruction of plant photosynthetic and stress physiology across the Triassic–Jurassic boundary. Turk. J. Earth Sci. 23:321–29
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Haworth M, Raschi A. 2014. An assessment of the use of epidermal micro-morphological features to estimate leaf economics of Late Triassic–Early Jurassic fossil Ginkgoales. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 205:1–8
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Heavens NG, Mahowald NM, Soreghan GS, Soreghan MJ, Shields CA. 2015. A model-based evaluation of tropical climate in Pangaea during the late Palaeozoic icehouse. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 425:109–27
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Horton DE, Poulsen CJ, Pollard D. 2010. Influence of high-latitude vegetation feedbacks on late Palaeozoic glacial cycles. Nat. Geosci. 3:8572–77
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Hurrell JW, Holland MM, Gent PR, Ghan S, Kay JE et al. 2013. The Community Earth System Model: a framework for collaborative research. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 94:91339–60
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Ibarra DE, Rugenstein JKC, Bachan A, Baresch A, Lau KV et al. 2019. Modeling the consequences of land plant evolution on silicate weathering. Am. J. Sci. 319:11–43
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Iqbal S, Wagreich M, Irfan UJ, Kuerschner WM, Gier S, Bibi M 2019. Hot-house climate during the Triassic/Jurassic transition: the evidence of climate change from the southern hemisphere (Salt Range, Pakistan). Glob. Planet. Change 172:15–32
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Jia G, Shevliakova E, Artaxo P, Noblet-Ducoudré ND, Houghton R et al. 2019. Land-climate interactions. Climate Change and Land: An IPCC Special Report on Climate Change, Desertification, Land Degradation, Sustainable Land Management, Food Security, and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Terrestrial Ecosystems PR Shukla, J Skea, E Calvo Buendia, V Masson-Delmotte, H-O Pörtner, et al. 133–206. Geneva: IPCC
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Kattge J, Díaz S, Lavorel S, Prentice IC, Leadley P et al. 2011. TRY—a global database of plant traits. Glob. Change Biol. 17:92905–35
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Kenrick P, Crane PR. 1997. The origin and early evolution of plants on land. Nature 389:664633–39
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Kenrick P, Wellman CH, Schneider H, Edgecombe GD. 2012. A timeline for terrestrialization: consequences for the carbon cycle in the Palaeozoic. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 367:1588519–36
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Krause AJ, Mills BJW, Zhang S, Planavsky NJ, Lenton TM, Poulton SW. 2018. Stepwise oxygenation of the Paleozoic atmosphere. Nat. Commun. 9:14081
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Kürschner WM. 1997. The anatomical diversity of recent and fossil leaves of the durmast oak (Quercus petraea Lieblein/Q. pseudocastanea Goeppert)—implications for their use as biosensors of palaeoatmospheric CO2 levels. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 96:1–21–30
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Kutzbach JE, Ziegler AM. 1993. Simulation of Late Permian climate and biomes with an atmosphere-ocean model: comparisons with observations. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 341:1297327–40
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Le Hir G, Donnadieu Y, Goddéris Y, Meyer-Berthaud B, Ramstein G, Blakey RC 2011. The climate change caused by the land plant invasion in the Devonian. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 310:3–4203–12
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Lenton TM, Dahl TW, Daines SJ, Mills BJW, Ozaki K et al. 2016. Earliest land plants created modern levels of atmospheric oxygen. PNAS 113:359704–9
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Lenton TM, Daines SJ, Mills BJW. 2018. COPSE reloaded: an improved model of biogeochemical cycling over Phanerozoic time. Earth-Sci. Rev. 178:1–28
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Li X, Hu Y, Guo J, Lan J, Lin Q et al. 2022. A high-resolution climate simulation dataset for the past 540 million years. Sci. Data 9:1371
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Little SA, Kembel SW, Wilf P. 2010. Paleotemperature proxies from leaf fossils reinterpreted in light of evolutionary history. PLOS ONE 5:12e15161
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Looy CV. 2007. Extending the range of derived Late Paleozoic conifers: Lebowskia gen. nov. (Majonicaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 168:6957–72
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Lugo AE, Brown SL, Dodson R, Smith TS, Shugart HH. 1999. The Holdridge life zones of the conterminous United States in relation to ecosystem mapping. J. Biogeogr. 26:51025–38
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Macarewich S. 2021. Modeling ocean dynamics and vegetation-climate interactions under evolving CO2 during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age PhD Thesis Univ. Michigan Ann Arbor, MI:
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Macarewich SI, Poulsen CJ, Montañez IP. 2021. Simulation of oxygen isotopes and circulation in a late Carboniferous epicontinental sea with implications for proxy records. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 559:116770
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Maffre P, Godderis Y, Pohl A, Donnadieu Y, Carretier S, Le Hir G 2022. The complex response of continental silicate rock weathering to the colonization of the continents by vascular plants in the Devonian. Am. J. Sci. 322:3461–92
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Major J. 1951. A functional, factorial approach to plant ecology. Ecology 32:3392–412
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Mander L, Kürschner WM, McElwain JC. 2013. Palynostratigraphy and vegetation history of the Triassic–Jurassic transition in East Greenland. J. Geol. Soc. 170:137–46
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Matthaeus WJ, Macarewich SI, Richey JD, Wilson JP, McElwain JC et al. 2021. Freeze tolerance influenced forest cover and hydrology during the Pennsylvanian. PNAS 118:42e2025227118
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Matthaeus WJ, Montañez IP, McElwain JC, Wilson JP, White JD. 2022. Stems matter: Xylem physiological limits are an accessible and critical improvement to models of plant gas exchange in deep time. Front. Ecol. Evol. 10:955066
    [Google Scholar]
  93. McAdam S, Brodribb TJ. 2012. Stomatal innovation and the rise of seed plants: evolution of water use efficiency. Ecol. Lett. 15:11–8
    [Google Scholar]
  94. McAdam S, Brodribb TJ. 2015. The evolution of mechanisms driving the stomatal response to vapor pressure deficit. Plant Physiol. 167:3833–43
    [Google Scholar]
  95. McElwain JC, Beerling DJ, Woodward FI. 1999. Fossil plants and global warming at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Science 285:54321386–90
    [Google Scholar]
  96. McElwain JC, Montañez I, White JD, Wilson JP, Yiotis C. 2016. Was atmospheric CO2 capped at 1000 ppm over the past 300 million years?. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 441:653–58
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Meyers PA, Leenheer MJ, Bourbonniere RA. 1995. Diagenesis of vascular plant organic matter components during burial in lake sediments. Aquat. Geochem. 1:35–52
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Mickle JE, Rothwell GW. 1982. Permineralized Alethopteris from the Upper Pennsylvanian of Ohio and Illinois. J. Paleontol. 56:2392–402
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Milligan JN, Flynn AG, Wagner JD, Kouwenberg LLR, Barclay RS et al. 2021. Quantifying the effect of shade on cuticle morphology and carbon isotopes of sycamores: present and past. Am. J. Bot. 108:122435–51
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Mills BJW, Krause AJ, Scotese CR, Hill DJ, Shields GA, Lenton TM. 2019. Modelling the long-term carbon cycle, atmospheric CO2, and Earth surface temperature from late Neoproterozoic to present day. Gondwana Res. 67:172–86
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Montañez IP. 2022. Current synthesis of the penultimate icehouse and its imprint on the Upper Devonian through Permian stratigraphic record. Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Publ. 512:1213–45
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Montañez IP, McElwain JC, Poulsen CJ, White JD, DiMichele WA et al. 2016. Climate, pCO2 and terrestrial carbon cycle linkages during late Palaeozoic glacial-interglacial cycles. Nat. Geosci. 9:11824–28
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Mösle B, Collinson ME, Scott AC, Finch P. 2002. Chemosystematic and microstructural investigations on Carboniferous seed plant cuticles from four North American localities. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 120:1–241–52
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Nicotra AB, Leigh A, Boyce CK, Jones CS, Niklas KJ et al. 2011. The evolution and functional significance of leaf shape in the angiosperms. Funct. Plant Biol. 38:7535–52
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Niklas KJ. 1985. The evolution of tracheid diameter in early vascular plants and its implications on the hydraulic conductance of the primary xylem strand. Evolution 39:51110–22
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Oleson KW, Lawrence DM, Flanner MG, Kluzek E, Levis S et al. 2010. Technical description of version 4.0 of the Community Land Model (CLM) NCAR Tech. Notes NCAR/TN-478+STR Natl. Cent. Atmos. Res. Boulder, CO:
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Otto-Bliesner BL. 2003. The role of mountains, polar ice, and vegetation in determining the tropical climate during the Middle Pennsylvanian: climate model simulations. Climate Controls on Stratigraphy CB Cecil, NT Edgar 227–37. Tulsa, OK: SEPM
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Phillips TL, DiMichele WA. 1992. Comparative ecology and life-history biology of arborescent lycopsids in Late Carboniferous swamps of Euramerica. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 79:3560–88
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Phillips TL, Peppers RA, Avcin MJ, Laughnan PF. 1974. Fossil plants and coal: patterns of change in Pennsylvanian coal swamps of the Illinois Basin. Science 184:41441367–69
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Phillips TL, Peppers RA, DiMichele WA. 1985. Stratigraphic and interregional changes in Pennsylvanian coal-swamp vegetation: environmental inferences. Int. J. Coal Geol. 5:1–243–109
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Pierce S, Cerabolini BEL. 2018. Plant economics and size trait spectra are both explained by one theory. Econ. Size Ecol. 2018:1–6
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Pittermann J. 2010. The evolution of water transport in plants: an integrated approach. Geobiology 8:2112–39
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Poorter H, Niinemets Ü, Poorter L, Wright IJ, Villar R. 2009. Causes and consequences of variation in leaf mass per area (LMA): a meta-analysis. New Phytol. 182:565–88
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Poulsen CJ, Pollard D, Montañez IP, Rowley D. 2007. Late Paleozoic tropical climate response to Gondwanan deglaciation. Geology 35:9771–74
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Poulsen CJ, Tabor C, White JD. 2015. Long-term climate forcing by atmospheric oxygen concentrations. Science 348:62401238–41
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Rees PM, Gibbs MT, Ziegler AM, Kutzbach JE, Behling PJ. 1999. Permian climates: evaluating model predictions using global paleobotanical data. Geology 27:10891–94
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Rees PM, Ziegler AM, Gibbs MT, Kutzbach JE, Behling PJ, Rowley DB. 2002. Permian phytogeographic patterns and climate data/model comparisons. J. Geol. 110:11–31
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Reich PB. 2014. The world-wide ‘fast-slow’ plant economics spectrum: a traits manifesto. J Ecol. 102:2275–301
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Reich PB, Wright IJ, Cavender-Bares J, Craine JM, Oleksyn J et al. 2003. The evolution of plant functional variation: traits, spectra, and strategies. Int. J. Plant Sci. 164:S3S143–64
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Richey JD, Montañez IP, Goddéris Y, Looy CV, Griffis NP, DiMichele WA. 2020. Influence of temporally varying weatherability on CO2-climate coupling and ecosystem change in the late Paleozoic. Clim. Past 16:51759–75
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Richey JD, Montañez IP, White JD, DiMichele WA, Matthaeus WJ et al. 2021. Modeled physiological mechanisms for observed changes in the late Paleozoic plant fossil record. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 562:110056
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Royer DL, Sack L, Wilf P, Lusk CH, Jordan GJ et al. 2007. Fossil leaf economics quantified: calibration, Eocene case study, and implications. Paleobiology 33:4574–89
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Royer DL, Wilf P, Janesko DA, Kowalski EA, Dilcher DL. 2005. Correlations of climate and plant ecology to leaf size and shape: potential proxies for the fossil record. Am. J. Bot. 92:71141–51
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Running SW, Hunt ER Jr. 1993. Generalization of a forest ecosystem process model for other biomes, BIOME-BGC, and an application for global-scale models. Scaling Physiological Processes: Leaf to Globe JR Ehleringer, CB Field 141–58. San Diego, CA: Academic
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Shukla PR, Skea J, Calvo Buendia E, Masson-Delmotte V, Pörtner H-O et al., eds. 2019. Climate Change and Land: An IPCC Special Report on Climate Change, Desertification, Land Degradation, Sustainable Land Management, Food Security, and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Terrestrial Ecosystems. Geneva: IPCC
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Soh WK, Wright IJ, Bacon KL, Lenz TI, Steinthorsdottir M et al. 2017. Palaeo leaf economics reveal a shift in ecosystem function associated with the end-Triassic mass extinction event. Nat. Plants 3:817104
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Sperry JS, Tyree MT. 1988. Mechanism of water stress-induced xylem embolism. Plant Physiol. 88:3581–87
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Spicer RA, Yang J, Spicer TEV, Farnsworth A. 2021. Woody dicot leaf traits as a palaeoclimate proxy: 100 years of development and application. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 562:110138
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Steinthorsdottir M, Woodward FI, Surlyk F, McElwain JC. 2012. Deep-time evidence of a link between elevated CO2 concentrations and perturbations in the hydrological cycle via drop in plant transpiration. Geology 40:9815–18
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Stewart WN, Delevoryas T. 1956. The medullosan pteridosperms. Bot. Rev. 22:145–80
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Tabor NJ, DiMichele WA, Montañez IP, Chaney DS. 2013. Late Paleozoic continental warming of a cold tropical basin and floristic change in western Pangea. Int. J. Coal Geol. 119:177–86
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Taylor TN, Taylor EL, Krings M. 2009. Paleobotany: The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants London: Academic. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Thompson SL, Pollard D. 1997. Greenland and Antarctic mass balances for present and doubled atmospheric CO2 from the GENESIS Version-2 global climate model. J. Clim. 10:5871–900
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Thornton PE, Law BE, Gholz HL, Clark KL, Falge E et al. 2002. Modeling and measuring the effects of disturbance history and climate on carbon and water budgets in evergreen needleleaf forests. Agricul. Forest Meteorol. 113:1–4185–222
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Tilman D. 1985. The resource-ratio hypothesis of plant succession. Am. Nat. 125:6827–52
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Vajda V, Pucetaite M, McLoughlin S, Engdahl A, Heimdal J, Uvdal P. 2017. Molecular signatures of fossil leaves provide unexpected new evidence for extinct plant relationships. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 1:81093–99
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Wade DC, Abraham NL, Farnsworth A, Valdes PJ, Bragg F, Archibald AT. 2019. Simulating the climate response to atmospheric oxygen variability in the Phanerozoic: a focus on the Holocene, Cretaceous and Permian. Clim. Past 15:41463–83
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Waters ER, Vierling E. 2020. Plant small heat shock proteins—evolutionary and functional diversity. New Phytol. 227:124–37
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Westoby M. 1998. A leaf-height-seed (LHS) plant ecology strategy scheme. Plant Soil 199:213–27
    [Google Scholar]
  140. White MA, Thornton PE, Running SW, Nemani R. 2000. Parameterization and sensitivity analysis of the BIOME–BGC terrestrial ecosystem model: net primary production controls. Earth Interact. 4:31–85
    [Google Scholar]
  141. White JD, Montañez IP, Wilson JP, McElwain JC, DiMichele WA et al. 2020. A process-based ecosystem model (Paleo-BGC) to simulate the dynamic response of Late Carboniferous plants to elevated O2 and aridification. Am. J. Sci. 320:547–98
    [Google Scholar]
  142. White JD, Scott NA. 2006. Specific leaf area and nitrogen distribution in New Zealand forests: Species independently respond to intercepted light. Forest Ecol. Manag. 226:1–3319–29
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Wilf P. 1997. When are leaves good thermometers? A new case for leaf margin analysis. Paleobiology 23:3373–90
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Wilson JP. 2013. Modeling 400 million years of plant hydraulics. Paleontol. Soc. Pap. 19:175–94
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Wilson JP, Fischer WW. 2011. Hydraulics of Asteroxylon mackei, an Early Devonian vascular plant, and the early evolution of water transport tissue in terrestrial plants. Geobiology 9:2121–30
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Wilson JP, Knoll AH. 2010. A physiologically explicit morphospace for tracheid-based water transport in modern and extinct seed plants. Paleobiology 36:2335–55
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Wilson JP, Knoll AH, Holbrook NM, Marshall CR. 2008. Modeling fluid flow in Medullosa, an anatomically unusual Carboniferous seed plant. Paleobiology 34:4472–93
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Wilson JP, Montañez IP, White JD, DiMichele WA, McElwain JC et al. 2017. Dynamic Carboniferous tropical forests: new views of plant function and potential for physiological forcing of climate. New Phytol. 215:41333–53
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Wilson JP, Oppler G, Reikowski L, Smart J, Marquardt J, Keller B. 2023. Physiological selectivity and plant-environment feedbacks during Middle and Late Pennsylvanian plant community transitions. Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Publ. 535: https://www.lyellcollection.org/doi/full/10.1144/SP535-2022-204
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Wilson JP, White JD, Dimichele WA, Hren MT, Poulsen CJ et al. 2015. Reconstructing extinct plant water use for understanding vegetation–climate feedbacks: methods, synthesis, and a case study using the Paleozoic-era medullosan seed ferns. Paleontol. Soc. Pap. 21:167–96
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Wilson JP, White JD, Montañez IP, DiMichele WA, McElwain JC et al. 2020. Carboniferous plant physiology breaks the mold. New Phytol. 227:3667–79
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Wing SL, DiMichele WA. 1992. Ecological characterization of fossil plants. Terrestrial Ecosystems Through Time: Evolutionary Paleoecology of Terrestrial Plants and Animals AK Behrensmeyer Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Wullschleger SD, Epstein HE, Box EO, Euskirchen ES, Goswami S et al. 2014. Plant functional types in Earth system models: past experiences and future directions for application of dynamic vegetation models in high-latitude ecosystems. Ann. Bot. 114:11–16
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Yang Y, Zhu Q, Peng C, Wang H, Chen H. 2015. From plant functional types to plant functional traits: a new paradigm in modelling global vegetation dynamics. Prog. Phys. Geogr. Earth Environ. 39:4514–35
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Yiotis C, McElwain JC. 2019. A novel hypothesis for the role of photosynthetic physiology in shaping macroevolutionary patterns. Plant Physiol. 181:31148–62
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-earth-080222-082017
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-earth-080222-082017
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error