▪ Abstract 

Manganese(IV) oxides produced through microbial activity, i.e., biogenic Mn oxides or Mn biooxides, are believed to be the most abundant and highly reactive Mn oxide phases in the environment. They mediate redox reactions with organic and inorganic compounds and sequester a variety of metals. The major pathway for bacterial Mn(II) oxidation is enzymatic, and although bacteria that oxidize Mn(II) are phylogenetically diverse, they require a multicopper oxidase-like enzyme to oxidize Mn(II). The oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(IV) occurs via a soluble or enzyme-complexed Mn(III) intermediate. The primary Mn(IV) biooxide formed is a phyllomanganate most similar to δ-MnO or acid birnessite. Metal sequestration by the Mn biooxides occurs predominantly at vacant layer octahedral sites.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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