Traumatic myiasis, the parasitic infestation by fly larvae in traumatic lesions of the tissues of living vertebrates, is a serious medical condition in humans and a welfare and economic issue in domestic animals. New molecular studies are providing insights into its evolution and epidemiology. Nevertheless, its incidence in humans is generally underreported, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Myiasis in domestic animals has been studied more extensively, but continuous management is difficult and expensive. A key concern is the inadvertent introduction and global spread of agents of myiasis into nonendemic areas, facilitated by climate change and global transport. The incursion of the New World screwworm fly () into Libya is the most notable of many such range shifts and demonstrates the potential risks of these parasites and the costs of removing them once established in a geographic area. Nevertheless, the insect agents of myiasis can be of societal benefit to forensic science and in medicine as an aid to wound treatment (larval therapy).


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Aak A, Birkemoe T, Knudsen GK. 1.  2011. Efficient mass trapping: catching the pest, Calliphora vicina, (Diptera: Calliphoridae), of Norwegian stockfish production. J. Chem. Ecol. 37:924–31 [Google Scholar]
  2. Abed-Benamara M, Achir I, Rodhain F, Perez-Eid C. 2.  1997. Premier cas algérian d'otomyiase humaine à Chrysomya bezziana. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. Fil. 90:172–75 [Google Scholar]
  3. Adhikari P, Pradhan B, Khanal S, Khalilulla S. 3.  2009. Nasopharyngeal myiasis: report of an unusual case with a brief review of literature. Internet J. Head Neck Surg. 4:4 [Google Scholar]
  4. Aggarwal A, Daniel MJ, Shetty RS, Kumar BN, Sumalatha CH. 4.  et al. 2014. Oral myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana in anterior maxilla. Case Rep. Dent. 2014:518427 [Google Scholar]
  5. Allen ML, Handler AM, Berkebile DR, Skoda SR. 5.  2004. PiggyBac transformation of the New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, produces multiple distinct mutant strains. Med. Vet. Entomol. 18:1–9 [Google Scholar]
  6. Al-Taweel AA, Okaily RA, Salman QS, Al-Temimi FA, Al-Adhadh BN. 6.  et al. 2014. Relative performance of surveys for the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, in Iraq based on fly trapping and myiasis monitoring. Acta Trop. 138:S56–61 [Google Scholar]
  7. Aly SM, Wen JF. 7.  2013. Applicability of partial characterization of cytochrome oxidase I in identification of forensically important flies (Diptera) from China and Egypt. Parasitol Res. 112:2667–74 [Google Scholar]
  8. Amendt J, Richards CS, Campobasso CP, Zehner R, Hall MJR. 8.  2011. Forensic entomology: applications and limitations. Forensic Sci. Med. Pathol. 7:379–92 [Google Scholar]
  9. 9. Animal Health Australia 2007. Disease Strategy: Screwworm fly (Version 3.0) Australian Veterinary Emergency Plan (AUSVETPLAN) 3rd ed. 1–60 Ind. Minist. Counc., Canberra, ACT [Google Scholar]
  10. Batista-da-Silva JA, Moya-Borja GE, Queiroz MMC. 10.  2011. Factors of susceptibility of human myiasis caused by the New World screw-worm, Cochliomyia hominivorax in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. J. Insect Sci. 11:14 [Google Scholar]
  11. Batista-da-Silva JA, Moya-Borja GE, Queiroz MMC. 11.  2011. Patient with tracheostomy parasitized in hospital by larvae of the screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax. J. Insect Sci. 11:163 [Google Scholar]
  12. Beckett S, Spradbery P, Urech R, James P, Green P, Welch M. 12.  2014. Old World Screw-worm Fly: Risk of Entry in Australia and Surveillance Requirements Canberra: Animal Health Aust.
  13. Birkett MA, Agelopoulos N, Jensen KMV, Jespersen JB, Pickett JA. 13.  et al. 2004. The role of volatile semiochemicals in mediating host location and selection by nuisance and disease-transmitting cattle flies. Med. Vet. Entomol. 18:313–22 [Google Scholar]
  14. Bisdorff B, Wall R. 14.  2008. Sheep blowfly strike risk management in Great Britain: a survey of current practice. Med. Vet. Entomol. 22:303–8 [Google Scholar]
  15. Blejter J. 15.  2012. Tracheostomy wound myiasis in a child: case report and review of the literature. Case Rep. Pediatr. 2012:317862 [Google Scholar]
  16. Broughan JM, Wall R. 16.  2006. Control of sheep blowfly strike using fly-traps. Vet. Parasitol. 135:57–63 [Google Scholar]
  17. Brouqui P. 17.  2011. Arthropod-borne diseases associated with political and social disorder. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 56:357–74 [Google Scholar]
  18. Campbell PM, Newcomb RD, Russell RJ, Oakeshott JG. 18.  1998. Two different amino acid substitutions in the ali-esterase, E3, confer alternative types of organophosphorus insecticide resistance in the sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 28:139–50 [Google Scholar]
  19. Campobasso CP, Linville JG, Wells JD, Introna F. 19.  2005. Forensic genetic analysis of gut contents. Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol. 26:161–65 [Google Scholar]
  20. Carvalho RA, Torres TT, Paniago MG, Azeredo-Espin AML. 20.  2009. Molecular characterization of esterase E3 gene associated with organophosphorus insecticide resistance in the New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax. Med. Vet. Entomol. 23:Suppl. 186–91 [Google Scholar]
  21. Chan JCM, Lee JSW, Dai DLK, Woo J. 21.  2005. Unusual cases of human myiasis due to Old World screwworm fly acquired indoors in Hong Kong. T. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 99:914–18 [Google Scholar]
  22. Chaudhury MF, Zhu JJ, Sagel A, Chen H, Skoda SR. 22.  2014. Volatiles from waste larval rearing media attract gravid screwworm flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to oviposit. J. Med. Entomol. 51:591–95 [Google Scholar]
  23. Chhabra MB, Pathak KML. 23.  2008. Arthropod zoonoses in India. J. Parasit. Dis. 32:97–103 [Google Scholar]
  24. Claudianos C, Russell RJ, Oakeshott JG. 24.  1999. The same amino acid substitution in orthologous esterases confers organophosphate resistance in the housefly and a blowfly. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 29:675–86 [Google Scholar]
  25. Colwell DD, Hall MJR, Scholl PJ. 25.  2006. The Oestrid Flies: Biology, Host-Parasite Relationships, Impact and Management Wallingford, UK: CABI
  26. Cork A, Hall MJR. 26.  2007. Development of an odour-baited target for female New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae): studies with host baits and synthetic wound fluids. Med. Vet. Entomol 21:85–92 [Google Scholar]
  27. Cousquer G. 27.  2006. Veterinary care of rabbits with myiasis. In Pract 28:342–49 [Google Scholar]
  28. Dar LM, Hussain SA, Abdullah S, Rashid A, Parihar S, Rather FA. 28.  2013. Maggot therapy and its implications in veterinary medicine: an overview. J. Adv. Vet. Res. 3:47–51 [Google Scholar]
  29. Delhaes L, Bourel B, Scala L, Muanza B, Dutoit E. 29.  et al. 2001. Case report: recovery of Calliphora vicina first-instar larvae from a human traumatic wound associated with a progressive necrotizing bacterial infection. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 64:159–61 [Google Scholar]
  30. Delshad E, Rubin AI, Almeida L, Niedt GW. 30.  2008. Cuterebra cutaneous myiasis: case report and world literature review. Int. J. Dermatol 47:363–66 [Google Scholar]
  31. Diaz JH. 31.  2008. The global epidemiology, public health outcomes, management, and prevention of re-emerging ectoparasitic diseases. Trop. Med. Health. 36:1–10 [Google Scholar]
  32. Dik B, Uslu U, Işik N. 32.  2012. Myiasis in animals and human beings in Turkey. Kafkas Univ. Vet. Fak. Derg. 18:37–42 [Google Scholar]
  33. Dutto M, Bertero M. 33.  2010. Traumatic myiasis from Sarcophaga (Bercaea) cruentata Meigen, 1826 (Diptera, Sarcophagidae) in a hospital environment: reporting of a clinical case following polytrauma. J. Prev. Med. Hyg. 51:50–52 [Google Scholar]
  34. Elkington RA, Mahony TJ. 34.  2007. A blowfly strike vaccine requires an understanding of host-pathogen interactions. Vaccine 25:5133–45 [Google Scholar]
  35. Farkas R, Hall MJR, Bouzagou AK, Lhor Y, Khallaayoune K. 35.  2009. Traumatic myiasis in dogs caused by Wohlfahrtia magnifica and its importance in the epidemiology of wohlfahrtiosis of livestock. Med. Vet. Entomol. 23:Suppl. 180–85 [Google Scholar]
  36. Farkas R, Hall MJR, Kelemen F. 36.  1997. Wound myiasis of sheep in Hungary. Vet. Parasitol. 69:33–144 [Google Scholar]
  37. Farkas R, Szanto Z, Hall MJR. 37.  2001. Traumatic myiasis of geese in Hungary. Vet. Parasitol. 95:45–52 [Google Scholar]
  38. Feener DH Jr, Brown BV. 38.  1997. Diptera as parasitoids. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 42:73–97 [Google Scholar]
  39. Feldmann U, Ready PD. 39.  2014. Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests: case studies of tsetse and screwworm flies. Acta Trop. 138S:S1–5 [Google Scholar]
  40. Fernández-Ruiz M, Salto E, Cuesta R, López-Medrano F. 40.  2011. Miasis cutánea autóctona por Chrysomya bezziana. Rev. Clin. Esp. 211:218–19 [Google Scholar]
  41. Florin A-B, Gyllenstrand N. 41.  2002. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the blowflies Lucilia illustris and Lucilia sericata. Mol. Ecol. Notes 2:113–16 [Google Scholar]
  42. 42. Food Agric. Organ. (FAO) 1992. The New World Screwworm Eradication Programme - North Africa 1988–1992 Rome: FAO
  43. Francesconi F, Lupi O. 43.  2012. Myiasis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 25:79–105 [Google Scholar]
  44. Fresia P, Lyra ML, Coronado A, Azeredo-Espin AML. 44.  2011. Genetic structure and demographic history of the New World screwworm fly across its current geographic range. J. Med. Entomol. 48:280–90 [Google Scholar]
  45. Fresia P, Silver M, Mastrangelo T, Azeredo-Espin AML, Lyra ML. 45.  2014. Applying spatial analysis of genetic and environmental data to predict connection corridors to the New World screwworm populations in South America. Acta Trop. 138:S34–41 [Google Scholar]
  46. Gaglio G, Brianti E, Abbene S, Giannetto S. 46.  2011. Genital myiasis by Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera, Sarcophagidae) in Sicily (Italy). Parasitol. Res. 109:1471–74 [Google Scholar]
  47. Giangaspero A, Brianti E, Traversa D, Hall M. 47.  2014. A retrospective and geographical survey of traumatic myiasis in southern Italy. Med. Vet. Entomol. 28:391–97 [Google Scholar]
  48. González Poggioli N, Vázquez Barro J. 48.  2009. Miasis ótica. A propósito de un caso. Acta Otorrinolaringol. Esp. 60:213–14 [Google Scholar]
  49. Griffiths AM, Evans LM, Stevens JR. 49.  2009. Characterization and utilization of microsatellite loci in the New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax. Med. Vet. Entomol 23:Suppl. 18–13 [Google Scholar]
  50. Hakeem MJML, Bhattacharyya DN. 50.  2009. Exotic human myiasis. Travel Med. Infect. Dis. 7:198–202 [Google Scholar]
  51. Hall MJR. 51.  1991. Screwworm flies as agents of wound myiasis. World Animal Review Special Issue “New World Screwworm: Response to an Emergency”, ed. RDS Branckaert 8–17 Rome: FAO [Google Scholar]
  52. Hall MJR. 52.  1995. Trapping the flies that cause myiasis: their responses to host stimuli. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 89:333–57 [Google Scholar]
  53. Hall MJR. 53.  2002. Evaluation of an outbreak of traumatic myiasis in Morocco Rep. GF AGAHP RA213A6622010 Rome: FAO
  54. Hall MJR, Adams ZJO, Wyatt NP, Testa JM, Edge W. 54.  et al. 2009. Morphological and mitochondrial DNA characters for identification and phylogenetic analysis of the myiasis causing fleshfly Wohlfahrtia magnifica and its relatives, with a description of Wohlfahrtia monegrosensis sp. n. Wyatt & Hall. Med. Vet. Entomol. 23:Suppl. 159–71 [Google Scholar]
  55. Hall MJR, Farkas R. 55.  2000. Traumatic myiasis of humans and animals. Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera L Papp, B Darvas 751–68 Budapest, Hung.: Science Herald [Google Scholar]
  56. Hall MJR, Farkas R, Kelemen F, Hosier M, El-Khoga JM. 56.  1995. Orientation of agents of wound myiasis to hosts and artificial stimuli in Hungary. Med. Vet. Entomol. 9:77–84 [Google Scholar]
  57. Handler AM, Allen ML, Skoda SR. 57.  2009. Development and utilization of transgenic New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax. Med. Vet. Entomol. 23:Suppl. 198–105 [Google Scholar]
  58. Hartley CJ, Newcomb RD, Russell RJ, Yong CG, Stevens JR. 58.  et al. 2006. Amplification of DNA from preserved specimens shows blowflies were preadapted for the rapid evolution of insecticide resistance. PNAS 103:8757–62 [Google Scholar]
  59. Harvey ML, Mansell MW, Villet MH, Dadour IR. 59.  2003. Molecular identification of some forensically important blowflies of southern Africa and Australia. Med. Vet. Entomol. 17:363–69 [Google Scholar]
  60. Hawayek LH, Mutasim DF. 60.  2006. Myiasis in a giant squamous cell carcinoma. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 54:740–41 [Google Scholar]
  61. He L, Wang S, Miao X, Wu H, Huang Y. 61.  2007. Identification of necrophagous fly species using ISSR and SCAR markers. Forensic Sci. Int. 168:148–53 [Google Scholar]
  62. Hebert PDN, Cywinska A, Ball SL, deWaard JR. 62.  2003. Biological identifications through DNA barcodes. Proc. R. Soc. B 270:313–21 [Google Scholar]
  63. Hemanth V, Kumar CS, Manikandan D, Musarrat F, Preetham AP, Paulraj MG. 63.  2013. An unusual case of late tracheostomy bleed. Case Rep. Clin. Med. 2:260–62 [Google Scholar]
  64. Heukelbach JF, Walton SF, Feldmeier H. 64.  2005. Ectoparasitic infestations. Curr. Infect. Dis. Rep. 7:373–80 [Google Scholar]
  65. Hope FW. 65.  1840. On insects and their larvae occasionally found in the human body. Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 2:256–71 [Google Scholar]
  66. Hopkins GW, Freckleton RP. 66.  2002. Declines in the numbers of amateur and professional taxonomists: implications for conservation. Anim. Conserv. 5:245–49 [Google Scholar]
  67. Jain A, Desai RU, Ehrlich J. 67.  2007. Fulminant orbital myiasis in the developed world. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91:1565–66 [Google Scholar]
  68. James MT. 68.  1947. The flies that cause myiasis in man. U.S. Dep. Agric. Misc. Publ. 631:1–175 [Google Scholar]
  69. Jarrett S, Morgan JAT, Wlodek BM, Brown GW, Urech R. 69.  et al. 2010. Specific detection of the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, in bulk fly trap catches using real-time PCR. Med. Vet. Entomol. 24:227–35 [Google Scholar]
  70. Jiang CP. 70.  2002. A collective analysis of 54 cases of human myiasis in China from 1995–2001. Chin. Med. J. (Beijing) 115:1445–47 [Google Scholar]
  71. Jones G, Wall R. 71.  2008. Maggot-therapy in veterinary medicine. Res. Vet. Sci. 85:394–98 [Google Scholar]
  72. Kerridge A, Lappin-Scott H, Stevens JR. 72.  2005. Antibacterial properties of larval secretions of the blowfly, Lucilia sericata. Med. Vet. Entomol. 19:333–37 [Google Scholar]
  73. Kline K, McCarthy JS, Pearson M, Loukas A, Hotez PJ. 73.  2013. Neglected tropical diseases of Oceania: review of their prevalence, distribution and opportunities for control. PLOS Negl. Trop. Dis. 7:e1755 [Google Scholar]
  74. Krafsur ES, Whitten CJ, Novy JE. 74.  1987. Screwworm eradication in North and Central America. Parasitol. Today 3:131–37 [Google Scholar]
  75. Lee P-S, Sing K-W, Wilson J-J. 75.  2015. Reading mammal diversity from flies: the persistence period of amplifiable mammal mtDNA in blowfly guts (Chrysomya megacephala) and a new DNA mini-barcode target. PLOS ONE 10:e0123871 [Google Scholar]
  76. Lee SF, Chen Z, McGrath A, Good RT, Batterham P. 76.  2011. Identification, analysis, and linkage mapping of expressed sequence tags from the Australian sheep blowfly. BMC Genom. 12:406 [Google Scholar]
  77. Li F, Vensko SP, Belikoff J, Scott MJ. 77.  2013. Conservation and sex-specific splicing of the transformer gene in the calliphorids Cochliomyia hominivorax, Cochliomyia macellaria and Lucilia sericata. PLOS ONE 8:e56303 [Google Scholar]
  78. Lindquist DA, Abusowa M, Hall MJR. 78.  1992. The New World screwworm fly in Libya: a review of its introduction and eradication. Med. Vet. Entomol. 6:2–8 [Google Scholar]
  79. Lindsay R, Stancil J, Ray JM. 79.  2010. Myiasis of facial wounds by Cochliomyia hominivorax sustained in a natural disaster in Haiti. Otolaryng. Head Neck 143:595–96 [Google Scholar]
  80. Lonsdale B, Schmid HR, Junquera P. 80.  2000. Prevention of blowfly strike on lambs with the insect growth regulator dicyclanil. Vet. Rec. 147:540–44 [Google Scholar]
  81. Lukin LG. 81.  1989. Human cutaneous myiasis in Brisbane: a prospective study. Med. J. Aust. 150:237–40 [Google Scholar]
  82. Lunt DH, Zhang D-X, Szymura JM, Hewitt GM. 82.  1996. The insect cytochrome oxidase I gene: evolutionary patterns and conserved primers for phylogenetic studies. Insect Mol. Biol. 5:153–65 [Google Scholar]
  83. Mackley JW, Brown HE. 83.  1984. Swormlure-4: a new formulation of the Swormlure-2 mixture as an attractant for adult screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae). J. Econ. Entomol. 77:1264–68 [Google Scholar]
  84. Mallon PWG, Evans M, Hall M, Bailey R. 84.  1999. Something moving in my head. Lancet 354:1260 [Google Scholar]
  85. Marinho MAT, Junqueira ACM, Paulo DF, Esposito MC, Villet MH, Azeredo-Espin AML. 85.  2012. Molecular phylogenetics of Oestroidea (Diptera: Calyptratae) with emphasis on Calliphoridae: insights into the inter-familial relationships and additional evidence for paraphyly among blowflies. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 65:840–54 [Google Scholar]
  86. Mastrangelo T, Chaudhury MF, Skoda SR, Welch JB, Sagel A, Walder JM. 86.  2012. Feasibility of using a Caribbean screwworm for SIT campaigns in Brazil. J. Med. Entomol. 49:1495–501 [Google Scholar]
  87. McDonagh L, García R, Stevens JR. 87.  2009. Phylogenetic analysis of New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, suggests genetic isolation of some Caribbean island populations following colonization from South America. Med. Vet. Entomol. 23:Suppl. 114–22 [Google Scholar]
  88. McDonagh LM, Stevens JR. 88.  2011. The molecular systematics of blowflies and screwworm flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) using 28S rRNA, COX1 and EF-1α: insights into the evolution of dipteran parasitism. Parasitology 138:1760–77 [Google Scholar]
  89. Mielke U. 89.  1997. Nosocomial myiasis. J. Hosp. Infect. 37:1–5 [Google Scholar]
  90. Morgan JAT, Urech R. 90.  2014. An improved real-time PCR assay for the detection of Old World screwworm flies. Acta Trop. 138:S76–81 [Google Scholar]
  91. Newcomb RD, Campbell PM, Ollis DL, Cheah E, Russell RJ, Oakeshott JG. 91.  1997. A single amino acid substitution converts a carboxylesterase to an organophosphorus hydrolase and confers insecticide resistance on a blowfly. PNAS 94:7464–68 [Google Scholar]
  92. Noden BH, van der Colf BE. 92.  2013. Neglected tropical diseases of Namibia: unsolved mysteries. Acta Trop. 125:1–17 [Google Scholar]
  93. Novy JE. 93.  1991. Screwworm control and eradication in the southern United States of America. World Animal Review Special Issue “New World Screwworm: Response to an Emergency”, October 1991, ed. RDS Branckaert 18–27 Rome: FAO [Google Scholar]
  94. Obanda V, Ndambiri EM, Kingori E, Gakuya F, Lwande OW, Alasaad S. 94.  2013. Traumatic myiasis in free-ranging eland, reported from Kenya. Parasit. Vectors 6:89 [Google Scholar]
  95. Omar MS, Abdalla RE. 95.  1992. Cutaneous myiasis caused by tumbu fly, Cordylobia anthropophaga in southwestern Saudi Arabia. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 43:128–29 [Google Scholar]
  96. Owen IL. 96.  2005. Parasitic zoonoses in Papua New Guinea. J. Helminthol. 79:1–14 [Google Scholar]
  97. Paris LA, Viscarret M, Uban C, Vargas J, Rodriguez-Morales AJ. 97.  2008. Pin-site myiasis: a rare complication of a treated open fracture of tibia. Surg. Infect. 9:403–6 [Google Scholar]
  98. Patton EM. 98.  1920. Some notes on Indian Calliphorinae. Part 1. Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve, the common Indian calliphorine whose larvae cause cutaneous myiasis in man and animals. Indian J. Med. Res. 8:17–29 [Google Scholar]
  99. Picard CJ, Wells JD. 99.  2009. Survey of the genetic diversity of Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) using amplified fragment length polymorphisms. J. Med. Entomol. 46:664–70 [Google Scholar]
  100. Portchinsky IA. 100.  1916. Wohlfahrtia magnifica, Schin., and allied Russian species. The biology of this fly and its importance to man and domestic animals. Mem. Bur. Entomol. Sci. Comm. Minist. Agric. Petrograd. 11:1–108 [Google Scholar]
  101. Rahoma AH, Latif B. 101.  2010. Human foot myiasis in Malaysia with a review of the literature. J. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 33:41–43 [Google Scholar]
  102. Ready PD, Testa JM, Wardhana AH, Al-Izzi M, Khalaj M, Hall MJR. 102.  2009. Phylogeography and recent emergence of the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, based on mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences. Med. Vet. Entomol. 23:Suppl. 143–50 [Google Scholar]
  103. Robinson AS, Vreysen MJ, Hendrichs J, Feldmann U. 103.  2009. Enabling technologies to improve area-wide integrated pest management programmes for the control of screwworms. Med. Vet. Entomol. 23:Suppl. 11–7 [Google Scholar]
  104. Robinson DE, Snow JW, Grant G. 104.  2000. The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to eradicate the screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, from Jamaica. Proceedings of the International Symposium: Utilization of Natural Products in Developing Countries A Mansingh, RE Young, T Yee, R Delgoda, DE Robinson 213–16 Kingston, Jamaica: Natural Products Institute, Univ. West Indies
  105. Rognes K. 105.  1997. The Calliphoridae (blowflies) (Diptera: Oestroidea) are not a monophyletic group. Cladistics 13:27–66 [Google Scholar]
  106. Romero-Cabello R, Calderón-Romero L, Sánchez-Vega J, Tay J, Romero-Feregrino R. 106.  2010. Cutaneous myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana larvae, Mexico. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 16:2014–15 [Google Scholar]
  107. Rose H, Wall R. 107.  2011. Modelling the impact of climate change on spatial patterns of disease risk: sheep blowfly strike in Great Britain. Int. J. Parasitol. 41:739–46 [Google Scholar]
  108. Sánchez-Sánchez R, Calderón-Arguedas O, Mora-Brenes N, Troyo A. 108.  2014. Miasis nosocomiales en América Latina y el Caribe: ¿una realidad ignorada?. Rev. Panam. Salud Publica 36:201–5 [Google Scholar]
  109. Sandeman RM, Levot GW, Heath ACG, James PJ, Greef JC. 109.  et al. 2014. Control of the sheep blowfly in Australia and New Zealand – Are we there yet?. Int. J. Parasitol. 44:879–91 [Google Scholar]
  110. Sankari LS, Ramakrishnan K. 110.  2010. Oral myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana. J. Oral Maxillofac. Pathol. 14:16–18 [Google Scholar]
  111. Schmid HR, van Tulder G, Junquera P. 111.  1999. Field efficacy of the insect growth regulator dicyclanil for flystrike prevention on lambs. Vet. Parasitol. 86:147–51 [Google Scholar]
  112. Schnur HJ, Zivotofsky D, Wilamowski A. 112.  2009. Myiasis in domestic animals in Israel. Vet. Parasitol. 161:352–55 [Google Scholar]
  113. Scott MJ. 113.  2014. Development and evaluation of male-only strains of the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina. BMC Genet. 15:Suppl. 2S3 [Google Scholar]
  114. Sedighi I, Zahirnia AH, Afkhami M. 114.  2013. Buccal cellulitis caused by cutaneous myiasis in an 11-month-old infant. Arch. Clin. Infect. Dis. 8:e16944 [Google Scholar]
  115. Seif AI, Kholeif HA, Koura EA, El-Alfi NM. 115.  1992. Experience with traumatic myiasis among patients with septic wounds. J. Trop. Med. 2:115–19 [Google Scholar]
  116. Sesterhenn AM, Pfützner W, Braulke DM, Wiegand S, Werner JA, Taubert A. 116.  2009. Cutaneous manifestation of myiasis in malignant wounds of the head and neck. Eur. J. Dermatol. 19:64–68 [Google Scholar]
  117. Sharma M, Singh D, Sharma AK. 117.  2015. Mitochondrial DNA based identification of forensically important Indian flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). Forensic Sci. Int. 247:1–6 [Google Scholar]
  118. Sherman RA. 118.  2000. Wound myiasis in urban and suburban United States. Arch. Intern. Med. 160:2004–14 [Google Scholar]
  119. Sherman RA. 119.  2014. Mechanisms of maggot-induced wound healing: What do we know, and where do we go from here?. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2014:592419 [Google Scholar]
  120. Sherman RA, Hall MJR, Thomas S. 120.  2000. Medicinal maggots: an ancient remedy for some contemporary afflictions. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 45:55–81 [Google Scholar]
  121. Sherman RA, Roselle G, Bills C, Danko LH, Eldridge N. 121.  2005. Healthcare-associated myiasis: prevention and intervention. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 26:828–32 [Google Scholar]
  122. Siddig A, Al Jowary S, Al Izzi M, Hopkins J, Hall MJR, Slingenbergh J. 122.  2005. The seasonality of Old World screwworm (Chrysomya bezziana) in the Mesopotamia Valley in Iraq. Med. Vet. Entomol. 19:140–50 [Google Scholar]
  123. Singh A, Singh Z. 123.  2015. Incidence of myiasis among humans – a review. Parasitol. Res. 114:3183–99 [Google Scholar]
  124. Singh B, Wells JD. 124.  2013. Molecular systematics of the Calliphoridae (Diptera: Oestroidea): evidence from one mitochondrial and three nuclear genes. J. Med. Entomol. 50:15–23 [Google Scholar]
  125. Sotiraki S, Farkas R, Hall MJR. 125.  2010. Fleshflies in the flesh: epidemiology, population genetics and control of outbreaks of traumatic myiasis in the Mediterranean Basin. Vet. Parasitol. 174:12–18 [Google Scholar]
  126. Sotiraki S, Hall MJR. 126.  2012. A review of comparative aspects of myiasis in goats and sheep in Europe. Small Rumin. Res. 103:75–83 [Google Scholar]
  127. Sotiraki S, Stefanakis A, Hall MJR, Farkas R, Graf JF. 127.  2005. Wohlfahrtiosis in sheep and the role of dicyclanil in its prevention. Vet. Parasitol. 131:107–17 [Google Scholar]
  128. Sowani A, Joglekar D, Kulkarni P. 128.  2004. Maggots: a neglected problem in palliative care. Indian J. Palliat. Care 10:27–29 [Google Scholar]
  129. Sperling FAH, Anderson GS, Hickey DA. 129.  1994. A DNA-based approach to the identification of insect species for postmortem interval estimation. J. Forensic Sci. 39:418–27 [Google Scholar]
  130. Spradbery JP. 130.  1981. A new trap design for screw-worm fly studies. J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 20:151–53 [Google Scholar]
  131. Stevens JR. 131.  2003. The evolution of myiasis in blowflies (Calliphoridae). Int. J. Parasitol. 33:1105–13 [Google Scholar]
  132. Stevens J, Wall R. 132.  1995. The use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for studies of genetic variation in populations of the blowfly Lucilia sericata in southern England. Bull. Entomol. Res. 85:549–55 [Google Scholar]
  133. Stevens J, Wall R. 133.  1996. Species, sub-species and hybrid populations of the blowflies Lucilia cuprina and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Proc. R. Soc. B 263:1335–41 [Google Scholar]
  134. Stevens J, Wall R. 134.  1997. The evolution of ectoparasitism in the genus Lucilia (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Int. J. Parasitol. 27:51–59 [Google Scholar]
  135. Stevens J, Wall R. 135.  2001. Genetic relationships between blowflies (Calliphoridae) of forensic importance. Forensic Sci. Int. 120:116–23 [Google Scholar]
  136. Stevens JR, Wall R, Wells JD. 136.  2002. Paraphyly in Hawaiian hybrid blowfly populations and the evolutionary history of anthropophilic species. Insect Mol. Biol. 11:141–48 [Google Scholar]
  137. Stevens JR, Wallman JF. 137.  2006. The evolution of myiasis in humans and other animals in the Old and New Worlds (part I): phylogenetic analyses. Trends Parasitol. 22:129–36 [Google Scholar]
  138. Stevens JR, Wallman JF, Otranto D, Wall R, Pape T. 138.  2006. The evolution of myiasis in humans and other animals in the Old and New Worlds (part II): biological and life-history studies. Trends Parasitol. 22:181–88 [Google Scholar]
  139. Sulston ECJ, Wardhana AH, Hall MJR, Logan JG, Gezan SA, Cameron MM. 139.  2014. Combining cattle and wound-derived synthetic attractants, POC and Bezzilure B, for sampling Chrysomya bezziana in Indonesia. Acta Trop. 138:S69–75 [Google Scholar]
  140. Szpila K, Hall MJR, Wardhana AH, Pape T. 140.  2014. Morphology of the first instar larva of obligatory traumatic myiasis agents (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae). Parasitol. Res. 113:1629–40 [Google Scholar]
  141. Tancoigne E, Dubois A. 141.  2013. Taxonomy: no decline, but inertia. Cladistics 29:567–70 [Google Scholar]
  142. Taylor DB, Szalanski AL, Peterson RD. 142.  1996. Mitochondrial DNA variation in screwworm. Med. Vet. Entomol. 10:161–69 [Google Scholar]
  143. Torres TT, Azeredo-Espin AML. 143.  2009. Population genetics of New World screwworm from the Caribbean: insights from microsatellite data. Med. Vet. Entomol. 23:Suppl. 123–31 [Google Scholar]
  144. Torres TT, Brondani RPV, Garcia JE, Azeredo-Espin AML. 144.  2004. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Mol. Ecol. Notes 4:182–84 [Google Scholar]
  145. Tourle R, Downie DA, Villet MH. 145.  2009. Flies in the ointment: a morphological and molecular comparison of Lucilia cuprina and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in South Africa. Med. Vet. Entomol. 23:6–14 [Google Scholar]
  146. Urech R, Green PE, Brown GW, Spradbery JP, Tozer RS. 146.  et al. 2012. Field assessment of synthetic attractants and traps for the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana. Vet. Parasitol. 187:486–90 [Google Scholar]
  147. Urech R, Green PE, Rice MJ, Brown GW, Duncalfe F, Webb P. 147.  2004. Composition of chemical attractants affects trap catches of the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, and other blowflies. J. Chem. Ecol. 30:851–66 [Google Scholar]
  148. Urech R, Green PE, Rice MJ, Brown GW, Webb P. 148.  et al. 2009. Suppression of populations of Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), with a novel blowfly trap. Aust. J. Entomol. 48:182–88 [Google Scholar]
  149. van Niekerk G, Henning M, Coetzee M. 149.  2007. Outbreak of myiasis. S. Afr. Med. J. 97:112–14 [Google Scholar]
  150. Verettas D-AJ, Chatzipapas CN, Drosos GI, Xarchas KC, Staikos C. 150.  et al. 2008. Maggot infestation (myiasis) of external fixation pin sites in diabetic patients. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 102:950–52 [Google Scholar]
  151. Vreysen MJB, Gerardo-Abaya J, Cayol JP. 151.  2007. Lessons from area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes with an SIT component: an FAO/IAEA perspective. Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests: From Research to Field Implementation MJB Vreysen, AS Robinson, J Hendrichs 723–44 Dordrecht, Neth.: Springer [Google Scholar]
  152. Wall R. 152.  2012. Ovine cutaneous myiasis: effects on production and control. Vet. Parasitol. 189:44–51 [Google Scholar]
  153. Wall R, Ellse L. 153.  2011. Climate change and livestock parasites: integrated management of sheep blowfly strike in a warmer environment. Glob. Change Biol. 17:1770–77 [Google Scholar]
  154. Wall R, Rose H, Ellse L, Morgan E. 154.  2011. Livestock parasites: integrated management in a changing climate. Vet. Parasitol. 180:82–89 [Google Scholar]
  155. Wallman JF, Leys R, Hogendoorn K. 155.  2005. Molecular systematics of Australian carrion-breeding blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) based on mitochondrial DNA. Invertebr. Syst. 19:1–15 [Google Scholar]
  156. Ward MP. 156.  2001. Effectiveness of a synthetic lure to reduce blowfly strike incidence: preliminary observations. Vet. Parasitol. 97:77–82 [Google Scholar]
  157. Ward MP, Farrell R. 157.  2003. Sheep blowfly strike reduction using a synthetic lure system. Prev. Vet. Med. 59:21–26 [Google Scholar]
  158. Wardhana AH, Hall MJR, Mahamdallie SS, Muharsini S, Cameron MM, Ready PD. 158.  2012. Phylogenetics of the Old World screwworm fly and its significance for planning control and monitoring invasions in Asia. Int. J. Parasitol. 42:729–38 [Google Scholar]
  159. Welch J, Hall MJR. 159.  2013. New World screwworm (Cochliomyia hominivorax) and Old World screwworm (Chrysomya bezziana). Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals (Mammals, Birds and Bees), 2013, Volume 1 Paris: OiE, World Organ. Anim. Health http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/2.01.10_SCREWW.pdf [Google Scholar]
  160. Welch MV, Kwan PW, Sajeev ASM. 160.  2014. Applying GIS and high performance agent-based simulation for managing an Old World screwworm fly invasion of Australia. Acta Trop. 138:S82–93 [Google Scholar]
  161. Wells JD, Pape T, Sperling FA. 161.  2001. DNA-based identification and molecular systematics of forensically important Sarcophagidae (Diptera). J. Forensic Sci. 46:1098–102 [Google Scholar]
  162. Wells JD, Sperling FA. 162.  2001. DNA-based identification of forensically important Chrysomyinae (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Forensic Sci. Int. 120:110–15 [Google Scholar]
  163. Yuca K, Caksen H, Sakin YF, Yuca SA, Kırıs M. 163.  et al. 2005. Aural myiasis in children and literature review. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 206:125–30 [Google Scholar]
  164. Zumpt F. 164.  1965. Myiasis in Man and Animals in the Old World London: Butterworths

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error