The painted bug, , native to eastern and southern Africa and Asia, was detected in California in 2008, and it has spread rapidly throughout several southwestern US states. A polyphagous insect, it is particularly damaging to the billion dollar cole crop industry. frequently causes damage when it migrates to newly planted crops from weedy hosts. Feeding produces circular or star-shaped chlorotic lesions that become necrotic, and infested plants may be distorted. Currently, no reliable sampling methods for exist, nor are there effective natural enemies in the United States. Therefore, management has relied on multiple applications of insecticides and cultural practices such as removal of weedy hosts, destruction of crop residues, timing of planting, and use of transplants. Several pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides are most effective for controlling the insect. Reliable sampling methods and further development of integrated pest management strategies to manage this invasive pest are urgently needed as its range continues to expand.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Aalbersberg YK, van der Westhuizen MC, Hewitt PH. 1.  1989. Japanese radish as a reservoir for the natural enemies of the Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Phytophylactica 21:3241–45 [Google Scholar]
  2. Abrol DP. 2.  2009. Plant-insect interaction. Biology and Breeding of Crucifers SK Gupta 129–49 Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press [Google Scholar]
  3. Abrol DP, Gupta A. 3.  2010. Insect pests attacking cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.): 1. Population dynamics in relation to weather factors. Green Farming 1:2167–70 [Google Scholar]
  4. Ahuja B, Kalyan RK, Ahuja UR, Singh SK, Sundria MM, Dhandapani A. 4.  2008. Integrated management strategy for painted bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burm.), inflicting injury at seedling stage of mustard (Brassica juncea) in arid western Rajasthan. Pestic. Res. J. 20:148–51 [Google Scholar]
  5. Ahuja DB, Joshi ML. 5.  1995. Evaluation of insecticides for control of painted bug on taramira. Madras Agric. J. 82:12627–29 [Google Scholar]
  6. Ajay S, Sharma A. 6.  2013. Insect pests of some important fodder trees grown under agroforestry conditions in Solan District of Himachal Pradesh. J. Entomol. Res. 37:2181–86 [Google Scholar]
  7. Ameta OP, Srivastava AK, Sharma KC. 7.  2005. Efficacy of imidacloprid seed treatment against sawfly, Athalia lugens proxima (Klug), and painted bug, Bagrada cruciferarum (Kirk), in mustard, Brassica campestris (L). Pestology 29:9–13 [Google Scholar]
  8. Anderson TJ. 8.  1917. Notes on insects injurious to coffee. Dep. Agric. Br. East Afr. Nairobi Agric. Bull. 2:20–43 [Google Scholar]
  9. Anwar Cheema M, Irshad M, Murtaza M, Ghani MA. 9.  1973. Pentatomids associated with Gramineae and their natural enemies in Pakistan. Tech. Bull. Commonw. Inst. Biol. Control 16:47–67 [Google Scholar]
  10. Atwal AS. 10.  1959. The oviposition behaviour of Bagrada cruciferarum Kirk. (Pentatomidae: Heteroptera) and the influence of temperature and humidity on the speed of development of eggs. Proc. Natl. Inst. Sci. India 25:65–67 [Google Scholar]
  11. Azim MN, Shafee SA. 11.  1986. The life cycle of Bagrada picta (Fabricius). Articulata 11:8261–65 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bakhetia DRC, Labana KS. 12.  1978. Insect resistance in Brassica crops. Crop Improv. 5:95–103 [Google Scholar]
  13. Bakhetia DRC, Sekhan BS. 13.  1989. Insect pests and their management in rapeseed-mustard. J. Oilseeds Res. 6:269–99 [Google Scholar]
  14. Banuelos GS, Dhillon KS, Banga SS. 14.  2013. Oilseed brassicas. Biofuel Crops—Production Physiology and Genetics BP Singh 339–68 Boston: CABI [Google Scholar]
  15. Batra HN, Sarup S. 15.  1962. Technique of mass-breeding of the painted bug, Bagrada cruciferarum Kirk. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Indian Oilseeds J. 6:2135–43 [Google Scholar]
  16. Bok I, Madisa M, Machacha D, Moamogwe M, More M. 16.  2006. Manual for Vegetable Production in Botswana Gaborone: Botswana Minist. Agric http://www.dar.gov.bw/manual1_veg_prod_botswana.pdf [Google Scholar]
  17. Boopathi T, Pathak KA. 17.  2012. Seasonal abundance of insect pests of broccoli in north-eastern hill region of India. Madras Agric. J. 99:1–3125–27 [Google Scholar]
  18. Brennan EB. 18.  2013. Agronomic aspects of strip intercropping lettuce with alyssum for biological control of aphids. Biol. Control 65:302–11 [Google Scholar]
  19. Bundy CS, Grasswitz TR, Sutherland C. 19.  2012. First report of the invasive stink bug Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) from New Mexico, with notes on its biology. Southwest. Entomol. 37:411–14 [Google Scholar]
  20. Burmeister H. 20.  1835. Handbuch der Entomologie. Band 2, Schnabelkerfe, Rhynchota, Abt. 1. Hemiptera. Berlin: TCF Enslin [Google Scholar]
  21. Chacko MJ, Katiyar RN. 21.  1961. Hadrophanurus [=Gryon] karnalensis sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), a parasite of Bagrada cruciferarum Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. B 30:161–63 [Google Scholar]
  22. Chandel BS, Trivedi R, Bajpai S, Singh A. 22.  2011. Toxicity of azadirachtin, beta-asarone, acorenone, Acorus calamus Linn. and Azadirachta indica A. Juss against painted bug, Bagrada cruciferarum Kirk. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Life Sci. Bull. 8:2194–98 [Google Scholar]
  23. Charleston DS, Kfir R, Dicke M, Vet LEM. 23.  2006. Impact of botanical extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on populations of Plutella xylostella and its natural enemies: a field test of laboratory findings. Biol. Control 39:105–14 [Google Scholar]
  24. Chattopadhyay C, Bhattacharya BK, Kumar V, Kumar A, Meena PD. 24.  2011. Impact of climate change on pests and diseases of oilseeds Brassica—the scenario unfolding in India. J. Oilseed Brassica 2:48–55 [Google Scholar]
  25. Colazza S, Guarino S, Peri E. 25.  2004. Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) a pest of caper in the island of Pantelleria. Inf. Fitopatol. 54:1230–34 [Google Scholar]
  26. Coombs M. 26.  2003. Post-release evaluation of Trichopoda giacomellii (Diptera: Tachinidae) for efficacy and non-target effects. Proc. 1st Int. Symp. Biol. Control Arthropods FHTET-03-05 399–406 Jan. 14–18, 2002, USDA For. Serv., Honolulu [Google Scholar]
  27. Crosskey RW. 27.  1984. Annotated keys to the genera of Tachinidae (Diptera) found in tropical and southern Africa. Ann. Natal Mus. 26:1189–337 [Google Scholar]
  28. Daiber KC. 28.  1991. Insects and nematodes that attack cole crops in Southern Africa—a research review. J. Plant Dis. Prot. 99:430–40 [Google Scholar]
  29. Dallas WS. 29.  1851. List of the Specimens of Hemipterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum London: Taylor [Google Scholar]
  30. De Pasquale C, Guarino S, Peri E, Alonzo G. 30.  2007. Investigation of cuticular hydrocarbons from Bagrada hilaris genders by SPME/GC-MS. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 389:41259–65 [Google Scholar]
  31. Deep K, Kumar A, Singh DP, Yadav PR. 31.  2014. Studies on the ecological parameter, site of oviposition, population dynamics and seasonal cycle of Bagrada cruciferarum on Brassica campestris. J. Exp. Zool. India 17:331–36 [Google Scholar]
  32. Dharpure SR. 32.  2002. New record of a painted bug, Bagrada cruciferarum Kirkaldy (Pentatomidae: Homoptera) on potato in Satpura Plateau of Madhya Pradesh. J. Indian Potato Assoc. 29:155–56 [Google Scholar]
  33. Dhiman A, Gandhi JR. 33.  1988. Aggregation, arrival responses and growth of Bagrada hilaris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Ann. Entomol. (Dehra Dun) 6:119–26 [Google Scholar]
  34. Dhuri AV, Singh KM. 34.  1983. Pest complex and succession of insect pests in black gram Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper. Indian J. Entomol. 45:4396–401 [Google Scholar]
  35. Distant WL. 35.  1902. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. London: Taylor and Francis [Google Scholar]
  36. Drury D. 36.  1773. Illustrations of Natural History Vol. 2. London: White [Google Scholar]
  37. Fabricius JC. 37.  1775. Systema Entomologiae, Sistens Insectorum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Adjectis Synonymis, Locis, Descriptionibus, Observationibus Flensburg/Leipzeig, Ger: Off. Libr. Kortii, Flensburgi & Lipsiae [Google Scholar]
  38. Gahukart RT, Jotwani MG. 38.  1980. Present status of field pests of sorghum and millets in India. Trop. Pest Manag. 26:138–51 [Google Scholar]
  39. Gami JM, Bapodra JG, Rathod RR. 39.  2004. Estimation of avoidable yield loss due to pest complex in mustard. Agric. Sci. Digest 24:4309–10 [Google Scholar]
  40. Garrison R. 40.  2009. Bagrada bug Bagrada hilaris. California Plant Pest & Disease Report S Gaimari, M O'Donnell 14–15 Sacramento: Calif. Dep. Food Agric http://www.cdfa.ca.gov/plant/ppd/PDF/CPPDR_2011_25.pdf [Google Scholar]
  41. Germar EF. 41.  1838. Hemiptera Heteroptera promontorii Bonae Spei nondum descripta, quae collegit C. F. Drege. Rev. Entomol. (Silbermann) 5:121–92 [Google Scholar]
  42. Ghosal TK. 42.  2006. Field observation of biocontrol potential of Trissolcus sp. (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). Insect Environ. 12:130 [Google Scholar]
  43. Ghosal TK, Senapati SK, Deb DC. 43.  2005. Records of hymenopterous parasitoids and a host-parasitic check list of the Brassica oilseed crops of India. J. Ecobiol. 17:251–59 [Google Scholar]
  44. Grasswitz TR. 44.  2013. Greenhouse evaluation of two botanical insecticides for control of brassica-feeding stink bugs, 2012. Arthropod Manag. Tests 38:E23 [Google Scholar]
  45. Grzywacz D, Rossbach A, Rauf A, Russell DA, Srinivasan R, Shelton AM. 45.  2010. Current control methods for diamondback moth and other Brassica insect pests and the prospects for improved management with lepidopteran-resistant Bt vegetable brassicas in Asia and Africa. Crop Prot. 29:68–79 [Google Scholar]
  46. Guarino S, De Pasquale C, Peri E, Alonzo G, Colazzi S. 46.  2008. Role of volatile and contact pheromones in the mating behaviour of Bagrada hilaris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 105:4613–17 [Google Scholar]
  47. Guarino S, Peri E, Lo Bue P, La Piilo A, Colazza S. 47.  2007. Use of botanical insecticides to control Bagrada hilaris populations on caper crops on Pantelleria Island. Inf. Fitopatol. 57:7/853–58 [Google Scholar]
  48. Gunn D. 48.  1918. The Bagrada Bug (Bagrada hilaris). Pretoria. S. Afr.: S. Afr. Dep. Agric. [Google Scholar]
  49. Gupta JC, Gupta DS. 49.  1970. Note on some new hosts of the painted bug (Bagrada cruciferarum Kirk.: Pentatomidae, Hemiptera). Indian J. Agric. Sci. 40:645–46 [Google Scholar]
  50. Halbert SE, Eger JE. 50.  2010. Bagrada bug (Bagrada hilaris) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) an exotic pest of Cruciferae established in the western USA. Tallahassee: Fla. Dep. Agric. Consum. Serv. http://www.freshfromflorida.com/Divisions-Offices/Plant-Industry/Plant-Industry-Publications/Pest-Alerts/Bagrada-bug-Bagrada-hilaris-Hemiptera-Pentatomidae
  51. Harris WV. 51.  1937. Annotated list of insects injurious to native food crops in Tanganyika. Bull. Entomol. Res. 28:483–88 [Google Scholar]
  52. 52. HDOA (Hawaii Dep. Agric.) 2014. New pest advisory. Bagrada bug. Insect feeds on wide range of vegetables. NR 14–27 Honolulu. http://hdoa.hawaii.gov/blog/main/bagrada/ [Google Scholar]
  53. 53. HDOA (Hawaii Dep. Agric.) 2015. Bagrada bug information. Update: bagrada bug detected in Kailua-Kona, May, 2015. http://hdoa.hawaii.gov/pi/ppc/bagrada-bug-information/
  54. Hill DS. 54.  2008. Pests of Crops in Warmer Climates and Their Control London: Springer [Google Scholar]
  55. Hinton HE. 55.  1981. Biology of Insect Eggs, Vol. 2 Oxford, UK: Pergamon [Google Scholar]
  56. Ho H, Millar JG. 56.  2001. Compounds in metathoracic glands of adults and dorsal abdominal glands of nymphs of the stink bugs, Chlorochroa uhleri, C. sayi, and C. ligata (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Zool. Stud. 40:193–98 [Google Scholar]
  57. Horváth GX. 57.  1909. Adnotationes synonymicae de Hemipteris nonnullis extraeuropaeis. Ann. Hist. Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 7:631–32 [Google Scholar]
  58. 58. Horváth GX 1936. Monographia Pentatomidarum generis Bagrada. Ann. Hist. Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. Zool. 30:22–47 [Google Scholar]
  59. Howard CW. 59.  1907. The Bagrada bug (Bagrada hilaris). Transvaal Agric. J. 5:168–73 [Google Scholar]
  60. Huang T-I, Reed DA, Perring TM, Palumbo JC. 60.  2013. Diel activity and behavior of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on desert cole crops. J. Econ. Entomol. 106:41726–38 [Google Scholar]
  61. Huang T-I, Reed DA, Perring TM, Palumbo JC. 61.  2014. Feeding damage by Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and impact on growth and chlorophyll content of brassicaceous plant species. Arthropod-Plant Interact. 8:89–100 [Google Scholar]
  62. Huang T-I, Reed DA, Perring TM, Palumbo JC. 62.  2014. Host selection behavior of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on commercial cruciferous host plants. Crop Prot. 59:7–13 [Google Scholar]
  63. Husain MA. 63.  1924. Annual report of the entomologist to government, Punjab, Lyallpur for the year ending 30th June, 1924. Rep. Dep. Agric. Punjab 1:255–90 [Google Scholar]
  64. Hutson JC. 64.  1935. The painted bagrada bug (Bagrada picta). Trop. Agric. Agric. J. Sri Lanka 85:2191–93 [Google Scholar]
  65. Infantino A, Tomassoli L, Peri E, Colazza S. 65.  2007. Viruses, fungi and insect pests affecting caper. Eur. J. Plant Sci. Biotechnol. 1:170–79 [Google Scholar]
  66. 66. Infonet-Biovision 2015. Bagrada bug. Zürich. http://infonet-biovision.org/node/28470
  67. Isaac PV. 67.  1946. Report of the Imperial Entomologist. Sci. Rep. Agric. Res. Inst. New Delhi.73–79 [Google Scholar]
  68. Janisch E. 68.  1931. Experimental studies on the influence of environmental factors on insects. II. On the mortality of insects in Ceylon, and the extent of its variation, with general notes on the environmental influences and the biological optimum. Z. Morphol. Oekol. Tiere 20:2–3287–348 [Google Scholar]
  69. Jat DS, Jat MC, Sharma MM. 69.  2006. Seasonal incidence of insect pests of mustard in relation to abiotic factors. Ann. Plant Prot. Sci. 14:2475–76 [Google Scholar]
  70. Johri PK, Maurya R, Singh D, Tiwari D, Johri R. 70.  2004. Comparative toxicity of seven indigenous botanical extracts against the infestative stage of three insect pests of agricultural importance. J. Appl. Zool. Res. 15:2202–4 [Google Scholar]
  71. Joshi ML, Ahuja DB, Mathur BN. 71.  1989. Loss in seed yield by insect pests and their occurrence on different dates of sowing in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea sbsp. juncea). Indian J. Agric. Sci. 59:166–68 [Google Scholar]
  72. Kirkaldy GW. 72.  1909. Catalogue of the Hemiptera (Heteroptera), with Biological and Anatomical References, Lists of Foodplants and Parasites, Etc 1 Cimicidae Berlin: Felix L. Dames [Google Scholar]
  73. Klug JCF. 73.  1845. Symbolae physicae, seu icons et descriptions insectorum, quae ex itinere per Africam borealem et Asiam occidentalem F.G. Hemprich et C.H. Ehrenberg studio novae aut illustratae redierunt 5. Berlin: Mittler [Google Scholar]
  74. Lal OP, Singh B. 74.  1993. Outbreak of the painted bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burm.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), on mustard in northern India. J. Entomol. Res 17:2155–57 [Google Scholar]
  75. Lambert AM, Dudley TL. 75.  2014. Exotic wildland weeds serve as reservoirs for a newly introduced cole crop pest, Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). J. Appl. Entomol. 138:10795–99 [Google Scholar]
  76. Lawrence C. 76.  2012. Bagrada bug population explodes at organic farms. Ventura County Star Oct. 2. http://www.vcstar.com/business/bagrada-bug-population-explodes-at-organic-farms [Google Scholar]
  77. LeVeen E, Hodges AC. 77.  2015. Bagrada bug, painted bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Insecta: Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Gainesville: Univ. Fla., IFAS Publ. EENY596 http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in1041 [Google Scholar]
  78. Linnavuori RE. 78.  1975. Hemiptera: Heteroptera of the Sudan with remarks on some species of the adjacent countries. Part 5. Pentatomidae. Bolema Soc. Port. Cienc. Nat. Ser. 2 15:5–128 [Google Scholar]
  79. Lounsbury CP. 79.  1898. The bagrada bug of cabbage and allied plants. Agric. J. Cape Good Hope 13:101–5 [Google Scholar]
  80. Mahmood R, Jones WA, Bajwa BE, Rashid K. 80.  2015. Egg parasitoids from Pakistan as possible classical biological control agents of the invasive pest Bagrada hilaris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). J. Entomol. Sci. 50:2147–49 [Google Scholar]
  81. Makwali JA, Wanjala FME, Khaemba BM. 81.  2002. Raphanus raphanistrum L. as a diversionary host of Brevicoryne brassicae L. and Bagrada cruciferarum Kirk. Proc. Hort. Semin. Sustain. Hortic. Prod. Trop., Oct. 3–6 2001 Jomo Kenyatta Univ. Agric. Technol., Juja, Kenya [Google Scholar]
  82. Malik S, Jabeen T, Solangi BK, Qureshi NA. 82.  2012. Insect pests and predators associated with different mustard varieties at Tandojam. Sindh Univ. Res. J. (Sci. Ser.) 44:221–26 [Google Scholar]
  83. Mani MS. 83.  1942. Studies on Indian parasitic Hymenoptera. II. Ind. J. Entomol. 4:2153–62 [Google Scholar]
  84. Mani MS, Sharma SK. 84.  1982. Proctotrupoidea (Hymenoptera) from India. A review. Oriental Insects 16:135–258 [Google Scholar]
  85. Manzar A, Lal MN, Singh SS. 85.  1999. Population dynamics of mustard sawfly (Athalia proxima lugens Klug.), leafminer (Chromatomyia horticola Gaureau) and painted bug (Bagrada cruciferarum Kirkaldy) on different varieties of Brassica oilseed crop. J. Entomol. Res. 23:4359–64 [Google Scholar]
  86. McPherson JE, McPherson RM. 86.  2000. Stink Bugs of Economic Importance in America North of Mexico Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press [Google Scholar]
  87. Mukerji GP. 87.  1958. Some aspects of the biology of Bagrada picta Fabr. Agra Univ. J. Res. Sci. 7:2143–57 [Google Scholar]
  88. Nadda G, Eswara Reddy SC, Shanker A. 88.  2013. Insect and mite pests on tea and their management. Science of Tea Technology PS Ahuja, A Gulati, RD Singh, RK Sud, RC Boruah 317–33 Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publishers [Google Scholar]
  89. Nagar R, Singh YP, Singh R, Singh SP. 89.  2011. Biology, seasonal abundance and management of painted bug (Bagrada hilaris Burmeister) in eastern Rajasthan. Indian J. Entomol. 73:291–95 [Google Scholar]
  90. Narayanan FNI, Subba Rao ER, Katiyar RN. 90.  1959. Population studies on Hadrophanurus species, egg parasite of Bagrada cruciferarum Kirk. on maize (Zea mays) at Karnal. Proc. Natl. Inst. Sci. India 25:315 [Google Scholar]
  91. Nyabuga F. 91.  2008. Sustainable Management of Cabbage Aphid and Bagrada Bugs: Case Study from Kenya Saarbrücken, Ger: VDM Verlag [Google Scholar]
  92. Obopile M, Munthali DC, Matilo B. 92.  2008. Farmers' knowledge, perceptions and management of vegetable pests and diseases in Botswana. Crop. Prot. 27:81220–24 [Google Scholar]
  93. Palumbo JC. 93.  2012. Control of Bagrada hilaris with conventional and experimental insecticides on broccoli. Arthropod Manag. Tests 37:E9 [Google Scholar]
  94. Palumbo JC. 94.  2014. Bagrada bug management on desert cole crop. Vegetable IPM Update Archives Univ. Arizona, Coop. Ext., Tucson, Vol. 5, No. 20. http://ag.arizona.edu/crops/vegetables/advisories/more/insect116.html [Google Scholar]
  95. Palumbo JC. 95.  2015. Impact of bagrada bug infestations on desert cole crops from 2010–2014 (May 13, 2015). Vegetable IPM Update Archives Univ. Arizona, Coop. Ext., Tucson, Vol. 6, No. 10. http://ag.arizona.edu/crops/vegetables/advisories/more/insect132.html [Google Scholar]
  96. Palumbo JC. 96.  2015. Soil-surface applied insecticides for control of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in broccoli. Arthropod Manag. TestsIn press [Google Scholar]
  97. Palumbo JC, Carrière Y. 97.  2015. Association between Bagrada hilaris density and feeding damage in broccoli: Implications for pest management. Plant Health Progr. In press [Google Scholar]
  98. Palumbo JC, Huang T. 98.  2014. Control of Bagrada hilaris with conventional insecticides on broccoli, 2013. Arthropod Manag. Tests 39:E40 [Google Scholar]
  99. Palumbo JC, Huang T. 99.  2014. Control of Bagrada hilaris with experimental insecticides on broccoli, 2013. Arthropod Manag. Tests 39:E41 [Google Scholar]
  100. Palumbo JC, Huang T, Perring TM, Reed DA, Prabhaker N. 100.  2013. Evaluation of conventional insecticides for control of Bagrada hilaris on broccoli, 2012. Arthropod Manag. Tests 38:E4 [Google Scholar]
  101. Palumbo JC, Huang T, Perring TM, Reed DA, Prabhaker N. 101.  2013. Evaluation of experimental insecticides for control of Bagrada hilaris on broccoli, 2012. Arthropod Manag. Tests 38:E5 [Google Scholar]
  102. Palumbo JC, Huang T, Perring TM, Reed DA, Prabhaker N. 102.  2013. Evaluation of foliar insecticides for control of Bagrada hilaris and sweetpotato whitefly in broccoli, 2012. Arthropod Manag. Tests 38:E9 [Google Scholar]
  103. Palumbo JC, Huang T, Perring TM, Reed DA, Prabhaker N. 103.  2013. Evaluation of pyrethroid insecticides for control of Bagrada hilaris on broccoli, 2012. Arthropod Manag. Tests 38:E8 [Google Scholar]
  104. Palumbo JC, Natwick ET. 104.  2010. The bagrada bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): a new invasive pest of cole crops in Arizona and California. Plant Health Progr. doi: 10.1094/PHP-2010-0621-01-BR [Google Scholar]
  105. Palumbo JC, Prabhaker N, Reed DA, Perring TP, Castle SJ, Huang T. 105.  2015. Susceptibility of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to insecticides in laboratory and greenhouse bioassays. J. Econ. Entomol. 108:672–82 [Google Scholar]
  106. Pandey UK, Pandey M, Chuahan SPS. 106.  1981. Insecticidal properties of some plant material extracts against painted bug Bagrada cruciferarum. Indian J. Entomol. 43:4404–7 [Google Scholar]
  107. Parsana GJ, Vyas HJ, Bharodia RK. 107.  2001. Effect of irrigation, sowing date and nitrogen on the incidence of painted bug, Bagrada hilaris Burm., in mustard. J. Oilseeds Res. 18:189–90 [Google Scholar]
  108. Perring TM, Reed DR, Palumbo JC, Grasswitz T, Bundy CS. 108.  et al. 2012. Bagrada bug. National Pest Alert, USDA-NIFA Regional IPM Center. http://www.ncipmc.org/action/alerts/bagradabug.php
  109. Puchkova LV. 109.  1961. The eggs of Hemiptera. VI. Pentatomoidea, 2, Pentatomidae and Plataspidae. Entomol. Obozr. 40:131–43 [Google Scholar]
  110. Rajmohana K. 110.  2006. A checklist of the Scelionidae (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea) of India. Zoos' Print J. 21:122506–613 [Google Scholar]
  111. Rajmohana K, Narendran TC. 111.  2007. A new species of Paratelenomus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) from India. Zoos' Print J. 22:12522–23 [Google Scholar]
  112. Rajpoot S, Singh RP, Pandey V. 112.  1996. Estimation of free amino acids in different developmental stages of painted bug (Bagrada cruciferarum, Kirkaldy). Natl. Acad. Sci. Lett. India 19:11–12214–18 [Google Scholar]
  113. Rakshpal R. 113.  1949. Notes on the biology of Bagrada curciferarum Kirk. Ind. J. Entomol. 11:111–16 [Google Scholar]
  114. Rawat RR, Singh OP. 114.  1980. India—painted bug on wheat. Plant Prot. Bull. FAO 28:277–78 [Google Scholar]
  115. Reddy PP. 115.  2013. Recent Advances in Crop Protection Bangalore: Springer India [Google Scholar]
  116. Reed DA, Palumbo JC, Perring TM, May C. 116.  2013. Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive stink bug attacking cole crops in the southwestern United States. J. Integr. Pest Manag. 4:32013 [Google Scholar]
  117. Rizvi SMA, Singh R, Singh HM, Singh SP. 117.  1986. Painted bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burm.) appears in epidemic form on maize. Narendra Deva J. Agric. Res. 1:173 [Google Scholar]
  118. Rohilla HR, Singh H, Singh H, Chhillar BS. 118.  2004. Biology of the painted bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burm.) on rapeseed mustard. J. Oilseeds Res. 21:2303–6 [Google Scholar]
  119. Sabyasachi P, Maji TB, Mondal P. 119.  2013. Incidence of insect pest on okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench in red lateritic zone of West Bengal. J. Plant Prot. Sci. 5:159–64 [Google Scholar]
  120. Sachan GC, Purwar JP. 120.  2007. Integrated pest management in rapeseed and mustard. Entomology: Novel Approaches PC Jain, MC Bhargava 399–423 New Delhi: New India Publishing [Google Scholar]
  121. Sahito HA, Lanjar AG, Mal B. 121.  2010. Studies on population dynamics of sucking insect pests of mustard crop (Brassica campestris). Pak. J. Agric. Agric. Eng. Vet. Sci. 26:66–74 [Google Scholar]
  122. Samuel CK. 122.  1942. Biological notes on two new egg parasites of Bagrada picta Fabr., Pentatomidae. Indian J. Entomol. 4:92–93 [Google Scholar]
  123. Sánchez-Peña SR. 123.  2014. First record in Mexico of the invasive stink bug Bagrada hilaris, on cultivated crucifers in Saltillo. Southwest Entomol. 39:2375–77 [Google Scholar]
  124. Sandhu GS. 124.  1975. Seasonal movement of the painted bug, Bagrada cruciferarum Kirkaldy from cruciferous plants to graminaceous plants and its occurrence as a serious pest of maize, sorghum and pearl millet during spring in Punjab. Indian J. Entomol. 37:215–17 [Google Scholar]
  125. Sarup P, Singh DS, Sircar P, Marpuri SA, Lal R. 125.  et al. 1972. Relative toxicity of some important pesticides to the adults of Bagrada cruciferarum (Pentatomidae: Hemiptera). Indian J. Entomol. 33:4452–56 [Google Scholar]
  126. Sharma A, Sood A, Verma TD. 126.  2008. Insect pests associated with Robinia pseudoacacia in the agroforestry system in mid-hill regions of Himachal Pradesh. Indian For. 134:1120–24 [Google Scholar]
  127. Shivalingaswamy TM, Satpathy S. 127.  2007. Integrated pest management in vegetable crops. Entomology: Novel Approaches PC Jain, MC Bhargava 353–75 New Delhi: New India Publishing [Google Scholar]
  128. Singh A, Gandhi S. 128.  2012. Agricultural insect pests: occurrence and infestation level in agricultural fields of Vadodara, Gujarat. Int. J. Sci. Res. Public 2:1–5 [Google Scholar]
  129. Singh AP, Singh PP, Singh YP. 129.  2007. Pest complex of Indian mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Cosson, in Eastern Rajasthan. J. Exp. Zool. 10:415–16 [Google Scholar]
  130. Singh C, Lal MN, Singh PS. 130.  2012. Occurrence of insect pests on rapeseed, Brassica rapa (Var. YST-151) and its association with weather variables in eastern Uttar Pradesh. Indian J. Entomol. 74:2183–85 [Google Scholar]
  131. Singh D, Vennila S, Sardana HR, Bhat MN, Bambawale OM. 131.  2011. Bagrada hilaris: a new pest of tomato. Ann. Plant Prot. Sci. 19:2472–73 [Google Scholar]
  132. Singh H, Malik VS. 132.  1993. Biology of painted bug (Bagrada cruciferarum). Indian J. Agric. Sci. 63:672–74 [Google Scholar]
  133. Singh HV, Gupta DS, Yadava TP, Dhawan K. 133.  1980. Post-harvest losses caused by painted bug (Bagrada cruciferarum Kirk.) to mustard. Haryana Agric. Univ. J. Res. 10:3407–9 [Google Scholar]
  134. Singh PK, Singh AK, Singh HM, Kumar P, Yadav CB. 134.  2009. Insect pests of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) and efficacy of some insecticides against the epilachnid beetle, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (F.), a serious pest of this crop. Pest Manag. Econ. Zool. 17:185–91 [Google Scholar]
  135. Singh SP, Singh YP, Kumar A. 135.  2011. Bioefficacy evaluation of chemical insecticides against painted bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burm.) in mustard. Pestic. Res. J. 23:2150–53 [Google Scholar]
  136. Sozzi GO, Vicente AR. 136.  2006. Capers and caperberries. Handbook of Herbs and Spices KV Peter 3230–57 Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press [Google Scholar]
  137. Srinivasan K, Krishna Moorthy PN. 137.  1992. Development and adoption of integrated pest management for major pests of cabbage using Indian mustard as a trap crop. Management of Diamondback Moth and Other Crucifer Pests NS Talekar 511–21 Shanhua, Taiwan: Asian Veg. Res. Dev. Cent. [Google Scholar]
  138. Stål C. 138.  1862. Hemiptera Mexicana enumeravit speciesque novas descripsit. Stettin. Entomol. Zeitung 23:1–381–118 [Google Scholar]
  139. Stebbing EP. 139.  1903. Insect pest of indigo. Indian Mus. Notes 5:144 [Google Scholar]
  140. Suazo AA, Spencer JE, Engel EC, Abella SR. 140.  2012. Responses of native and non-native Mojave Desert winter annuals to soil disturbance and water additions. Biol. Invasions 14:1215–27 [Google Scholar]
  141. Subba Rao BR, Chacko MJ. 141.  1961. Studies on Allophanurus indicus n. sp., an egg parasite of Bagrada cruciferarum Kirkaldy (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). Beitr. Z. Entomol. Berlin 11:812–24 [Google Scholar]
  142. Sun X, Marshall SA. 142.  2003. Systematics of Phasia Latreille (Diptera: Tachinidae). Zootaxa 276:1–320 [Google Scholar]
  143. Swaran Dhingra S. 143.  1998. Relative toxicity of some important insecticides with particular reference to change in susceptibility level of Bagrada cruciferarum Kirk. during the last quarter century. J. Entomol. Res 22:4307–11 [Google Scholar]
  144. Tandon PL, Lal B. 144.  1977. New records of insect pests of mango from India. Indian J. Hortic. 34:2193–95 [Google Scholar]
  145. Taylor ME, Bundy CS, McPherson JE. 145.  2014. Unusual ovipositional behavior of the stink bug Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 107:872–77 [Google Scholar]
  146. Thakar AV, Misra US, Rawat RR. 146.  1969. A record of predatory mite, Bochartia sp. on Bagrada cruciferarum Kirkaldy. Indian J. Entomol. 31:86 [Google Scholar]
  147. Tomar D, Shilpi K, Mahobiya P, Bhide M. 147.  2012. Study on mortality and reproductive performance of Bagrada cruciferarum (Kirk.) by some plant glycosides. J. Environ. Biosci. 26:179–89 [Google Scholar]
  148. 148. USDA NASS (US Dep. Agric., Natl. Agric. Stat. Serv.) 2013. Vegetables 2013 summary (March 2014).
  149. Verma AK, Patyal SK, Bhalla OP, Sharma KC. 149.  1993. Bioecology of painted bug (Bagrada cruciferarum) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on seed crop of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis). Indian J. Agric. Sci. 63:676–78 [Google Scholar]
  150. Verma GS, Pandey UK. 150.  1981. Studies on the effect of Acorus calamus, Cimicifuga foetida and Gynandropsis gynandra extract against insect pests of cruciferous vegetables, painted bug Bagrada cruciferarum Kirk. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Z. Angew. Zool. 68:1109–13 [Google Scholar]
  151. Verma SK. 151.  1980. Field pests of pearl millet in India. Trop. Pest Manag. 26:13–20 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error