1932

Abstract

The objective of bait application envisioned by early researchers was to eliminate the source of infestation, the colony, but because of the lack of adequate evaluation tools, results of field trials with mirex baits in the 1960s were mostly inconclusive. On-the-ground monitoring stations and mark-recapture protocol developed in the 1970s marked the turning point in the field studies of termite baits. Results of field studies with metabolic inhibitors and chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) in the 1990s indicated that a bait toxicant has to be slow-acting and nonrepellent, and its lethal time has to be dose independent. A recent discovery that termites return to the central nest to molt and CSI-poisoned termites die near the royal pair further explains the success of CSI baits in eliminating colonies. Owing to the availability of durable baits that require less-frequent site inspection, more termite control professionals have adopted baiting systems in recent years.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-ento-011118-112429
2019-01-07
2024-06-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ento/64/1/annurev-ento-011118-112429.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-ento-011118-112429&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1.  Beard RL 1974. Termite biology and bait-block method of control. Conn. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 748:2–19
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 2.  Cornelius ML, Lax A 2005. Effect of summon preferred food source on feeding, tunneling, and bait station discovery by the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 98:502–8
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 3.  Chouvenc T, Helmick E, Su N-Y 2015. Hybridization of two major termite invaders as a consequence of human activity. PLOS ONE 10:e0120745
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 4.  Ebeling W 1975. Urban Entomology Berkeley, CA: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 5.  Eger JE, Hamm RL, DeMark JJ, Chin-Heady E, Tolley MP et al. 2014. Durability of a novel durable bait for control of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): results of five-year field aging studies. J. Econ. Entomol. 107:1201–5
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 6.  Erhorn EM 1934. The termites of Hawaii, their economic significance and control, and the distribution of termites by commerce. See Ref. 26 321–33
  7. 7.  Esenther GR, Beal RH 1974. Attractant-mirex bait suppresses activity of Reticulitermes spp. J. Econ. Entomol. 67:85–88
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 8.  Esenther GR, Beal RH 1978. Insecticidal baits on field plot perimeters suppress Reticulitermes. J. Econ. Entomol 71:604–7
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 9.  Esenther GR, Gray DE 1968. Subterranean termite studies in southern Ontario. Can. Entomol. 100:827–34
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 10.  Evans TA 2010. Rapid elimination of field colonies of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) using bistrifluron solid bait pellets. J. Econ. Entomol. 103:423–32
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 11.  Evans TA, Iqbal N 2014. Termite (order Blattodea, infraorder Isoptera) baiting 20 years after commercial release. Pest Manag. Sci. 71:897–906
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 12.  Getty GM, Solek CW, Sbragia RJ, Haverty MI, Lewis VR 2007. Large-scale suppression of a subterranean termite community using the Sentricon® Termite Colony Elimination System: a case study in Chatsworth, California, USA. Sociobiology 50:1041–50
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 13.  Grace JK, Tome CHM, Shelton TG, Oshiro RJ 1996. Baiting studies and considerations with Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Hawaii. Sociobiology 28:511–20
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 14.  Greaves T 1962. Studies of foraging galleries and the invasion of living trees by Coptotermes acinaciformis and C. brunneus (Isoptera). Aust. J. Zool. 10:630–51
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 15.  Guillot FS, Ring D, Lax AR, Morgan A, Brown K et al. 2010. Area-wide management of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), in the New Orleans French Quarter. Sociobiology 55:311–38
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 16.  Hamm RL, Demark JJ, Chin-Heady E, Tolley MP 2013. Consumption of a durable termite bait matrix by subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) and resulting insecticidal activity. Pest Manag. Sci. 69:507–11
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 17.  Haverty MI, Nutting WL, La Fage JP 1975. Density of colonies and spatial distribution of foraging territories of the desert subterranean termite, Heterotermes aureus (Snyder). Environ. Entomol. 4:105–9
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 18.  Hendrichs J, Kenmore P, Robinson AS, Vreysen MJB 2007. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM): principles, practices and prospects. Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests: From Research to Field Implementation MJ Vreysen, AS Robinson, J Hendrichs 3–33 Dordrecht, Neth.: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 19.  Husseneder C, Grace JK, Messenger MT, Vargo EL, Su N-Y 2003. Describing the spatial and social organization of Formosan subterranean termite colonies in Armstrong Park, New Orleans. Sociobiology 41:61–65
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 20.  Kakkar G, Chouvenc T, Osbrink W, Su N-Y 2016. Temporal assessment of molting in workers of Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 109:2175–81
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 21.  Kakkar G, Osbrink W, Su N-Y 2018. Molting site fidelity accounts for colony elimination of the Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) by chitin synthesis inhibitor baits. Sci. Rep. 8:1259
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 22.  Keefer TC, Puckett RT, Brown KS, Gold RE 2015. Field trials with 0.5% novaluron insecticide applied as a bait to control subterranean termites (Reticulitermes sp. and Coptotermes formosanus [Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae]) on structures. J. Econ. Entomol. 108:2407–13
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 23.  Kemp PB 1955. The termites of north-eastern Tanganyika; their distribution and biology. Bull. Entomol. Res. 46:113–35
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 24.  King EG, Spink WT 1969. Foraging galleries of the Formosan termite, Coptotermes formosanus, in Louisiana. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 62:537–42
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 25.  Klassen W 2007. Introductory remarks. Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests: From Research to Field Implementation MJ Vreysen, AS Robinson, J Hendrichs vii–ix Dordrecht, Neth.: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 26.  Kofoid CA 1934. Termites and Termite Control Berkeley, CA: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 27.  La Fage JP, Nutting WL, Haverty MI 1973. Desert subterranean termites: a method for studying foraging behavior. Environ. Entomol. 2:954–56Authors developed an on-the-ground monitoring technique for field studies of desert subterranean termites.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 28.  Lai PY 1977. Biology and ecology of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, and its susceptibility to the entomogenous fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae PhD Diss. Univ. Hawaii Honolulu, HI:Established a mark-recapture procedure to define colony territory and a protocol for field evaluation of termite baits.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 29.  Li G, Dai Z, Li D 1989. [Termites and Their Control Measures in China.] Beijing: Science (In Chinese)
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 30.  Messenger MT, Su N-Y, Husseneder C, Grace JK 2005. Elimination and reinvasion studies with Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Louisiana. J. Econ. Entomol. 98:916–29
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 31.  Mullins AJ, Su N-Y, Owens C 2011. Reinvasion and colony expansion of Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) after areawide elimination. J. Econ. Entomol. 104:1687–97
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 32.  Ostaff D, Gray DE 1975. Termite (Isoptera) suppression with toxic baits. Can. Entomol. 107:1321–25
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 33.  Pedigo LP, Highly LG 1992. The economic injury level concept and environmental quality: a new perspective. Am. Entomol. 38:12–21
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 34.  Porritt J 2006. Capitalism as if the World Mattered London: Earthscan
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 35.  Potter MF 1997. Termite baits: a status report. Pest Control Technol 25:24–26
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 36.  Randall M, Doody TC 1934. Poison dusts. I. Treatments with poisonous dusts. See Ref. 26 463–76Authors envisioned that the goal of subterranean termite control measures was to kill the colony.
  37. 37.  Randall M, Doody TC 1934. Ground treatment. See Ref. 26 502–13
  38. 38.  Ratcliffe FN, Greaves T 1940. The subterranean foraging galleries of Coptotermes lacteus (Frogg.). J. Counc. Sci. Indust. Res. Aust. 13:150–61
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 39.  Rust M, Su N-Y 2012. Managing social insects of urban importance. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 57:355–75
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 40.  Sands WA 1972. Problems in attempting to sample tropical subterranean termite populations. Ekol. Polska 20:23–31
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 41.  Smith J, Su N-Y, Escoba R 2006. An area-wide population management project for the invasive eastern subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in a low-income community in Santiago, Chile. Am. Entomol. 52:253–60
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 42.  Su N-Y 1982. An ethological approach to the remedial control of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki PhD Diss Univ. Hawaii Honolulu, HI:
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 43.  Su N-Y 1994. Field evaluation of a hexaflumuron bait for population suppression of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 87:389–97Demonstrated eliminations of subterranean termite colonies with baits containing a CSI, hexaflumuron.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 44.  Su N-Y 2001. A computerized system for remote monitoring of subterranean termites near structures. J. Econ. Entomol. 94:1518–25
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 45.  Su N-Y 2002. Dimensionally stable sensors for a continuous monitoring program to detect subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) activity. J. Econ. Entomol. 95:975–80
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 46.  Su N-Y 2003. Overview of the global distribution and control of the Formosan subterranean termite. Sociobiology 41:7–16
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 47.  Su N-Y 2003. Baits as a tool for population control of the Formosan subterranean termite. Sociobiology 41:177–92
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 48.  Su N-Y 2007. Hermetically sealed baits for subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 100:475–82Author developed durable baits that can be used without the monitoring step of early baiting programs.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 49.  Su N-Y 2011. Technological needs for sustainable termite management. Sociobiology 58:229–39
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 50.  Su N-Y, Ban PM, Scheffrahn RH 1991. Suppression of foraging populations of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) by field applications of a slow-acting toxicant bait. J. Econ. Entomol. 84:1525–31
    [Google Scholar]
  51. 51.  Su N-Y, Ban PM, Scheffrahn RH 1997. Remedial baiting with hexaflumuron in above-ground stations to control structure-infesting populations of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 90:809–17
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 52.  Su N-Y, Ban PM, Scheffrahn RH 2001. Control of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) using commercial prototype aboveground stations and hexaflumuron baits. Sociobiology 37:111–20
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 53.  Su N-Y, Chouvenc T, Li H-F 2017. Potential hybridization between two invasive termite species, Coptotermes formosanus and C. gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), and its biological and economic implications. Insects 8:14
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 54.  Su N-Y, Guidry E, Cotonne C 2016. Sustainable management of subterranean termite populations (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Armstrong Park, New Orleans, with durable baits. J. Econ. Entomol. 109:1326–32
    [Google Scholar]
  55. 55.  Su N-Y, Guidry E, Mullins AJ, Cotonne C 2016. Reinvasion dynamics of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) following the elimination of all detectable colonies in a large area. J. Econ. Entomol. 109:809–14
    [Google Scholar]
  56. 56.  Su N-Y, Lagnaoui A, Wang Q, Li X, Tan S 2012. A demonstration project of Stockholm POPs Convention to replace chlordane and mirex with IPM for termite control in China. J. Integ. Pest Manag. 4:1–8
    [Google Scholar]
  57. 57.  Su N-Y, Lees M 2009. Biological activities of a bait toxicant for population management of subterranean termites. Household, Structural and Residential Pest Management C Perterson, D Stout 87–96 New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 58.  Su N-Y, Monteagudo EJ 2017. Hyperecdysonism in the Formosan subterranean termite and eastern subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 110:1736–39
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 59.  Su N-Y, Scheffrahn RH 1986. A method to access, trap, and monitor field populations of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in the urban environment. Sociobiology 12:299–304
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 60.  Su N-Y, Scheffrahn RH 1988. Toxicity and feeding deterrency of a dihaloalkyl arylsulfone biocide, A-9248, against the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 81:850–54
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 61.  Su N-Y, Scheffrahn RH 1988. Toxicity and lethal time of N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide against two subterranean termite species (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Fla. Entomol. 71:73–78
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 62.  Su N-Y, Scheffrahn RH 1993. Laboratory evaluation of two chitin synthesis inhibitors, hexaflumuron and diflubenzuron, as bait toxicants against Formosan and eastern subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 86:1453–57
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 63.  Su N-Y, Scheffrahn RH 1996. Fate of subterranean termite colonies after bait applications—an update and review. Sociobiology 27:253–75
    [Google Scholar]
  64. 64.  Su N-Y, Scheffrahn RH 1998. A review of subterranean termite control practices and prospects for integrated pest management programs. Integr. Pest Manag. Rev. 3:1–13
    [Google Scholar]
  65. 65.  Su N-Y, Scheffrahn RH, Ban PM 1995. Effects of sulfluramid-treated bait blocks on field colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 88:1343–48
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 66.  Su N-Y, Tamashiro M, Haverty MI 1987. Characterization of slow-acting insecticides for the remedial control of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 80:1–4
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 67.  Su N-Y, Tamashiro M, Yates JR, Haverty MI 1982. Effects of behavior on the evaluation of insecticides for prevention of or remedial control of the Formosan subterranean termite. J. Econ. Entomol. 75:188–93
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 68.  Sukartana P, Sumarni G, Broadbent S 2009. Evaluation of chlorfluazuron in controlling the subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Indonesia. J. Trop. For. Sci. 21:13–18
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 69.  Tamashiro M, Fujii JK, Lai PY 1973. A simple method to observe, trap, and prepare large numbers of subterranean termites for laboratory and field experiments. Environ. Entomol. 2:721–22Authors developed an on-the-ground monitoring station for studies of subterranean termites that is in widespread use.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. 70.  Van Zwaluwenberg RH 1916. Report of entomologist. Annu. Rep. Puerto Rico Agric. Exp. Stn. 1915:42–45
    [Google Scholar]
  71. 71.  Wolcott GN 1924. The comparative resistance of woods to attack of termite, Cryptotermes brevis Walker. Puerto Rico Insular Exp. Stn. Bull. 33:3–15
    [Google Scholar]
  72. 72. World Comm. Environ. Dev. 1987. Our Common Future New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-ento-011118-112429
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-ento-011118-112429
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error