Insecticidal proteins from the bacterium () are used in sprayable formulations or produced in transgenic crops as the most successful alternatives to synthetic pesticides. The most relevant threat to sustainability of insecticidal proteins (toxins) is the evolution of resistance in target pests. To date, high-level resistance to sprays has been limited to one species in the field and another in commercial greenhouses. In contrast, there are currently seven lepidopteran and one coleopteran species that have evolved practical resistance to transgenic plants producing insecticidal proteins. In this article, we present a review of the current knowledge on mechanisms of resistance to toxins, with emphasis on key resistance genes and field-evolved resistance, to support improvement of technology and its sustainability.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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