1932

Abstract

Bottom-up effects are major ecological forces in crop–arthropod pest–natural enemy multitrophic interactions. Over the past two decades, bottom-up effects have been considered key levers for optimizing integrated pest management (IPM). Irrigation, fertilization, crop resistance, habitat manipulation, organic management practices, and landscape characteristics have all been shown to trigger marked bottom-up effects and thus impact pest management. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the role of bottom-up effects in pest management and the associated mechanisms, and discuss several key study cases showing how bottom-up effects practically promote natural pest control. Bottom-up effects on IPM also contribute to sustainable intensification of agriculture in the context of agricultural transition and climate change. Finally, we highlight new research priorities in this important area. Together with top-down forces (biological control), future advances in understanding ecological mechanisms underlying key bottom-up forces could pave the way for developing novel pest management strategies and new optimized IPM programs.

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2022-01-07
2024-06-15
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